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A detailed lesson plan in biology for grade 9

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A detailed lesson plan in biology for grade 9

  1. 1. A Detailed lesson Plan in Biology for Grade 9 By Mitchelle Dawn E. Paye I.Objective At the end of this activity, the students are expected to: 1. Explain the different patterns of non-Mendelian inheritance II.Subject Matter A. Topic: Different Patterns of Non-mendelian inheritance B. Materials: “find the end” map Visual Aids Chalk C. Ideas Non-Mendelian Inheritance- do not follow the dominant-recessive traits of Mendel. -traits can be controlled by more than one gene -alleles are neither dominant nor recessive D. Process: Discussion, Activity, Evaluation E. Values: Passion, Curiosity III.Procedure TEACHER’S ACTIVITY A.Preparatory Activity 1.Prayer Everyone please stand up, and let us have our prayer . Ms. _________ please lead the Christian prayer and Mr. Baulo for the Muslim prayer. • Greetings Good Afternoon class! Please take your seats. How are you feeling today? That’s great! 3.Checking of Attendance STUDENT’S ACTIVITY (Students standing up) (Students praying.) Good afternoon Ma’am! We’re good Ma’am.
  2. 2. Miss Secretary, who are absent today? 4.Collecting of Assignment Please pass the assignment that I have given to you last meeting. Pass it forward silently in 10seconds(teacher count 10 seconds) Ok , all papers in? 5.Drill I have here with me a simple activity before we start our lesson. It’s like a map wherein you imagine that you are strolling outside and all you have to do is to trace it based on the instruction there. Now, group yourselves into four. So, are you ready? You have 5 minutes to do it. After 5 min…. Ok time’s up! Did you have fun in the activity? What did you observe in the activity? Very good! Who can add the idea of Princess? Yes it has different colors. • Review of Past lesson What was our topic last meeting? Very good! So can you still remember what is genotype? How about phenotype? Well said Ms. Pacut. Since we were finished with that, I assume that you alreadt knew the terms that I will be using later. B. Lesson Proper 1.Motivation (secretary reporting the absent) Yes ma’am! (students group themselves) Yes Ma’am! (Some will say yes) Ma’am there are many animals and plants. It has different colors ma’am. Ma’am our topic last meeting is about the Mendelian genetics. Genotype is the set of genes in our DNA which is responsible for a particular trait. Phenotype is the physical expression, or characteristics, of that trait.
  3. 3. Who among you here love animals? Do you have pets in your house? What is your pet Ms. _____?What is its color? Have you ever wondered about their colors or why they got that color? (teacher will show a picture of cat) Have you seen a cat that looks like this? Now who loves plants? (teacher will post a picture of flower) Especially flowers? So I guess girls love flowers right? 2.Discussion Our lesson for today is about Non- Mendelian genetics. Do you have any idea about this? Non-Mendelian genetics, from the name itself, it does not follow Gregor Mendel’s Laws. In Mendel’s Laws, If he were given a mommy black mouse & a daddy white mouse & asked what their offspring would (Some students raise their hands) Yes ma’am. Dog mam. Brown. No mam. (Some will say yes and no) Yes Ma’am. No Ma’am.
  4. 4. look like, he would've said that a certain percent would be black & the others would be white. He would never have even considered that a white mouse & a black mouse could produce other color of mouse! For Mendel, the phenotype of the offspring from parents with different phenotypes always resembled the phenotype of at least one of the parents. Now, there are other patterns of inheritance that do not follow these rules as I have said earlier. One of these is incomplete dominance. With incomplete dominance, a cross between organisms with two different phenotypes produces offspring with a third phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits. We can still use the Punnett Square to solve problems involving incomplete dominance. The only difference is that instead of using a capital letter for the dominant trait & a lowercase letter for the recessive trait, the letters we use are both going to be capital. Why do you think so? Mr. Gapo? Thank you. It’s because neither trait dominates the other. If you have a red flower cross with white flower, what would be the color of the offspring? Why do say so? (Teacher post a picture) So the cross would look like this: I think Pink Ma’am. Because you said a while ago that they are blending. Because both of them are dominant Ma’am.
  5. 5. So the cross would look like this: (Teacher explains while writing on the board) A = allele for red flowers B = allele for white flowers Homozygous red flower crossed with a homozygous white flower. red (AA) x white (BB) ---> pink 
AB---> 100% A A B AB AB B AB AB It's like mixing paints, red + white will make pink. Red doesn't totally block (dominate) the pink, instead there is incomplete dominance, and we end up with something in-between. Another is co- dominance. Given this example. (Teacher would show a picture) In co-dominance, the "recessive" & "dominant" traits appear together in the phenotype of hybrid organisms. When we cross the alleles, (teacher draw a Punnett square on the board) Consider that these red cattle here is RR and this white cattle is WW. If we cross these,
  6. 6. we yield all RW offsprings which means to say that they are all red and white spotted. Let’s proceed to sex-linked trait. Sex-linked trait is also called as “X-linked”. Why do you think? Do you have an idea Ms. Agnes? Very good! So which do you think is more affected in this type of inheritance? Male or Female? Ms. Bontilao? Let’s find out! As we all know, females have XX chromosomes and males have XY chromosomes. Right? These chromosomes determine sex, so genes located on these chromosomes are known as sex-linked genes. The X chromosome is much larger than the Y, so it carries more genes than the Y chromosome. Disorders that are sex-linked are much more common in males, because they would only need 1 recessive allele to have the trait; rather than the two recessive alleles the females need. Take a look at this picture. (teacher post a picture) (teacher explain) Because it occurs in X chromosome Ma’am. I think Female Ma’am. Yes Ma’am.
  7. 7. Another inheritance is Multiple Alleles. An example of this is human blood type. In humans, how many alleles for blood do we have? Another answer? Who answered four? Three? Ok, so There are three common alleles for the gene that controls this characteristic. The alleles IA, IB and i. IA and , IB are dominant over i. Out of this three, only two will exist in a diploid individual. My question is, can an offspring will have a type O blood if her parents are type A and B? Of course a child can be type O! Recall the following:  Type A blood: IAIA, IAi  Type B blood: IB IB, IB i  Type AB blood: IAIB  Type O blood: ii (teacher explain) Another inheritance is polygenic inheritance. From the word itself, polygene which means that it is composed of many genes not just one. Example of this is skin color, eye color height, and etc. Let us have the eye color as an example. This trait is thought to be influenced by up to 16 different genes. Two of the genes that influence eye color have been identified on chromosome 15 (OCA2 and HERC2). Several other genes that determine eye color also influence skin color and hair color. Understanding that eye color is determined by a number of different genes, for this example, we will assume that it is determined by two genes. In this case, a cross Four Ma’am. Three Ma’am. (Some will say yes, some will say no)
  8. 8. between two individuals with light brown eyes (BbGg) would produce several different phenotype possibilities. In this example, the allele for black color (B) is dominant to the recessive blue color (b) for gene 1. For gene 2, the dark hue (G) is dominant and produces a green color. The lighter hue (g) is recessive and produces a light color. This cross would result in five basic phenotypes and nine genotypes.  Black eyes: (BBGG)  Dark Brown eyes: (BBGg), (BbGG)  Light Brown eyes: (BbGg), (BBgg), (bbGG)  Green eyes: (Bbgg), (bbGg)  Blue eyes: (bbgg) Having all dominant alleles results in black eye color. The presence of at least two dominant alleles produces the black or brown color. The presence of one dominant allele produces the green color, while having no dominant alleles results in blue eye color. The last one is the environmentally- influenced.  Genes play an important part in determining our adult height. However, factors such as poor nutrition can prevent us from achieving our full genetic potential.  Genes are a major determinant of human skin color. However, exposure to ultraviolet radiation can increase the amount of pigment in the skin and make it appear darker. 2. Practice Exercises
  9. 9. Go back to your group in performing the drill. Choose a representative to pick your task. Present your output in class. You have five minutes to prepare and a maximum of 5 minutes to present your output in class. 1. Describe the relationship between environment and phenotype. 2. Differentiate incomplete dominance and 3. What are multiple alleles? Is there dominance in multiple alleles? co-dominance. 4. What is polygenic inheritance? How does it work? After 5 minutes… Ok . lets start with group 4. 5. Generalization What is the common non-mendelian inheritance that you observe in your environment? IV. Evaluation V. Assignment (students proceed to their group) (start presenting)