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gender and development

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gender and development

  1. 1. GENDER and DEVELOPMENT (GAD) MYLENE B. GARCIA GAD School Coordinator Baesa Elementary School
  2. 2. The Global Gender Gap 2011 Rankings - Top 20 Country 2011 Score* 2010 Change Iceland 1 85.3% 1 0 → Norway 2 84.0% 2 0 → Finland 3 83.8% 3 0 → Sweden 4 80.4% 4 0 → Ireland 5 78.3% 6 1 ↑ New Zealand 6 78.1% 5 -1 ↓ Denmark 7 77.8% 7 0 → Philippines 8 76.9% 9 1 ↑ Lesotho 9 76.7% 8 -1 ↓ Switzerland 10 76.3% 10 0 → Germany 11 75.9% 13 2 ↑ Spain 12 75.8% 11 -1 ↓ Belgium 13 75.3% 14 1 ↑ South Africa 14 74.8% 12 -2 ↓ Netherlands 15 74.7% 17 2 ↑ United Kingdom 16 74.6% 15 -1 ↓ United States 17 74.1% 19 2 ↑ Canada 18 74.1% 20 2 ↑ Latvia 19 74.0% 18 -1 ↓ Cuba 20 73.9% 24 4 ↑ * Scores produced on zero-to-one scale and can be roughly interpreted as percentage of gender gap that has been closed.
  3. 3. GAD was developed in the 1980’s as an alternative to the Women in Development (WID) approach .
  4. 4. Unlike WID, the GAD approach is not concerned specifically with women, but with the way in which a society assigns roles, responsibilities and expectations to both women and men. GAD applies gender analysis to uncover the ways in which men and women work together, presenting results in neutral terms of economics and efficiency.
  5. 5. Caroline Moser developed the Moser Gender Planning Framework for GAD-oriented development planning in the 1980’s while working at the Development Planning Unit of the University of London. Working with Caren Levy, she expanded it into a methodology for gender policy and planning. The Moser framework follows the Gender and Development approach in emphasizing the importance of gender relations.
  6. 6. The World Bank was one of the first international organizations to recognise the need for Women in Development, appointing a WID Adviser in 1977. In 1984 the bank mandated that its programs consider women's issues. In 1994 the bank issued a policy paper on Gender and Development, reflecting current thinking on the subject. This policy aims to address policy and institutional constraints that maintain disparities between the genders and thus limit the effectiveness of development programs.
  8. 8. “An extremely important part of an individual’s identity and one that begins at least at birth, is gender. -- Dr. Kenneth Cushner, American Professor Human Diversity in Education: An Intercultural Approach
  9. 9. It is more than just knowing that you are male or female. -Cushner, 2012
  10. 10. SEX GENDER Categorized as male or  Masculinity and femininity female  Socially, culturally and Biological historically determined Fixed at birth  Learned through socialization Does not change across  Varies over time and space time and space  Unequally valued Equally valued (masculinity as the norm)
  11. 11. “Sex is a biological characteristics; gender is a social characteristics. -Cushner, 2012
  12. 12. Gender identity includes knowledge of a large set of rules and expectations for what boys and girls should wear, how they should speak and act, and their ‘place’ in the overall structure of the society. Cushner, 2012
  13. 13. - Race - ethnicity - social class - religion and - geographical region Cushner, 2012
  14. 14. If a father does the household work, he is considered as “under the saya.”
  15. 15. Men are better leaders and administrators than women.
  16. 16. It is the woman’s fault if she is being harassed sexually when she is wearing skimpy clothing.
  17. 17. It is not proper for a girl to say “I love you” first to a boy.
  18. 18. The mother should be the only one responsible for child-rearing and parenting.
  19. 19. Socialization – is the process by which social norms, roles and expectations are learned and internalized. Gender Socialization – is the process by which norms and expectations in relation to gender are learned by women and men.
  20. 20. Gender stereotype – a form of prejudgment, bias or limitation given to roles and expectations of males and females.
  21. 21. GENDER INVOLVES THE DIFFERENTIATIONS attributed by a given culture to women and men, in the following aspects: 1. social roles 2. capacities 3. traits and characteristics
  22. 22. 1. Gender Stereotype in Social Roles Men Women  provides financially for • takes care of the the family house and children  Works as managers, • Works as nurse, construction builders, teacher, secretary engineers • Portrayed as followers  Portrayed as leaders
  23. 23. 2. Gender Stereotype in Capacities Women Men • good in arts and less intellectual pursuits  good in Math and Science • Physically weaker and fragile  Physically strong • Wishy-washy or fickle  Firm decision-makers minded in decision- making
  24. 24. 3. Gender Stereotypes in Traits and Characteristics Men Women  active • passive  aloof • Loving  Aggressive • Peaceful  Independent • Dependent  brave • fearful
  25. 25. AREAS OR CHANNEL OF SOCIALIZATION 1.Family 2.Church 3.Mass Media 4.School
  26. 26. Family Ruth Hartley notes 4 processes involved in gender socialization: 1. Manipulation – means that people handle girls and boys differently as infants. Example: Mothers tend to use more physical stimulation on male infants and more verbal stimulation on female infants. Boy babies are tossed in the air. Girl babies get more delicate handling.
  27. 27. 2. Canalization – means that people direct children’s attention to gender-appropriate objects Example: In the choice of toys, boys are given toy cars and machines, girls are given dolls and tea sets. Toys teach children what their prescribed roles in life will be
  28. 28. 3. Verbal Appellation – telling children what they are and what is expected of them. Example: Brave boy, pretty girl Boys don’t cry, girls don’t hit playmates
  29. 29. 4. Activity exposure – familiarizing children to their gender-appropriate tasks Example: Girls help their mother with housework. Boys are encouraged to play outside the house
  30. 30. church Gender roles in Christianity vary considerably today as they have during the last two millennia. This is especially true with regards to marriage and ministry.
  31. 31. Mass media
  32. 32. Media`s sexualization of young female celebrities
  33. 33. Video games that promote violence and negative stereotypes. Music lyrics and music videos that promote negative stereotypes and violence
  34. 34. Sex stereotypes in kid`s TV program
  35. 35. school A. Instructional Language B. Classroom Management C. Instructional Materials
  36. 36. A. Instructional Language • The use of generic words to refer to both girls and boys Example: he, his, man • The use of stereotyped language Example: freshman… first year student mankind…. humanity fisherman …fisher folk chairman ….chairperson
  37. 37. B. Classroom Management • Assigning of groups – ( boys and girls together not boys against girls) • Tasks given by teachers • Discipline
  38. 38. C. Instructional Materials 1. Textbooks 2. Direct teaching materials 3. Peripheral teaching materials
  39. 39. A. Language B. Instructional Materials C. Dep-Ed Core Messages on Gender Fair Education (part of GAD program) • Shared parenting • Shared home management • Shared decision-making
  40. 40. Shared Parenting • Taking care of the baby • Helping the children with their homework • Disciplining the children
  41. 41. Shared Home Management • Fixing the house, cleaning the house • Doing laundry • Going to market • Cooking, preparing the table, washing the dishes
  42. 42. Share Decision Making • Family council • Giving permission to children • Deciding for the affairs of the children
  43. 43. THE BIASED TEACHER Blurred consciousness Indirectly builds consciousness Alarmingly unconscious Supportive of a false consciousness Enacts a different consciousness Delays ‘real’ learning
  44. 44. THE GENDER-SENSITIVE TEACHER Cares to give fair recognition of both genders Opposes language use that restricts genders Makes proper addresses a must Brings forth messages with sensitivity Avoids exclusionary expressions; and Treats all individuals with tact and sense
  45. 45. As teachers, we play a major role in creating school environments that are free of gender bias and in encouraging both male and female to reach their highest potentials in work and abilities.
  46. 46. National Capital Region Division of City Schools TAnque District BAESA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Caloocan City ANNUAL GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT (GAD) PLAN AND BUDGET FY: 2012-2013 PROGRAM/ACTIVITY/ GENDER GAD OBJECTIVE IDENTIFIED GAD TARGET GAD GAD BUDGET PROJECT ISSUE/CONCERN ACTIVITY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR Orienting the School Lack of knowledge Inform the school One-day GAD Principal 100% attendance P50.00 (snack/head) Personnel regarding GAD regarding Gender And personnel regarding Orientation Program GAD School Coordinator of the school X 42 (school personnel) Programs & Projects Development Program GAD Programs & Date: May 28, 2012 Teaching Staff personnel P 2,100.00 (History, Laws and projects Venue: Computer Utility Workers + P 250.00(hand-outs) implementing Room Security Guards guidelines) P 2,350.00 Designating the School Lack of school Organize the school Organization of GAD Principal 100% attendance GAD Coordinator and personnel top carry- GAD core group to be School Committee GAD Coordinator and realization of members of GAD Core out the GAD Programs led by the School GAD Date: June 7, 2012 GAD Asst. Coordinator the GaD Programs Group and Projects Coordinator Venue: Principal’s Guidance Coordinator & Projects Office MOOE-In-Charge Makabayan/HEKASI Coordinator EPP Coordinator Music Coordinator Art Coordinator PE Coordinator EKAWP Coordinator Creating a School GAD Absence of GAD Create a School GAD Creation of GAD Data- BEIS/EMIS School-in-Charge Available GAD (Documentation Data-based system data/information in Data-based System as based on BEIS/EMIS related data in the Expenses: clearbook, CDs, the School BEIS/EMIS part of the BEIS/EMIS Files BEIS/EMIS files etc. ) P 1,000.00 Revising the School GAD Programs & Include the GAD Revision of Principal Submission of the (Documentation Expenses) Improvement Plan (SIP), Activities were not Program & Activities SIP,AIP,APP and GAD School Coordinator Revised P 350.00 Annual Implementation included in the in all School Plans Makabayan Subject Master Teachers SIP,AIP,APP and Plan (AIP), Annual previous school plans and corresponding Action Plans MOOE-In-charge Makabayan Procurement Plan (APP) budgets Date: June to August, Property Custodian Subjects Action and Action Plans of All 2012 All MAkabayan Coordinators Plan MAkabayan Subjects SGC
  47. 47. Informing the Internal Inadequate Information One-Day GAD Advocacy Campaign Principal 100% participation of P50.00 (snack/head) And External knowledge of the dissemination of to Stakeholders GAD School Coordinator stakeholders X 100 (participants) Stakeholders regarding School’s GAD Plans and Date: Aug. 31, 2012 GAD School Committee P 5,000.00 GAD Stakeholders activities Venue: Stage/School Ground Supreme Pupil + P 1,000.00(speaker’s regarding GAD Government (SPG) honorium) plans and activities Teachers’ Club Officers + P 1,000.00 (materials/hand- HRPTA President outs) SGC P 7,000.00 Organizing a Lecture Inadequate Greater One-day Lecture Forum on Gender Principal 100% attendance and P50.00 (snack/head) Forum on Gender knowledge of understanding on Sensitivity / Gender Equality GAD School Coordinator participation in the X 37 (teaching staff) Sensitivity / Gender teachers regarding Gender Sensitivity Date: Oct. 26, 2012 GAD School Committee lecture forum P 1,850.00 Equality Gender sensitivity / Gender Equality Venue: Computer Room Teaching Staff + P 1,000.00(speaker’s /gender equality honorium) + P 500.00 (materials/hand-outs) P 3,350.00 Organizing a Film Unawareness of Awareness of One-Week Film Showing on GAD School Coordinator 100% realization of the P 1,000.00 (1week snack of Showing for Grades 4, pupils on their pupils regarding Children’s Right and Responsibilities GAD School Committee objective organizer) 5 & 6 Pupils regarding Rights and their Rights and Date: Feb. 10-14, 2012 Grades 4, 5 & 6 Pupils + P750.00 (DVD/CD) Children’s Rights & Responsibilities Responsibilities Venue: Computer Room Teacher-Advisers P 1,750.00 Responsibilities Organizing a Inadequate Thorough One-Day Symposium on Gender Principal 100% realization of the P50.00 (snack/head) Symposium regarding knowledge of understanding of Sensitivity And Women’s Right GAD School Coordinator objective X 100 (participants) on Gender Sensitivity, parents on how to parents on gender Date: March 15, 2012 GAD School Committee P 5,000.00 Women’s Rights and protect their rights sensitivity and Venue: Stage/School Ground Parents in the community + P 1,000.00(speaker’s other related Laws against violence, women’s right honorium) sexual + P 1,000.00 (materials/hand- harassment, rape, outs) and other issues P 7,000.00 GRAND TOTAL P22,800.00 Prepared By: Submitted By: Noted By: Date: MYLENE B. GARCIA MELANITA B. PANTALLA ROBERTA R. STA. INES 23/05/2012 GAD School Coordinator Principal II District Supervisor
  48. 48. School GAD Committee
  49. 49. GENDER and DEVELOPMENT (GAD) By: MYLENE B. GARCIA GAD School Coordinator