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Payment for Watershed Environmental Services
to Secure Urban Water Supplies and Mitigate
Climate Risks:
The Nature Conserv...
AGENDA
• Introductions (Stefano Pagiola)
• TNC’s Securing Water Strategy Overview
(Adam Freed)
• Latin American Water Fund...
Payment for Watershed Environmental Services to Secure Urban
Water Supplies and Mitigate Climate Risks: The Nature Conserv...
• Overview about water situation in the world
• - Trends about water scarcity, nexus (this kind of thing)
• -Water risks f...
The challenge
6
Salt water 96.5%
Groundwater 1.7%
Ice 1.77%
Marshes, rivers 0.03%
Atmosphere 0.001%
Salt water 96.5%
Groundwater 1.7%
Ic...
2030
withdrawals
6,900
4,500
1,500
900
CAGR 2%
Basins with
surplus
Basins
with
deficits
2,800
-40%
100
Future demand will ...
Increases in water demand vary by region
Source: World Bank, based on WRG, 2009 8
Increase in annual water demand, 2005 to...
Water is a central determinant of
economic growth
Source: Adapted from World Bank, 2006 – Ethiopia: Managing Water Resourc...
Source: ENR Construction
10 largest mega-projects by expenditure
USD bn
EXAMPLES
Our answer to these challenges today is
g...
Our business as usual solutions will not be
sustainable in the long run…
11
Satellite view of the progressive drying due t...
The opportunity
Opex, ~300
How the world solves its water challenges
today
Source: EDA, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Global annual e...
500 bn
Source: EDA, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Global annual expenditure water, 2010
Total ~USD 500 bn
Capex, ~200...
River operating
infrastructure
Traditional intervention TNC solution
River infra master-planning & re-
design
River infra ...
Convert 10% of global hydro to better solutions?
Increase sustainability for 10% of existing river infrastructure?
Can we…...
Our focus
17
At-risk of water-scarcity
• While only 15% of water basins are water-stressed, approximately 50%
of all cities over 100,00...
Sources and focus of infrastructure spending
• Between 60-70% of infrastructure spending in the water sector will be
focus...
The Conservancy is currently working in
more than 30 large cities on water issues
Our solutions
21
22
Payment for ecological services (PES)
programs, such as Water Funds, are a key tool
• Cities fund a majority of urban
i...
• Water Funds and partners
provide a steady stream of
funding
• Water Funds provide forums for
regional planning and actio...
24
Over 76 PES watershed programs were in
development in 2011
New watershed investment programs by year
Source: Ecosystem ...
205 watershed PES programs were active in
2011, with an estimated value of $8 billon (USD)
25Source: Ecosystem Marketplace
The Latin America
Water Funds Partnership
Water Beam, Sep. 16th 2013
LATIN AMERICAN
WATER FUNDS
PARTNERSHIP:
APPROACH & RESULTS
Investing in green infrastructure
¿What is a Water Fund?
Water Fund is an innovative model for long-
term conservation:
• operates through focused investmen...
Water Funds model
USERS PROVIDERS
water utilities
industrial facilities
inhabitants
Cities
WATER
FUND
CLEAN
WATER
National...
¿What are the benefits derived
from Water Funds?
Water Funds are designed and implemented
based on the best planning tools...
Watersheds
conservation
Provision of water for
productive uses
Access to water
supply and sanitation
Educacion and
awarene...
The Latin America Water Funds Partnership
The Partnership is a technical and financial support
mechanism for the creation ...
The Partnership’s goal for 2015
• Leaverage $27 million dollars for investment
in Water Funds in the region
• Create and s...
The Partnership’s added value
• Biodiversity conservation
• Raising of public awareness
• Joint work by representatives of...
Partnership’s impacts
• 15 Water Funds created
• 1,4 m has watersheds
impacted
• 11,8 m has area covered
• 130.000 has Pub...
Water
Funds
in LAC
More info:
www.fondosdeagua.org
Coming soon:
Payment for Watershed Environmental Services to Secure
Urban Water Supplies and Mitigate Climate Risks: The Nature
Conserv...
ESPIRITO SANTO,
BRAZIL
TNC Main Actions:
1) Development of “Reflorestar
Gateway” in order to optimize
Reflorestar Program management
1) Developme...
PIURA, PERU
Mainstreaming Sanitation in
Watershed Management in Peru
An innovative mechanism
Zinnia Ibañez –SECO
Juan José Rodríguez –...
• Long-term institutional & financial
sustainability
• Integrated watershed management:
positive impacts
• Adaptation stra...
• Address one of the recurrent sources of contamination of
hydrological resources.
• Support control, mitigation and treat...
FORASAN FUND
• Chira: Polluted basin (human excreta is the
second source of contamination, about 50% of
children does open...
Water Fund
Financial
mechanism
Trust fund
Projects
Operations
cost
Constituent
Donor
Match funds
Tax, Tarif, Rate Match fu...
A probable scheme of
W&S Component in Piura Fund
FORASAN
(Technical Committee)
Sanitation
Projects
HH rural on site
soluti...
Foto: TMI
• Meeting with RG of
Piura to present final
WMP (end of October)
• Seed capital + W&S
Plan
• Studies: Institutio...
New Law 30045
MODERNIZATION OF
SANITATION SERVICES
Microcredits
Capitalize FORASAN
Increasing
interest from
subnational
go...
www.worldbank.org/water
blogs.worldbank.org/water
www.wsp.org
@wspworldbank GRACIAS!
AFRICA:
THE CASE OF NAIROBI
Courtesy Ian MurphyCourtesy Ian Murphy
Upper Tana-Nairobi
Water Fund
Degradation Issues in Watershed
Road construction &
maintenance Lack of adequate dry season water
access
Sediment filled w...
The Upper Tana Watershed, Kenya
Priority
Watersheds
Vision for the Watershed
A well conserved Upper Tana watershed that provides the quantity
and quality of water needed for ...
Broad Water Fund Goals
• Develop a sustainable financing mechanism for
conservation
• Increase ecosystem integrity
• Safeg...
Nairobi-Upper Tana Water Fund Milestones
Nairobi Water Fund Steering Committee
members mark World Water Day
• Hired Water ...
Next Steps- Design
• Implement pilot projects
• Further development of
partnerships
• Select a governance model
• Conduct ...
Next Steps- Implementation
• Establish the Water Fund institution
• Begin full Water Fund implementation
• Raise $1.6M in ...
Thank You!!!
Jill Blockhus, Senior Policy Advisor, jblockhus@tnc.org
Adam Freed, Securing Water Strategy Director, afreed@...
Thank You!!!
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Presentations_LAC water beam_TNC_Sep16_2013

  1. 1. Payment for Watershed Environmental Services to Secure Urban Water Supplies and Mitigate Climate Risks: The Nature Conservancy’s Experience with Water Funds September 16, 2013 The World Bank LAC Water Beam and The Nature Conservancy present
  2. 2. AGENDA • Introductions (Stefano Pagiola) • TNC’s Securing Water Strategy Overview (Adam Freed) • Latin American Water Funds Partnership: Approach and Results (Fernando Veiga) • Video: Conserving watersheds in Colombia • Brazil: the case of Espirito Santo (Gunars Platais/Suelma Rosa/Gilberto Tiepolo) • Peru: the case of Piura (Gustavo Perochena/Juan José Rodríguez) • Africa: South-South exchange the case of Nairobi (Greg Overton) • Conclusions/Final Remarks (Stefano Pagiola)
  3. 3. Payment for Watershed Environmental Services to Secure Urban Water Supplies and Mitigate Climate Risks: The Nature Conservancy’s Experience with Water Funds Adam Freed Securing Water Strategy Director
  4. 4. • Overview about water situation in the world • - Trends about water scarcity, nexus (this kind of thing) • -Water risks for companies, agriculture, power generation, etc • - Cities and water • - TNC global strategy about this • - The importance of good water management which includes watershed management • - Maybe bring the NYC example as someone who knows from inside that process • - How Water Funds fits in all of these things **INSERT COMPANY LOGO** Securing Water Program
  5. 5. The challenge
  6. 6. 6 Salt water 96.5% Groundwater 1.7% Ice 1.77% Marshes, rivers 0.03% Atmosphere 0.001% Salt water 96.5% Groundwater 1.7% Ice 1.77% Marshes, rivers 0.03% Atmosphere 0.001% Water on Earth is a limited and scarce resource
  7. 7. 2030 withdrawals 6,900 4,500 1,500 900 CAGR 2% Basins with surplus Basins with deficits 2,800 -40% 100 Future demand will outstrip our capacity to provide it Billion m3 Municipal & Domestic Agriculture Industry 4,500 Existing withdrawals 3,100 800 600 Existing accessible, reliable, sustainable supply Surface water3,500 4,200 Groundwater700 Source: 2030 Water Resources Global Supply and Demand model; based on IFPRI data 7
  8. 8. Increases in water demand vary by region Source: World Bank, based on WRG, 2009 8 Increase in annual water demand, 2005 to 2030 MENA – Middle East and North Africa
  9. 9. Water is a central determinant of economic growth Source: Adapted from World Bank, 2006 – Ethiopia: Managing Water Resources to Maximize Sustainable Growth EXAMPLE - ETHIOPIA 1982 1990 1999 80% 40% 0 -40% -80% Rainfall variation around the mean 25% 10% 0% -10% -25% Change in GDP growth 9
  10. 10. Source: ENR Construction 10 largest mega-projects by expenditure USD bn EXAMPLES Our answer to these challenges today is grey infrastructure 10
  11. 11. Our business as usual solutions will not be sustainable in the long run… 11 Satellite view of the progressive drying due to irrigation abstraction, Aral Sea, 1977-2006
  12. 12. The opportunity
  13. 13. Opex, ~300 How the world solves its water challenges today Source: EDA, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Global annual expenditure water, 2010 Total ~USD 500 bn Water resources, 20 Desal, 15 Clean water, 60 Waste water, 80 Industrial, 15 Our goal: redirect 10% of global capital spending to natural infrastructure 13
  14. 14. 500 bn Source: EDA, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Global annual expenditure water, 2010 Total ~USD 500 bn Capex, ~200 14 ~20 Natural infrastructure Our goal: redirect 10% of global capital spending to natural infrastructure
  15. 15. River operating infrastructure Traditional intervention TNC solution River infra master-planning & re- design River infra re-operation Water resources Water services Flood management infra Irrigation infra and technology Clean water supply infra Water infra for industry TNC has solutions that can integrate natural infrastructure Waste and storm water infra Floodplain reconnection Ag basin efficiency interventions Non-point pollution management Watershed stewardship Catchment protection Water rights purchase Nat infra flood/storm water
  16. 16. Convert 10% of global hydro to better solutions? Increase sustainability for 10% of existing river infrastructure? Can we…. Protect 100 million people by reconnecting floodplains? Increase productivity and reduce demand in at least 10% of basins? Increase absorptive capacity of ag pollutants by wetlands by at least 10%? Increase adoption of stewardship practices in 10% of agriculture value chain? Increase investments in natural infrastructure in the water supplies of 50 of the world’s largest cities? Create a fund to trade ~5% of water rights in key water markets? Support the creation of natural storm water infrastructure in 50 of the world’s largest cities? Water resources Water services TNC has solutions that can integrate natural infrastructure
  17. 17. Our focus 17
  18. 18. At-risk of water-scarcity • While only 15% of water basins are water-stressed, approximately 50% of all cities over 100,000 people are in these basins. In many ways, cities are the center of water issues 18
  19. 19. Sources and focus of infrastructure spending • Between 60-70% of infrastructure spending in the water sector will be focused on cities. • 75% of water infrastructure funding is provided by local or regional government entities. Willingness to pay • Cities have a relatively inelastic demand and willingness to pay for water and therefore are an important point of leverage in balancing water use. 19 In many ways, cities are the center of water issues
  20. 20. The Conservancy is currently working in more than 30 large cities on water issues
  21. 21. Our solutions 21
  22. 22. 22 Payment for ecological services (PES) programs, such as Water Funds, are a key tool • Cities fund a majority of urban infrastructure, but often are capitally-constrained • Cities lack mechanisms for regional planning and governance • Decision-makers often do not understand the value of nature • Water Funds and partners provide a steady stream of funding • Water Funds provide forums for regional planning and action • TNC and partners can provide tools and technical assistance • Ad hoc measures may not have a material impact on water supplies • Water Funds provide an opportunity for strategic actions and measurement
  23. 23. • Water Funds and partners provide a steady stream of funding • Water Funds provide forums for regional planning and action • TNC and partners can provide tools and technical assistance • Water Funds provide an opportunity for strategic actions and measurement 23 Our actions must be data-driven and monitored to make sure they are impactful and material
  24. 24. 24 Over 76 PES watershed programs were in development in 2011 New watershed investment programs by year Source: Ecosystem Marketplace
  25. 25. 205 watershed PES programs were active in 2011, with an estimated value of $8 billon (USD) 25Source: Ecosystem Marketplace
  26. 26. The Latin America Water Funds Partnership Water Beam, Sep. 16th 2013
  27. 27. LATIN AMERICAN WATER FUNDS PARTNERSHIP: APPROACH & RESULTS
  28. 28. Investing in green infrastructure
  29. 29. ¿What is a Water Fund? Water Fund is an innovative model for long- term conservation: • operates through focused investments in one fund, • resources generated or chanalized are assigned to preserve essential upstream lands through conservtion actions.
  30. 30. Water Funds model USERS PROVIDERS water utilities industrial facilities inhabitants Cities WATER FUND CLEAN WATER National Parks Productive lanscapes Communities
  31. 31. ¿What are the benefits derived from Water Funds? Water Funds are designed and implemented based on the best planning tools & scientific knowledge. They are: • inclusive and transparent, involving different sectors of society, • self-sustaining, • improve water supply by protecting the watersheds
  32. 32. Watersheds conservation Provision of water for productive uses Access to water supply and sanitation Educacion and awareness SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES Reforestation Restoration Sustainable Agriculture Sustainble cattle ranching practices Fencing riparian corridors Paramos Conservation Conservation Agreements HIGH IMPACT PROJECTS High impact m3 Example of activities supported by Water Funds
  33. 33. The Latin America Water Funds Partnership The Partnership is a technical and financial support mechanism for the creation and strengthening of Water Funds. How the Partnerships works? • It supports local stakeholders by helping them implement and establish the management structure for each fund, • It provides recomendations and technical expertise to strengthen the fund’s operation, • It facilitates the sharing of experiences and best practices among the Water Funds and other stakeholders.
  34. 34. The Partnership’s goal for 2015 • Leaverage $27 million dollars for investment in Water Funds in the region • Create and strengthen at least 32 Water Funds in Latin America • Have a positive impact on as many as 3 million hectares of natural ecosystems • Potentially benefit as many as 50 million people who receive their water supply from the watersheds where the Water Funds operate
  35. 35. The Partnership’s added value • Biodiversity conservation • Raising of public awareness • Joint work by representatives of the public and private sectors and civil society • Long-term integrated watershed management • Maintain or improve of water quality and quantity for cities and local communities • Improve or maintain human well-being and quality of life for upstream communities
  36. 36. Partnership’s impacts • 15 Water Funds created • 1,4 m has watersheds impacted • 11,8 m has area covered • 130.000 has Public Protected Areas • 83.200 has of Private Reserves
  37. 37. Water Funds in LAC
  38. 38. More info: www.fondosdeagua.org Coming soon:
  39. 39. Payment for Watershed Environmental Services to Secure Urban Water Supplies and Mitigate Climate Risks: The Nature Conservancy’s Experience with Water Funds Video: Conserving watersheds in Colombia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-z6rjClC1CY
  40. 40. ESPIRITO SANTO, BRAZIL
  41. 41. TNC Main Actions: 1) Development of “Reflorestar Gateway” in order to optimize Reflorestar Program management 1) Development of Conceptual Model for Reflorestar Regional Offices 2) Support to State Environmental Rural Registry Management System (integrated to Reflorestar Gateway) 1) Support to Doce Watershed Committee for “Produtor de Água” Program implementation (component of Watershed Committee Investments Plan) Reflorestar Regional Offices
  42. 42. PIURA, PERU
  43. 43. Mainstreaming Sanitation in Watershed Management in Peru An innovative mechanism Zinnia Ibañez –SECO Juan José Rodríguez – TNC Gustavo Perochena - WSP
  44. 44. • Long-term institutional & financial sustainability • Integrated watershed management: positive impacts • Adaptation strategies to climate change • Compensation schemes for ecosystem services • Sanitation • Transparency and monitoring Better water supply = healthy populations ©WalterH.Wust©SPDA Water funds: Main features and benefits
  45. 45. • Address one of the recurrent sources of contamination of hydrological resources. • Support control, mitigation and treatment mechanisms. • Facilitate access of rural and peri-urban families to basic services (water connection, toilet, shower, etc.) • Local governments can promote improved rural and peri-urban sanitation, partnering with private sector. • Local actors access funding for behavior change, improving nutrition levels in children and family health. Value added of Sanitation
  46. 46. FORASAN FUND • Chira: Polluted basin (human excreta is the second source of contamination, about 50% of children does open defecation in Piura) • Watershed Management Plan almost ready but lacks enough financial sources to support its activities • Sanitation fund is a potential financial source for the WMP • Integrated to Development Plans Chira Agribusiness Manufacturing Private
  47. 47. Water Fund Financial mechanism Trust fund Projects Operations cost Constituent Donor Match funds Tax, Tarif, Rate Match funds Sources Destination (water fund) FRAMEWORK
  48. 48. A probable scheme of W&S Component in Piura Fund FORASAN (Technical Committee) Sanitation Projects HH rural on site solutions Local actors projects Reforestation, fencing, livestock grass management Watershed Conservation Projects Microcredit PaymentsFunding Promotion Education Training
  49. 49. Foto: TMI • Meeting with RG of Piura to present final WMP (end of October) • Seed capital + W&S Plan • Studies: Institutional / Legal / Financial / Technical design • Rural W&S Program • Capitalize the fund Partners, next steps
  50. 50. New Law 30045 MODERNIZATION OF SANITATION SERVICES Microcredits Capitalize FORASAN Increasing interest from subnational governments ENABLING ENVIRONMENT (supply and demand side)
  51. 51. www.worldbank.org/water blogs.worldbank.org/water www.wsp.org @wspworldbank GRACIAS!
  52. 52. AFRICA: THE CASE OF NAIROBI
  53. 53. Courtesy Ian MurphyCourtesy Ian Murphy Upper Tana-Nairobi Water Fund
  54. 54. Degradation Issues in Watershed Road construction & maintenance Lack of adequate dry season water access Sediment filled water intake Photos: Fred Kihara Inadequate practices on steep farmlandsPoor water drainage
  55. 55. The Upper Tana Watershed, Kenya
  56. 56. Priority Watersheds
  57. 57. Vision for the Watershed A well conserved Upper Tana watershed that provides the quantity and quality of water needed for Nairobi’s city water supply and hydropower generation for Kenya’s economy, while supporting people’s livelihoods.
  58. 58. Broad Water Fund Goals • Develop a sustainable financing mechanism for conservation • Increase ecosystem integrity • Safeguard livelihoods of local farming communities • Demonstrate the benefits of green infrastructure • Water quality improvements in priority rivers • Increase dry season baseflows in priority rivers • Facilitate gray infrastructure improvement, demonstrate green infrastructure value
  59. 59. Nairobi-Upper Tana Water Fund Milestones Nairobi Water Fund Steering Committee members mark World Water Day • Hired Water Fund Manager • Completed Technical Feasibility Study, selected focal watersheds • Signed MOUs with key partners: Nairobi Water, KenGen, TARDA, WRMA, CIAT • Formed Water Fund Steering Committee with MOU signatories + Coca-Cola, UN, and EABL/Diageo • Raised UNDP-GEF and other funding to partner with local NGOs for pilot project implementation • Water user and Kenyan government agency funding pledges being received • Local support for establishment and participation in governance and endowment Fund creation
  60. 60. Next Steps- Design • Implement pilot projects • Further development of partnerships • Select a governance model • Conduct Return on Investment Analysis • Facilitate green-gray water approach for water security • Establish an environmental and socio-economic monitoring program
  61. 61. Next Steps- Implementation • Establish the Water Fund institution • Begin full Water Fund implementation • Raise $1.6M in operating funds • Establish a $15M+ endowment • Scope areas for replication
  62. 62. Thank You!!! Jill Blockhus, Senior Policy Advisor, jblockhus@tnc.org Adam Freed, Securing Water Strategy Director, afreed@tnc.org Lila Gil, External Affairs Director Latin America, lgil@tnc.org Fernando Veiga, Latin America Water Funds Manager, fveiga@tnc.org Suelma Rosa, Brazil Country Representative, srosa@tnc.org Gilberto Tiepolo, Atlantic Forest Program Coordinator, gtieplo@tnc.org Juan Jose Rodriguez, Water Funds Coordinator for the Southern Andes Conservation Program, jjrodriguez@tnc.org Greg Overton, External Affairs Director, Africa Region goverton@tnc.org
  63. 63. Thank You!!!

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