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Immune Response II
DR. SUFI H. Z. RAHMAN
MBBS, MD (IMMUNOLOGY)
LECTURER, MEDICAL FACULTY, AUCMS
Objectives
◆Role of antigen presenting cells in cellular
immune response
◆Role of lymphocytes in cellular immune
response
...
Cell Mediated Immunity
◆Provided by T lymphocytes
◆Provides immunity to (i) intracellular bacteria
(ii) viruses, (iii) fun...
Antigen Presenting Cells
◆Cells that present antigens to T lymphocytes and activate
them
◆Express both Class I and Class I...
Antigen Presenting Cells
Antigen Presentation
APCs process and present
antigens in two pathways
1. Exogenous or Endocytic
pathway: Phagocytosed
mic...
Antigen Presentation
◆Derived from bone marrow by haematopoiesis
◆Progenitor T (Pro- T) cells migrate to thymus
◆Maturation occurs in the thymu...
Maturation of T
lymphocytes in
the Thymus
e
T lymphocytes
Maturation
Mechanism of CMI
APCs present antigens by Class I MHC molecules to CD8+ (TC)
cells and by Class II MHC molecules to CD4+ T...
◆T cells recognize specific
antigens presented with
MHC molecules on the
surface of APCs by TCR
◆Each T cell has 105 TCRs
...
◆Antigen recognition by
TCR provides Stimulatory
signal (Signal 1) to the T
cell
◆Binding of B7 molecule
on APC with CD28
...
◆When T cells receive
both Stimulatory (Signal
1) and Co-stimulatory
(Signal 2) signals they
are activated (clonal
activat...
◆Activated T cells start to
proliferate, synthesize and
secrete IL-2 and express IL-
2 receptors on cell surface
◆After se...
Effector T cells are short-lived (few days to
weeks) cells and carry out specialized
functions e.g.
• CD8+ effector T cell...
Antigen Elimination by CMI
Cytotoxic T cells induce
apoptosis of infected cells
bearing antigen on the
surface
CD8+ Effect...
Antigen Elimination by CMI
◆ With influence of cytokines
e.g. IL- 12 from APCs, TH
cells differentiate to TH1 cells
◆ TH1 ...
Antigen Elimination by CMI
Activated macrophages have more phagocytic and killing
activity and they phagocytose and kill i...
Naïve cytotoxic T cells (cytotoxic T cell precursor) require
cytokines from TH cells for activation
TH cells help TC cell ...
Activation of naïve B cells
require
◆Direct interaction with TH cells
by
• Antigen in Class II MHC and
TCR
• CD40 and CD40...
Regulatory Role of TH cells
◆ Cytokines from TH1 cells also
help TC cell activation
◆ Thus TH1 cells regulate CMI
◆ With t...
4a. Activated T cells differentiate to
effector T cells and memory T cells
(macrophages)
Interaction between the component...
TH cell activation by Superantigens
◆Superantigens are viral or
bacterial proteins that bind
simultaneously to the Vb
doma...
◆Hence, the activation of TH cells by
superantigens is polyclonal and can affect a
huge number TH cells
◆It results in ove...
Superantigen Disease
Enterotoxin of Staphylococcus aureus Food poisoning
Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSS1) of
Staphylococc...
Cytokines
◆ Protein molecules secreted by
cells that regulate function of
that cell or other cells
◆ The name denotes thei...
Cytokines
◆ Autocrine: Acts on the same
cell that secretes it
◆ Paracrine: Acts on adjacent
cells
◆ Endocrine: Carried by ...
Cytokines
◆ One cytokine may act on various cells and
produce various effects
◆ Many cytokines may act on the same cell
an...
Cytokines
◆ Cytokines secreted by some leukocytes and
acting on other leukocytes are called
interleukins
◆ Cytokine secret...
Cytokines
Further Review
◆Levinson W. Review of Medical
Microbiology and Immunology. 11th edition.
McGraw Hill, 2008.
◆Kindt TJ, Gol...
Cell mediated immune response
Cell mediated immune response
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Cell mediated immune response

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Cell mediated immune response

  1. 1. Immune Response II DR. SUFI H. Z. RAHMAN MBBS, MD (IMMUNOLOGY) LECTURER, MEDICAL FACULTY, AUCMS
  2. 2. Objectives ◆Role of antigen presenting cells in cellular immune response ◆Role of lymphocytes in cellular immune response ◆Mechanisms involved in cellular immune response ◆Types cytokines and their role in cellular immune response ◆Interaction between the components of the immune system in regulating immune response
  3. 3. Cell Mediated Immunity ◆Provided by T lymphocytes ◆Provides immunity to (i) intracellular bacteria (ii) viruses, (iii) fungi, (iv) protozoa and (v) tumours ◆T cells can recognize antigen only when it is presented on the surface of Antigen presenting cells (APCs) by self MHC molecules ◆This self MHC restriction results from positive selection during maturation of T cells in the thymus
  4. 4. Antigen Presenting Cells ◆Cells that present antigens to T lymphocytes and activate them ◆Express both Class I and Class II MHC molecules on surface ◆Also express B7 (B7.1 and B7.2) molecules ◆Present antigens by Class I MHC molecules to CD8+ T cells and by Class II MHC molecules to CD4+ T cells ◆Professional APCs are Dendritic cells, Macrophages and B
  5. 5. Antigen Presenting Cells
  6. 6. Antigen Presentation APCs process and present antigens in two pathways 1. Exogenous or Endocytic pathway: Phagocytosed microorganisms are degraded in the phagosomes and peptides are presented in this pathway by Classs II MHC molecules 2. Endogenous or Cytosolic pathway: Intracellular microorganisms synthesize protein in the cytoplasm that are presented in this pathway by Class I MHC molecules
  7. 7. Antigen Presentation
  8. 8. ◆Derived from bone marrow by haematopoiesis ◆Progenitor T (Pro- T) cells migrate to thymus ◆Maturation occurs in the thymus • Rearrange TCR gene segments and acquire TCR • Undergo two selection process  Positive selection: Self MHC restriction  Negative selection: Self tolerance • Acquire surface CD molecules e.g. CD3, CD4/ CD8 ◆Two population of T cells are released to the circulation: • CD4+ or helper T (TH) cells • CD8+ or Cytotoxic T (TC) cells T lymphocytes Maturation
  9. 9. Maturation of T lymphocytes in the Thymus e
  10. 10. T lymphocytes Maturation
  11. 11. Mechanism of CMI APCs present antigens by Class I MHC molecules to CD8+ (TC) cells and by Class II MHC molecules to CD4+ T (TH) cells TC B7 CD28 Antigen recognition by T cells
  12. 12. ◆T cells recognize specific antigens presented with MHC molecules on the surface of APCs by TCR ◆Each T cell has 105 TCRs on its surface all of which recognize a one antigen (or epitope) ◆1010 clones of T cells will recognize 1010 antigens Antigen recognition by T cells Mechanism of CMI
  13. 13. ◆Antigen recognition by TCR provides Stimulatory signal (Signal 1) to the T cell ◆Binding of B7 molecule on APC with CD28 molecule on T cell provides Co-stimulatory signal (Signal 2) to the T cell Antigen recognition by T cells Mechanism of CMI
  14. 14. ◆When T cells receive both Stimulatory (Signal 1) and Co-stimulatory (Signal 2) signals they are activated (clonal activation) ◆If the T cells receive only the Stimulatory signal without Co-stimulatory signal, they are permanently inactivated (clonal anergy) Stimulatory signal+ Costimulatory signal= Activation Stimulatory signal without Costimulatory signal= Anergy T cell T cell T cell activation Mechanism of CMI
  15. 15. ◆Activated T cells start to proliferate, synthesize and secrete IL-2 and express IL- 2 receptors on cell surface ◆After several divisions they differentiate to effector and memory T cell populations ◆Memory T cells have long life span (20- 30 years) and provide immunity if the person is re-exposed to the same antigen T cell differentiation Mechanism of CMI
  16. 16. Effector T cells are short-lived (few days to weeks) cells and carry out specialized functions e.g. • CD8+ effector T cells: Induce apoptosis of virus infected and tumour cells (Cytotoxic killing) • CD4+ effector T cells: Secrete cytokines that cause macrophage activation to kill intracellular pathogens and to help TC cell and B cell activation T cells differentiation Mechanism of CMI
  17. 17. Antigen Elimination by CMI Cytotoxic T cells induce apoptosis of infected cells bearing antigen on the surface CD8+ Effector T cells
  18. 18. Antigen Elimination by CMI ◆ With influence of cytokines e.g. IL- 12 from APCs, TH cells differentiate to TH1 cells ◆ TH1 cells release cytokines e.g. interferon- g (IFN- g) ◆ IFN-g activates macrophages that phagocytose and eliminate intracellular pathogens CD4+ Effector T cells
  19. 19. Antigen Elimination by CMI Activated macrophages have more phagocytic and killing activity and they phagocytose and kill intracellular pathogens effectively CD4+ Effector T cells
  20. 20. Naïve cytotoxic T cells (cytotoxic T cell precursor) require cytokines from TH cells for activation TH cells help TC cell activation Regulatory role of TH cells
  21. 21. Activation of naïve B cells require ◆Direct interaction with TH cells by • Antigen in Class II MHC and TCR • CD40 and CD40L • B7 and CD28 ◆Cytokines from TH cells TH cells help B cells TH cells help B cells to induce humoral immune response Regulatory role of TH cells
  22. 22. Regulatory Role of TH cells ◆ Cytokines from TH1 cells also help TC cell activation ◆ Thus TH1 cells regulate CMI ◆ With the influence of IL-4 (from mast cells?) TH cells differentiate to TH2 cells ◆ Cytokines from TH2 cells help B cell activation ◆ Thus TH2 cells regulate humoral immunity
  23. 23. 4a. Activated T cells differentiate to effector T cells and memory T cells (macrophages) Interaction between the components of the immune system CD4+ T (TH) cells regulate the function of both TC and B cells
  24. 24. TH cell activation by Superantigens ◆Superantigens are viral or bacterial proteins that bind simultaneously to the Vb domain of a TCR and to the a chain of class II MHC molecule ◆They bind outside of the TCR antigen binding cleft ◆Any T cell expressing a particular Vb sequence will be activated by a corresponding superantigen
  25. 25. ◆Hence, the activation of TH cells by superantigens is polyclonal and can affect a huge number TH cells ◆It results in overproduction of cytokines from TH cells (e.g. IL-2) and from macrophages (e.g. IL-1, TNF) ◆Huge amount of cytokines produce toxic systemic effects e.g. shock, vomiting, diarrhoea, organ failure etc. rather than providing immunity ◆Super antigens are usually soluble proteins secreted by bacteria (exogenous) but may TH cell activation by Superantigens
  26. 26. Superantigen Disease Enterotoxin of Staphylococcus aureus Food poisoning Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSS1) of Staphylococcus aureus Toxic shock syndrome Exfoliative dermatitis toxin of Staphylococcus aureus Scalded skin syndrome Erythrogenic toxin of Streptococcus pyogenes Scarlet fever Pyrogenic toxin of Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcal Toxic shock syndrome Mycoplasma arthritidis supernatant Arthritis, Shock TH cell activation by Superantigens
  27. 27. Cytokines ◆ Protein molecules secreted by cells that regulate function of that cell or other cells ◆ The name denotes their role in cell to cell communication ◆ Development of an effective immune response involves lymphocytes and other leukocytes ◆ Cytokines play key role in the complex interaction between cells of the Immune system
  28. 28. Cytokines ◆ Autocrine: Acts on the same cell that secretes it ◆ Paracrine: Acts on adjacent cells ◆ Endocrine: Carried by the blood or body fluid to a distant site and acts on distant cells
  29. 29. Cytokines ◆ One cytokine may act on various cells and produce various effects ◆ Many cytokines may act on the same cell and produce same effect ◆ One cytokine may increase action of the other ◆ One cytokine may inhibit action of the others
  30. 30. Cytokines ◆ Cytokines secreted by some leukocytes and acting on other leukocytes are called interleukins ◆ Cytokine secreted by lymphocytes are called lymphokines ◆ Cytokines secreted by monocytes and macrophages are sometimes called monokines ◆ Cytokines that cause chemotaxis of leukocytes are called chemokines
  31. 31. Cytokines
  32. 32. Further Review ◆Levinson W. Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology. 11th edition. McGraw Hill, 2008. ◆Kindt TJ, Goldsby RA, Osborne BA. Kuby Immunology. 6th ed. WH Freeman, 2006. ◆Abbas AK, Lichman AH. Basic Immunology. 3rd edition. Elsevier, 2011.

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