2. What does CULTURE mean?
The system of shared beliefs, values,
customs, behaviors, and artifacts that the
members of society use to cope with their
world and with one another, and that are
transmitted from generation to generation
Culture is the way of life of a group of people.
3. 1.Culture is by definition smaller than a civilization.
2.Culture can grow and exist without residing in a formal
civilization whereas a civilization will never grow and
exist without the element of culture.
3.Culture can be tangible or intangible whereas
civilization is something that is more tangible because it
is what you see as a whole
4.Culture can be transmitted through symbols in the
form of language whereas an entire civilization cannot
be transmitted by mere language alone
5. OWN CULTURE AND FOREIGN CULTURES
6. Process in which members of one cultural group adopt the
beliefs and behaviors of another group. Although
acculturation is usually in the direction of a minority group
adopting habits and language patterns of the dominant
group, acculturation can be reciprocal--that is, the
dominant group also adopts patterns typical of the minority
group. Assimilation of one cultural group into another may
be evidenced by changes in language preference,
adoption of common attitudes and values, members hip in
common social groups and institutions, and loss of
7. Alternative culture is a type of culture that exists outside or on the
fringes of mainstream or popular culture, usually under the domain of one or
more subcultures. These subcultures may have little or nothing in common
besides their relative obscurity, but cultural studies uses this common basis of
obscurity to classify them as alternative cultures, or, taken as a whole, the
alternative culture. Compare with the more politically charged term,
Subculture In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a
group of people with a culture(whether distinct or hidden) which differentiates
them from the larger culture to which they belong.
Counterculture (also written counter-culture) is
a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of
behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to
those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural
equivalent of political opposition.
8. slowness in the rate of
change of one part of a culture in relation
to another part, resulting in a maladjustment within society,
as from the failure of
the nonmaterial culture to keep abreast of
developments in the material culture.
is a nonprofit group based in Cambridge, Massachusetts,USA which
is dedicated to defending the human rights of indigenous peoples.
Their stated mandate is to promote the rights, voices and visions,
of indigenous people.
9. is a term, now used in a number of different ways in academic discourse, whose
most common meaning is the set of cultural products, mainly in the arts, held in
the highest esteem by a culture. In more popular terms, it is the culture of
an elite such as thearistocracy or intelligentsia, but also defined as a repository
of a broad cultural knowledge, as a way of transcending the class system. It is
contrasted with the low culture or popular culture of, variously, the less well-
educated, barbarians, Philistines, or the masses.
A set of cultural values and ideas that arise from common exposure of a
population to the same cultural activities, communications media, music and art,
etc. Mass culture becomes possible only with modern communications and
electronic media. A mass culture is transmitted to individuals, rather than arising
from people's daily interactions, and therefore lacks the distinctive content of
cultures rooted in community and region. Mass culture tends to reproduce the
liberal value of individualism and to foster a view of the citizen as consumer.
10. POSTMODERN SOCIETY
Some sociologists believe we are now moving into a new and very
different type of society. The social change, that began to
accelerate 300 years ago, has continued at such a pace that the
theories and assumptions we had about modern society no longer
explain the society we find around us.
The main characteristic of postmodernism seems to be a loss of faith in the ideas of the
Enlightenment. It is argued by postmodernists that people have become disillusioned
with the idea that we can use science and rational thought to make the world a better
place. People have become disillusioned with the idea of progress. There is greater
understanding of negative effects of so-called ‘progress’, such as pollution,
environmental damage and damage to human populations.
Postmodernists also argue that other characteristics of modern societies are
1. The big production companies making vast quantities of the same product
are becoming more diversified and there has been a growth of small
companies producing goods for very specialized markets.
2. New social movements are connecting people across traditional class and
ethnic boundaries; movements such as gay rights, environmentalism,
feminism, and new religious movements.
3. The significance of nation states is in decline. Today many multi-national
companies are larger and have more power than most countries, and within
countries more provision is being privatized and less is provided by the state.
4. Employees are less likely to have long-term careers and jobs for
life, employment is more uncertain and there has been a big increase in part-
time, temporary and agency employment…