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Table of Content No Title1. Definition of Classroom Management2. Definition of Behavior management3. Definition of Disruptive and Disturbed Behavior4. Classroom Environment Factors5. What behaviors do teachers see as disruptive?6. Strengths and limitations of classroom behavior management7. How to manage student’s behavior in the classroom8. Behavior management strategies: Alternatives to corporal punishment9. Models of Effective Classroom Management10. Teachers as a Leaders11. Strength and limitations of classroom management12. Managing conflict and problem behavior ( Bullying )
Classroom management is certainly concerned aboutbehavior, but it can also be defined more broadly asinvolving the planning , organization, and control oflearners, the learning process and the classroomenvironment to create a maintain an effective learningexperience in which expected pedagogical outcomesachieved.
The ‘learning process’ includes classroom activitiesand the teaching strategies that the teacher use.The ‘classroom environment’ provides a context forlearning and includes not only the physical space,furnishing resources and materials, but also the classatmosphere, participant’s attitudes and emotions andthe social dynamics of the learning experience.
Doyle (1986,p, 394) suggested that teachersface the following two main instructionaltasks; A teaching goal that must be achieved A problem space that must be managed,encompassing the set of participants or learn
Definition of Behavior management Behavior management in the classroom means creating and maintaining an environment conducive to their learning and your sanity.
Doyle (1986) used the term‘problematic’ to refer to any behaviorperceived as inappropriate for a givenactivity. Such behavior may range fromdaydreaming and mild interruptions, tounnecessary and excessivemovement, shouting, swearing, fighting and so on.
Disruptive behavior is when a child isuncooperative and preventsthemselves and other children inclass from working. A disruptive child also manages tograb a teacher’s attention andprevent the teacher from giving theother children attention.
Disruptive behavior – behavior that isproblematic or inappropriate in the context ofa given activity or for a certain teacher. Behavior disturbance – significantabnormalities in the behavior of an individualwho does not have a diagnosable psychiatricillness. Emotional disturbance – evident frominappropriate behaviors that requirepsychiatric treatment in the form of ongoingtherapy.
Classroom Environment Factors Classroom environment Factors Implications for teachersMultidimensionality: The wide range of - Develop strategies for addressing theplayers and events that are present in a wide range of ability levels; and social,classroom emotional, cultural and linguistic backgrounds in your classroomSimultaneity: Many different things - Be aware of what is happening at everyhappen at the same time in a classroom level, including that of individual students, small groups and the class as a whole - Learn to have ‘eyes in the back of your head’ - The challenge of simultaneity may contribute to high level of stress and burn-out unless you develop coping strategies
Classroom Environment Factors Classroom environment Implications for teachers FactorsImmediacy: The speed at - Manage time at both micro and macro levelswhich events in a classroom - Give immediate feedback to students during face tounfold face interaction - Learn to allocate time appropriately for planned learning activities - Behavioral problems are most likely to arise when student’s attention, interest and motivation begin to ebb as a result of poor timing - Be alert to ongoing events in a busy classroom settingUnpredictability: Carefully - Be flexibleplanned classroom activities - Respond appropriately when the unexpected occursdo not always proceed as - Where possible, take advantage of surprising orplanned unanticipated events
Classroom Environment Factors Classroom environment Factors Implications for teachersPublicness: many people, often - Be aware that what you do and say isstudents, witness what teachers observed and may be discussed outside thedo, or learn about a teacher’s classroomactions from other witnesses - Use this as an opportunity to model appropriate or desirable behavior for students
What Behaviors do teachers see as disruptive? Talking out of turn and hindering other students What behaviors Irritating andAggressive behavior do teachers see wasting as disruptive? disruptions Disobedience, refusal to obey instructions and insolence
Strengths and Limitations of Classroom Behavior Management Strengths Limitations- The move away from corporal - One of the problems associated with punishment to using alternatives such the guidelines provided for teachers as extra work and time out – together who need to manage inappropriate or with the possibility of access to disruptive behavior concerns the specialist support- gives teachers more confusing way in which key terms are humane options for handling defined. inappropriate behavior. - This lack of clarity can cause problems for teachers and others who try to find a label that is appropriate for the array of behaviors a particular student presents. - This uncertainty can also lead to difficulties in finding an appropriate solution.
How to manage student’s behavior in the classroom • Devote time to planning • Have a clear, well- considered plan for managing your Be classroom and student behavior • Plan to provide a variety of tasksprepared • Plan how you will motivate students whose interest seems to wane • Plan how students will spend time on task and how you mange disruptive behavior • Decide before teaching what procedures you will follow in establishing and maintaining discipline in classrooms so your Be reactions to classroom-management problems can be quick,organized consistent and congruent with your underlying values • Organize your time, recourses and classroom
How to manage student’s behavior in the classroom Be guided by your • What you want your students to learnpersonal philosophy of • How would you like your students to learnteaching and learning. • How you will foster some learning • Be aware of their needs (they may have special learning needs) and individual differencesKnow your students • Monitor, circulate, and assess students’ progress regular Be positive • Enjoy your teaching
How to manage student’s behavior in the classroom Know how your • Ensure your classroom-management plan school operates is consistence with policies and procedures Be aware of the • Differences in the ways power is managed are a major factor in distinguishingpower relations in between different approaches to your classroom classroom management • Establish an atmosphere of cooperation Be enthusiastic balance and mutual respect
Corporal punishment is a last resort (usingsuspension and exclusion)Corporal punishment has been replaced byAlternatives forms of discipline, which rangefrom detention, extra written work, timeout, removal privileges, behavior contracts.
(1) The Interventionist Teacher(2) The Interactive Teacher(3) The Non-Interventionist Teacher
Models of Effective Classroom Management(1) The Interventionist Teacher• Is guided by the view that children’s development is an outcome of external factors.• Frederic H.Jones emphasizes the need for teachers to maintain firm control through the following four aspects of classroom organization ( Wolfgang, 1995, p.197 ).
Models of Effective Classroom Management(1) Limit setting through body language(2) Responsibility training(3) Back-up system (supported by policies at the school level)(4) Classroom structure
Models of Effective Classroom Management(1) Limit setting through body language- (According to Jones), teachers need to set limits on student’s behavior that are simple, practical and, once mastered, easy to use.- Response ( body language, and employ a minimal number of words )- Move around the classroom, eye contact.
Models of Effective Classroom Management(2) Responsibility training- Need a simple system to implement and that ensured students will do anything the teacher requires at any time.- Responsibility training involves providing incentives through a group reward, through ‘preferred activity time’ (PAT), or through periods of free or play time .
Models of Effective Classroom Management(2) Responsibility Training- Do work quickly and fast (Winner)- Dawdling , talking or playing up (Loser)- According to Jones (1987), by using this system, the teacher is in control and the students learn to conform and to complete required tasks.
Models of Effective Classroom Management(3) Back-Up System- Set of hierarchically ordered penalties for misbehavior, ranging from a simple warning given privately to an individual student or group of students, to a conference with the student, time out, detention, a conference with a parent and, as a last resort, suspension or expulsion.
Models of Effective Classroom Management(3) Back-Up System- Support is required at the school level, both professionally and in the form of appropriate policies, procedures and recourses to implement this system.
Models of Effective Classroom Management(4) Classroom Structure- Encompasses the rules that are established in classrooms, daily routines and the way classroom furniture is organized, since all affect what happens in a classroom.- Jones (1987) argued that students should be taught the rules, routines and standards of behavior that are critical aspects of successful classroom operation.
Models of Effective Classroom Management(4) Classroom Structure- Jones’s (1987) ideas about classroom management included a plan for arranging desks so as to allow the teacher space to move around the classroom.
Models of Effective Classroom Management(2) The Interactive Teacher- Sees children’s development as a product of interaction, between internal and external factors.- Alder was Viennese psychiatrist who argued that human beings are essentially social creatures whose basic psychological characteristics enable them to live in democratic way.
Models of Effective Classroom Management- Procedures that can be used to encourage students include; Recognizing and building on their strengths while minimizing any weaknesses Emphasizing engagements in an activity rather than the result that is achieved (Balson,1992).
Models of Effective Classroom Management For example: ‘You seem to really enjoy your art and I can tell you work hard to prepare for your exam’, rather than saying ‘ Your artwork is excellent and You have the highest mark in the exam. (Edward, 1997,p.110)
Models of Effective Classroom Management Natural consequences Logical consequences1. Outcomes that occur without 1. Contrived to influence behavior. intervention/interference.- Students who do not put their - Students who forget to bring required equipment away in the correct place materials to the class and as a result and cannot find next time they need miss of activity it. - Students who draw on the wall and- Students who do not study for a test then have to clean their marks off the and then get poor marks on the test. wall. - In each case, the focus is on allowing students to experience the consequences of their actions.
Models of Effective Classroom Management(3) The Non-Interventionist Teacher- Allow the process of development to occur naturally.- The work of William Glasser (1992) and William (‘Bill) Rogers (1998) represents a model of classroom management and discipline in which power is shared more equally between teacher and students than in the interventionist and interactive approaches just discussed, with greater weight on student’s roles and responsibilities.
Models of Effective Classroom Management- Bill Rogers (1998) sees discipline as a teacher- directed activity that seeks to;Lead,Guide,Direct,Manage,Or confront a student about behavior that disrupts the right of others.
Models of Effective Classroom Management- Glasser and Rogers have both argued that students misbehave because schools fail to fulfill their basic needs.- These needs clearly reflecting elements of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, include; Belonging:- security comfort and group membership Power:- Importance, status, and being taken into account by others Freedom:- being free from the control of others, being able to choose, being self directed and having responsibilities for one’s own actions Fun:- having satisfying and enjoyable experiences
Teachers as Leaders• Glasser (1992) argued that teachers need to become ‘lead-managers’ not ‘boss-manager’.• To achieve this change, schools should provide necessary tools which are curriculum and resources and atmosphere (non coercive and cooperative).
Strength andLimitations of classroommanagement
Types of Effective Strengths Limitations ClassroomManagement (a) The - The procedures in the model is in - This may lead the studentsInterventionist details for maximizing classroom to react violent due to Model management and organization. teacher high level of control. (b) The - Its focus on student’s understanding - Teachers often haveInteractionist why they behave as they do and the difficulties recognizing the Model consequences of their behavior. motives that underlie - Tends to encourage a high degree of student’s behavior. students autonomy, as well as respect between teachers and students. (Edward, 1997) (c) The Non- - In the degree of autonomy and - The difficulties teachersInterventionist responsibility, it gives to students, may have in giving students Model allowing them to see the consequences increased autonomy and of their behavior and to determine responsibility without at the possible solution. (Gordon et al, 1996) same time filling threatened by loss of control.
Managing conflict and problem behavior ( Bullying )
Definition of Bullying Bullying is an abuse of power that takes the form of on going aggression involving words or actions by individual or groups and directed towards particular victims who are unable to defend themselves (Eisenberg,1998). Bullies take advantage of situations whether they can victimize others who may be physically smaller, younger, less strong, outnumbered or simply unable to defend themselves.
Forms of Bullying Psychological Verbal Forms Physical Forms Forms• Radical and • Being isolated • Being hit or Social or subject to physically harassment gossip and threatened, or that involves hurtful having name calling. rumors. property damaged or stolen.
Victims Bullies Have high self esteemPoor academic performance ( Olweus,1997) Scores high on majors of social Low self esteem and physical self concept Typically overestimate their High rates of absenteeism levels of social competenceTends to be anxious, in secure The quality of the relationship and isolated from their peer with significant others group (Olweus, 1993) (Edens,1999)
Interventions to reduce bullyingResearch cited by Johnson and Johnson (1996)suggested that students left to resolve conflictwithout assistance or training in peermediations or conflict resolution tend to: Leave the conflict unresolved Ask an adult to help resolve the conflict Achieve resolution through one of the protagonists ‘winning’
Classroom arrangements that provide opportunities for students to work Introducing together in cooperative group. exercise that promote Increase alternative forms awareness of of social bullying interaction Interventions to reduce Anger Bullying Proposed an anti violencemanagement curriculum training Assertiveness Peer Hanging school training counseling environments