WHAT IS INFORMATION ?
• Information is a complete set of data.
• It can be called as processed data.
WHAT IS INFORMATION
• It is protection of information
systems and hardware that
use, store and transit the
• Security is the quality or state of
• Security is always multilayered :
THREATS TO INFORMATION
A threat is an object, person, or other entity that
represents a constant danger to an asset.
• The Management should ensure that information is
given sufficient protection through policies, proper
training and proper equipment.
• Consistent reviews andBetter information security
can be provided by recognizing and ranking the
threats to the information.
Checks also help and Surveys also help in keeping
TYPES OF THREATS TO
• Inadvertent Acts
• Deliberate Acts
• Natural Disaster (Natural Forces)
• Technical Failures
• Management Failure
• These are the acts that happen by mistake. They
are not deliberate
• The attacker does not have any ill will or malicious
intent or his attack is not proven in categories of
• Acts of Human error and failure, Deviation from
service quality, communication error, are examples
of inadvertent acts
• These acts are done by people of organizations to
harm the information.
• The attackers have a malicious intent and wish to
steal or destroy the data.
• Acts of espionage, Hacking, Cracking, come under
• Forces of nature are dangerous because they are
unexpected and come without very little warning.
• They disrupt lives of individuals but also causes
damage to information that is stored within
• These threats can be avoided but he management
must have the necessary precautions.
• Technical failures are classified into two types :
• Technical Hardware Failure
• Technical Software Failure
• Technical Hardware Failure: It occurs when
manufacturer distributes equipment with flaws that
may be known or unknown to the manufacturer
• Technical Software Failure: These can cause the
system to perform in an undesirable or unexpected
way. Some of these are unrecoverable while some
• Management must always be updated
about recent developments and
• Proper planning must be done by the
management for good protection of the
• IT professionals must help the
management in protecting the
information, by helping the
management upgrade to the latest
• It is any malicious software designed to harm a
computer without the user’s consent.
• Eg. VIRUS, Worm, Trojan, Spyware
VIRUS (VITAL INFORMATION
RESOURCE UNDER SIEGE )
• It is a computer program designed to copy itself and
attach itself to other files stored on a computer.
• It moves from computer to computer through by
attaching itself to files or boot records of disks.
• It can be sent through a network or a removable
• Worm is a self replicating computer program that
uses a network to send copies of itself to other
computers on the network.
• It replicates ad eats up the computer storage.
• An example is Voyager Worm
• They appear to be harmless but secretly gather
information about the user.
• They upload hidden and malicious programs on the
computer without the user’s knowledge.
• It does not attempt to inject itself into other files
unlike computer virus.
• It secretly monitors internet surfing habits without
• They perform actions like advertising vague
products and changing computer configurations.
These actions are very troublesome.
• They usually do not replicate themselves.
• Make sure that you have updated operating system
and antivirus software. Eg. McAfee
• Do not use pirated software, or download files from
• Perform regular hard drive scans.
• Use licensed software
• Hacking means finding out weaknesses in a
computer or a network and exploiting them.
• Hackers are usually motivated by profit, protest or
• He/She is a person who enjoys the challenge of
breaking into computers without the knowledge of
• Their main aim might be to know the detail of a
programmable system and how it works.
• Hackers are experts who see new ways to use
• These people crack or remove the protection
mechanism of a computer system.
• Their main aim is to steal or destroy information
without the users consent
• They are much more dangerous than hackers.
• It is a software used to prevent, detect and remove
• It runs in the background at all times.
• It should be kept updated.
• It runs computer disk scans periodically.
• Eg. McAfee, Norton, Kaspersky.