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Curriculum models

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Curriculum models

  1. 1. Curriculum Model Sumbul Fatima
  2. 2. Content Definition of Curriculum Models Components Curriculum Models Product and Process of Curriculum Models Basic Rubrics for Curriculum Models Types of Curriculum
  3. 3. Curriculum Model • To understand curriculum models we need to take a step back and talk about curriculum itself. Curriculum can be defined as a plan used in education that directs teacher instruction. Many districts and schools use a tool designed to help teachers pace their lessons, called a curriculum guide. But a curriculum and a curriculum guide don't just come out of thin air. Time and energy goes into the creation of these documents. This process is known as curriculum development.
  4. 4. • All of these things are based on a curriculum model. A model is really the first step in curriculum development. A curriculum model determines the type of curriculum used; it encompasses educational philosophy, approach to teaching, and methodology. The good news is, unless you've been hired to design curriculum, you won't come across many curriculum models. However, it's good for educators to be familiar with the models used in their schools.
  5. 5. • OBE (Stands for outcomes Based education)
  6. 6. Common Component of Curriculum Models • Curriculum models have five areas they define, each looking at education from a different slant. The focus concept looks at a subject or a student and centers instruction on them. The approach component is a traditional or modern method and looks at the type of instruction that will be used. In the content component, a slant towards a topic-based or content-based is used, asking how units or strands will be written. The process structure looks at assessment: formative or accumulative. Finally, structure components focus on the system of review, determining how the curriculum will come up for revision.
  7. 7. Product and Process Curriculum Models • The Product Model - You may see this in portions of your curriculum. This model is focused on results, like grades or reaching an objective. The majority of the weight is focused more on the finished product than what is happening in the learning process. • The Process Model - Conversely, this process model focuses on how things happen in the learning and is more open-ended. Curriculum focusing on the process model emphasizes how students are learning, what their thinking is, and how it will impact future learning.
  8. 8. Basic Rubrics for Curriculum Models • Subject- or discipline-centered - In this framework, the curriculum is organized around subjects, like math or science. • Integrated - Just like it sounds, this framework pulls many subjects together. We see this model used in problem-based learning and experiential learning. • Spiral - In this framework, the content is presented several times across the span of the school year. Seen mostly in math, using this design allows students to be introduced and then revisit material often. • Inquiry- or problem-based - Not to be confused with integrated models, this curriculum focuses on a central problem or question. In this frame, all curriculum is problem-based, while in integrated it may or may not be. • Experiential - Using this framework allows students to participate in real-life ways with their work such as, experimenting with hypothesis, working through problems, and finding solutions.
  9. 9. Different Curriculum Models • Wheeler Model • Tyler Model • Dynamic Model • Skilbeck Model • Hilda Taba Model
  10. 10. Wheeler model of Curriculum • The Wheeler model of curriculum development (1967), or cyclic model, asserts that curriculum should be a continuous cycle which is responsive to changes in the education sector and makes appropriate adjustments to account for these changes. It focuses on situational analysis: the context in which the curriculum decisions are taken is considered important, as this is believed to help make the most effective decisions. This model is comprised of five interconnected stages.
  11. 11. Steps of Wheeler Model for Curriculum
  12. 12. Ralph W. Tyler Model of Curriculum • The Tyler Model, developed by Ralph Tyler in the 1940’s, is the quintessential prototype of curriculum development in the scientific approach. One could almost dare to say that every certified teacher in America and maybe beyond has developed curriculum either directly or indirectly using this model or one of the many variations. • Tyler did not intend for his contribution to curriculum to be a lockstep model for development. Originally, he wrote down his ideas in a book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction for his students to give them an idea about principles for to making curriculum. The brilliance of Tyler’s model is that it was one of the first models and it was and still is a highly simple model consisting of four steps.
  13. 13. Steps of Tyler Curriculum Model •Determine the school’s purposes (aka objectives) •Identify educational experiences related to purpose •Organize the experiences •Evaluate the purposes
  14. 14. Dynamic Model of Curriculum • Advocated by Walker (1972), Skilbeck 1976, Stenhouse 1975), it sees the process of curriculum development as dynamic in nature. Changes can be initiated from any point in the process unlike the objectives model where the beginning is always the setting of objectives. • In the dynamic models, curriculum is not considered as linear or sequenced; it can start with any element and proceed in any order. The curriculum elements are seen as flexible, interactive and modifiable in this model. Changes can be initiated from any point in the process unlike the objectives model where the beginning is always the setting of objectives. • Walker (1972) felt that the objectives or rational models were unsuccessful and devised a model, which has three phases.
  15. 15. Steps for Dynamic Curriculum Model
  16. 16. Malcolm Skilbeck Model of Curriculum • Skilbeck model locates curriculum design and development firmly within a cultural framework. It views such design as a means whereby teachers modify and transform pupil experience through providing insights into cultural values, interpretative frameworks and symbolic systems. • It is a more comprehensive framework, which can encompass either the process model or the objective model depending on which aspects of the curriculum are being designed. It is flexible, adaptable and open to interpretation in the light of changing circumstances. • It does not presuppose a linear progression through its components. Teachers can begin at any stage and activities can develop concurrently. .
  17. 17. • The model outlined does not presuppose a means-end analysis at all; it simple encourages teams or groups of curriculum developers to take into account different elements and aspects of the curriculum- development process, to see the process as an organic whole, and to work in a moderately systematic way. • Very importantly, it forces those involved in curriculum development to consider systematically their particular context, and it links their decisions to wider cultural and social considerations
  18. 18. Steps for Dynamic Curriculum Model
  19. 19. Hilda Taba Model of Curriculum • The Taba Model was developed by Hilda Taba (1902 - 1967), an architect, a curriculum theorist, a curriculum reformer, and a teacher educator. She was born in the small village of Koraste, Estonia. Taba believed that there has to be a definite order in creating a curriculum. • She advocated that teachers take an inductive approach to curriculum development which meant starting with the specifics and building toward a general design, rather than the traditional deductive approach (starts with the general design and work towards the specifics) which was rooted in Tyler's model.
  20. 20. • Hilda Taba followed the grass-roots approach in developing curriculum. For her, it should be the teachers who should design the curriculum rather than the higher authorities (Oliva, 1992). More specifically stated, the Taba approach believes in allowing the curriculum to be developed and/or authored by the users (teachers). Under the Taba Model teachers are expected to begin each curriculum by creating specific teaching-learning units and building to a general design
  21. 21. Thanks

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