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educational curriculum part one


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educational curriculum part one

  1. 1. Educational curriculum Prepared by :- Taghreed hawsawi Supervised by :- DR. Jehan
  2. 2. Many people still equate a curriculum with a syllabus. Basically it means a concise statement or table of the heads of a discourse, the contents of a treatise, the subjects of a series of lectures. A syllabus will not generally indicate the relative importance of its topics or the order in which they are to be studied. In the form that many of us will have been familiar with it is connected with courses leading to .
  3. 3. Glossary The term curriculum refers to the lessons and academic content taught in a school or in a specific course or program. In dictionaries curriculum is often defined as the courses offered by a school, but it is rarely used in such a general sense in schools.
  4. 4. Definition Curriculum is the totality of formal and informal content that imparts the skills, attitudes,and values considered important in achieving specific educational goals. and A curriculum needs to be flexible in order to accommodate changes in the environment that influence the content of the curriculum.
  5. 5. In 1998, Wiggins and McTighe changed the order of the stages to what has been called a backward design is a method of designing educational curriculum by setting goals before choosing instructional methods and forms of assessment . Backward design of curriculum typically involves three stage
  6. 6. backward design identify the desired results determine acceptable levels of evidence that support that the desired results have occurred design activities that will make desired results happen
  7. 7. strategies will enhance the communication among faculty members during various stages of the process: 1.There should be clear delegation of assignments to various committees. 2. There need to be realistic goals and adequate support and resources for the work of the committees. 3. A timetable for the total curriculum process should be developed at the start of the process. 4. Faculty need to be proactive, active, involved, and enthusiastic. 5. To the extent possible, faculty should listen and not argue.
  8. 8. strategies will enhance the communication among faculty members during various stages of the process: 6. Try to provide a documented rationale to support the changes that you think should be made . 7. Group process among the faculty may need development through strategies such as small group work with a consultant . 8. Recognize and respect each person’s unique contribution.
  9. 9. curriculum development requires: • Commitment of time, energy, and resources. • Compatibility, which is the ability of the group to harmonize and function as a whole. • Communication. Consider having a facilitator to keep faculty on task and to referee conflicts. • Contribution. Curriculum development work requires consensus, which is derived from communication .
  10. 10. Curriculum Framework A curriculum framework provides a way for faculty to conceptualize and organize knowledge, skills, values, and beliefs that are critical to the delivery of a coherent curriculum. And An organizing framework also facilitates the sequencing and prioritizing of knowledge in a way that is logical and internally consistent (Finke & Boland, 1998).
  11. 11. One framework that may assist faculty to identify course content is the knowledge/skills/values/meanings/experience (KSVME) framework. In this framework, “nursing is defined as the desire, intent, and obligation to apply discipline-specific knowledge, skills, values, meanings, and experience (KSVME) for assistance to achieving and maintaining their desired state of health and/or well-being Curriculum Framework ” (Webber, 2002, p. 17).
  12. 12. Curriculum models Behavioral model epistemologica l (concept) model nursing theorist model Curriculum models
  13. 13. Behavioral model Is often applied within a medical model. There is a “focus on rule driven, predictable, outcomes for student learning… The teacher concentrates on teaching facts, directives, rules, theories, laws, and principles. Lecture is a primary teaching strategy in this model. A behaviorist curriculum model is directive, under teacher control, and “tells” the student what and how to do tasks. ” (Bevis, 1989/1982, iii–iv).
  14. 14. epistemological (concept) model Organized by ideas and themes rather than subject matter or process skills (e.g., pain, delegation). The focus is on understanding and appreciation of systems of knowledge, key ideas, themes, and principles. The teacher’s role is that of interactive questioner.  Students focus on reading, reflecting, and writing. Teachers need to have in-depth knowledge about a field, and make connections to other fields.  They need a consistent vision, perception, and insight (Van Tassel-Baska, 2004).
  15. 15. nursing theorist model  organize the nursing curriculum. The model may be derived from supporting sciences (e.g., stress/adaptation) or nursing (e.g., Orem, Roy, Leddy). An Orem-based curriculum, for example, would focus on providing care in a variety of situations where a patient might be unable to provide self-care.  A Roy-based curriculum might emphasize stimuli and adaptive modes.
  16. 16. Curriculum Matrix A curriculum matrix is composed of vertical and horizontal content strands. Vertical strands represent content areas such as leadership that increase in complexity at each level of the curriculum. (e.g., teaching-learning) Horizontal strands are processes that apply the content throughout the curriculum, like clinical decision-making (Torres & Stanton, 1982).
  17. 17. The matrix sequences content elements 1. Identifies the specific content elements that should be taught within each course. 2. Allows the faculty to understand better what the students were previously taught, thus facilitating building the content in a progressive manner. 3. Gives the faculty and students a sense of direction because it shows which content elements will follow. 4. Gives structure to the differentiation of content elements from one course to another. 5. Assists in recognizing content areas not previously identified.
  18. 18. considerations in the development of courses : • About one-third of courses should be in general education, such as English and Humanities; one-third in supporting courses, and one-third in nursing courses. • The flexibility of the curriculum should be enhanced by allowing free electives and limited prerequisites to courses. • In a progressive design, more supporting courses, such as microbiology and nutrition, are offered early in the curriculum. Nursing starts early and increases as the student progresses through the program. • In a parallel design, the same amount of nursing is offered in each year.
  19. 19. Cont….. • In a collection-type curriculum, the kind most prevalent, each subject is treated as an independent entity having little or no connection to others. • Areas about which faculty are most familiar usually require the greatest amount of content.
  20. 20. Criteria for course content : • The depth and breadth of the content must be appropriate for the learner. • The validity of the content must be assessed (empirically tested). • The content must reflect the emerging health-care system and the changing role of the nurse. • Content that encourages generalizations, such as how to recognize patterns in health/illness manifestations, and how to link and synthesize content, should be emphasized. • The content should be progressive, starting with areas that are more easily learned and foundational to areas of content that are highly dependent on previous learning and require synthesis.
  21. 21. Cont….. • The content should motivate the student to learn. It is not only how well the content is presented that is significant but also how such content relates to what the student perceives as essential in his or her learning. • The content must reflect the level within the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains
  22. 22. FACTORS THAT INFLUENECE CURRICULUM TODAY Curriculum Political Technological Diversity environment
  23. 23. Political politics influences curriculum design and development starts with funding. Both private and public educational institutions rely on funding for hiring personnel, building and maintaining facilities and equipment. All aspects of curriculum depend on local, state and national political standards. From defining goals, interpreting curricular materials to approving examination systems, politics affects curriculum development.
  24. 24. Economic Curriculum developed for in house training in corporations focuses on educating employees for promotions that bring better returns in profits. Nations financing education expect an economic return from educated students contributing to the country's economy with global competition abilities in technical fields. Curriculum content influences learner goals, standards for academic achievement with an underlying influence of the nation's economy.
  25. 25. Technological Technology driven curriculum development is the norm of the 21st century. The computer technology of the 21st century influences curriculum development at every level of learning. Learning centers and classrooms increasingly provide computers as requisite interaction for studies among students. Technological multimedia use influences educational goals and learning experiences among students. Undergraduate and graduate degrees in computer technology are in increase in popularity.
  26. 26. Diversity Curriculum development affect from diversity opens learning opportunities. Social diversity including religion, culture and social groupings affects curriculum development because these characteristics influence the types of topics and methods for teaching information. Developing relevant curriculum takes into account society's expectations, accommodating group traditions and promoting equality.
  27. 27. Environment Environment issues affect curriculum development. World awareness and action toward reversing and ending pollution continues affecting curriculum development. Typical elementary classrooms teach recycling and healthy environmental practices. Higher education in the sciences offers environmentally-focused degrees.
  28. 28. Curriculum Evaluation Criteria :- • The flow of the content elements can be seen within all of the components, especially between the philosophy and learning experiences. • The terms used may have a variety of meanings within the discipline but they must be consistent in their meaning within the specific program. • The ideas expressed among and within each component are supportive rather than contradictory.
  29. 29. Cont ……. The evaluation process should consider the: • Context, including mission and goals setting, internal and external forces, and beliefs of faculty. • Input, including resources, students, program plan, curriculum organization, and support courses. • Process, including courses, teaching/learning activities, and student learning. • Outcomes, including general education outcomes, NCLEX-RN results, and communication and critical thinking abilities.
  30. 30.  Curriculum development is a linear process, a sequence of events that consists of a series of systematic, logical, dynamic, spiraled, and progressive stages  An integrated framework, vertical and horizontal content strands for each course (curriculum matrix)  It addresses current situations that affect student make-up and selection, health-care changes, and is driven by professional organization requirements.  Over the years, curriculum design has changed from a process-oriented approach to an outcome-oriented approach, which means that nursing faculty has to be “fine tuned” to the outcomes of not only their program but the community health-care need requirements as well.  Development of the outcome-driven curriculum begins with desired endpoints or outcomes with content and teaching strategies changing to meet these endpoints.  Faculty communication is essential throughout this process.
  31. 31.  (“NEW CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT TODAY IN THE PHILIPPINES,” n.d.)NEW CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT TODAY IN THE PHILIPPINES. (n.d.). Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://suzettekrillematias.blogspot.com/  Uys, L., & Gwele, N. (2004). Curriculum Development in Nursing. Retrieved from http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=199513nhttp ://toniau.ac.ir/doc/books/Curriculum Development in Nursing.pdf  Iwasiw, C., Goldenberg, D. and Andrusyszyn, M. (2005). Curriculum development in nursing education. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett.  Uys, L. and Gwele, N. (2005). Curriculum development in nursing. London: Routledge.