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Earth science 10.2

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Earth science 10.2

  1. 1. 10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity
  2. 2. Pluton • An intrusive igneous structure that results from the cooling and hardening of magma beneath the surface of Earth.
  3. 3. Sill • A tabular igneous body formed when magma is injected along sedimentary bedding surfaces.
  4. 4. Laccolith • A massive igneous body intruded between preexisting strata.
  5. 5. Dike • A tabular-shaped intrusive igneous feature that occurs when magma is injected into fractures in the surrounding rock, cutting across preexisting rock layers.
  6. 6. Batholith • A large mass of igneous rock that formed when magma intruded at depth, became crystallized, and subsequently was exposed by erosion; Batholiths have a surface exposure greater than 100 square kilometers.
  7. 7. Geothermal Gradient • The gradual increase in temperature with depth in the crust; The average is 30 degrees Celsius per kilometer in the upper crust.
  8. 8. Decompression Melting • Melting due to a drop in confining pressure that occurs as rock rises.
  9. 9. Key Concept • How are intrusive igneous features classified? –Intrusive igneous bodies, or plutons, are generally classified according to their shape, size, and relationship to the surrounding rock layers.
  10. 10. Key Concept • What is the origin of magma? –Geologists conclude that magma originates when essentially solid rock, located in the crust and upper mantle, partially melts. The most obvious way to generate magma from solid rock is to raise the temperature above the level at which the rock begins to melt.