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Dr. Sudharani, N.
Assistant Professor
(Food Science and Nutrition)
College of Horticulture
Mudigere, Karnataka-577132
Topic division
Introduction
Reviews
Summary
Conclusion
References
2
Glossary
• CGA- Chlorogenic Acid
• GCBE- Green Coffee Bean Extract
• LDL- Low Density Lipo Protein
• HDL- High Density Lipo Protein
• WHR- Waist to Hip ratio
• BMI- Body Mass Index
• FBS- Fasting Blood Sugar
• OGTT- Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
• SREBP- Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein
• BAT- Brown Adipose Tissue
• WAT- White Adipose Tissue
• GADPH- Glyceraldehyde 3 –phosphate dehydrogenase
• PPAR- Peroxisome Proliferation Activator Receptor
• HMGR- 3 Hydroxyl-3- Methylglutaryl co-enzyme A reductase
• ACAT- Acyl-CoA cholesterol Acyltransferase
• CYP7A1- Cytochrome P450 family 7 Subfamily A Member 1 Enzyme
• CYP51- Cytochrome P450 family 5 member1 Enzyme
• ACC- Acetyl Co A Carboxylase
• AMPK- Adenosine Monophosphate Protein Kinase 3
4
Phenotypic manifestation of abnormal or
excessive fat accumulation that alters health and
increases mortality.
WHO, (1998)
Intake
Expenditure
Obesity
BMI>18.5-24.9 = Normal
BMI> 25-29.9= Overweight
BMI >30 Obese
5
How do you know that you are Obese?
Kelly et al., 2015
6
Types of Obesity-
Are you an Apple or a Pear??
Excess fat on abdomen
Common in Men
Apple / Android Pear / Gynoid
Excess fat on thighs and buttocks
Common in Women
Kelly et al., 2015
7
LANCET, 2014
World Obesity Prevalence rate
8NHFS:2013
INDIAN SCENARIO OF OBESITY
9
Socio cultural
determinants
Biological
determinant
Behavioral
determinants
Causes of
Obesity
•Smoking
•Alcohol consumption
• Heredity
• Pregnancy
• Age
• Pre and post menopausal
• Socio economic status
Molly et al., 2018
Complications of Obesity
10Molly et al., 2018
11
Muhammad et al., 2018
12
cJun –N- terminal- kinase (JNK) Muhammad et al., 2018
TREATMENTS
 Dietary changes
 Behavioral changes
 Exercise
 Weight-loss surgery
 Medication
13
Molly et al., 2018
14
Orlistat (Xenical)
Met formin (Gucophage)
Lorcaserin (Belviq)
Liraglutide (Saxenda )
Phentermine-topiramate (Qsymia)
Phentermine (Adipex-P, Suprenza)
Bupropion and Naltrexone (Contrave)
Fenfluramine (Pondimin)
Sibutramine (Meridia)
The General Anti-obesity medications
Randall et al., 2003
FDA, 1994
Cost: Rs. 43000/- to 52000/- (30 capsules )
Phytochemical
 Greek: “Phyton” - ‘plant’
 Chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them
protect against competitors, predators, or pathogens.
 Fruits, vegetables, grains, beans, and other plants.
 Some of these phytochemicals are believed to protect cells from
several disease.
 Anti-inflammatory, Anti-diabetic and Antiobesity etc..
15
Ginger, Turmeric, Cinnamon, Aloe vera, Cabbage, Amla, Garlic, Chilli,
Pepper, watermelon, Avacado, Curry leaves, GLV’s, tomatoes etc.....
Chandrasekaran et al., 2012
16
How the Phytochemicals generally targets Obesity?
Reduction in adipose tissue mass by inhibition of precursor cell
proliferation.
Enhancing apoptosis of fat cells.
 Hindering the absorption of triglyceride by reducing formation of
pancreatic lipase.
CHLOROGENIC ACID
Derivatives
 Caffeic acid
 Quinic acid
 Ferulic acid
 Coumaric acid
 Hydroxy Cinnamic acid
17
“Chloro" -Greek (light green) and Genic means "giving rise to”
Green color produced when Chlorogenic acids are oxidized.
Caffeoylic Acid
18
Distribution of Chlorogenic acid in various foods
Source Chlorogenic acid (%)
Coffee bean (Green) 12-14.0
Coffee bean (roasted) 3- 4.0
Blue berry 1.6-2.0
Apple 1.5-1.8
Sunflower 1.0- 1.2
Bell pepper 0.3-1.0
Bamboo leaves 0.6-0.9
Sweet potato 0.3-0.7
Pear 0.3-0.5
Plums 0.4
Cherries 0.3
Hibiscus 0.3
Tomato 0.1
Ernest, S., 2013 18
0.1- 2%
19
14%
4%
Coffee
Family: Rubiaceae
Scientific name: Coffea arabica
Native: Ethiopia
20
World production: 78 lakh tones (Area: 10.44mHa)
Indian production: 2.75 lakh tones (Area: 3.47 lakh Ha)
Productivity- 793kg/Ha
CCRI, 2015
Difference??
COFFEE
• Matured
• Ripen
• Roasting
• Processing
Dry and Wet
method
• High Caffeine
• Low CGA
GREEN COFFEE
• Matured
• Un Ripen
• Unroasted
• Processing
Dry method
 Low Caffeine
 High CGA
21
Processing of Green coffee
22
CCRI
Functions
of CGA
23
Muhammad et al., 2018
Determination of CGA
• Gas chromatography
• HPLC
• UHPLC
• Spectrometry
• Ultra sonic Extraction
24
Side effects of CGA
• Higher Homocysteine levels
25
Caffeine:
Strong coffee: 95mg (Robusta)
Light coffee: 63mg (Arabica)
Decaffeinated coffee: <2mg
Green coffee: 3-4 mg
Mullen et al., 2011Mullen et al., 2011
26
B. CGA levels in coffee fruit samplesA. Caffeine levels in coffee fruit samples
a. Dry c. Hot air oven (120° C)
b. Wet d. Deep freeze (-12 ° C)
Mullen et al., 2011
Fig. 1. Effect of Processing on Caffeine and CGA content Coffee fruits
Green coffee brands available in market
27
Beans: (200mg) 300-350/-
Instant Powder: (75g) 25 sachet (3g each)- 750-800/-
Capsules (90 no. and ): 800-850/-
Flakes : (100g): 250- 320/-
How to consume Green Coffee ????
28
29
Anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic effects of
Chlorogenic acid
To investigate the effect of CGA on glucose tolerance and
lipid metabolism before and after 2-week treatment in mice.
Objective:
30
Khang et al., 2016
Biochemical Pharmacology
Material and Methods
31
Two weeks
Mice (National University of Singapore): 5 groups :(n=4)
1. Lean
2. Dc (Diabetic control)
3. 250mg/kg CGA
4. 250mg/kg CGA+ Compound ‘C’
5. 250mg/kg Metformin
OGTT- before treatment and 10 min 20, 30, 40 , 50 … upto 120min after
treatment
Reassigned randomly (n=4) and
treated with 250mg CGA and Metformin /kg daily.
AMPK activity was measured
One week rest to clear the acute effects of various treatments
After 2 weeks: body weight and food intake was measured
32
Fig. 1. Effects of CGA on glucose tolerance and inhibitory effect of compound c in mice
A
B
A
33
Table 1: Body weight and food intake in 2-week treatment of mice with CGA
and Metformin
Treatment Body weight (g) Food intake (g/kg)
Day 1 Day 14 Day 1 Day 14
Lean 21.5 22.5 0.55 0.60
DC 51.5 53.5 0.66 0.81
Metformin 53.25 50.25 0.63 0.74
CGA 50.75 44.75 0.69 0.73
Dc (Diabetic control)
34
Fig. 2. CGA ameliorates Hepatic lipid accumulation by inhibition of Fatty acid
synthesis
Fig. 3. CGA administration on Phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in mice
AMPK- Adenosine Monophosphate Protein KinaseACC- Acetyl Co A Carboxylase
35
C
36
Fig. 4. CGA ameliorates hepatic lipid accumulation by inhibition of fatty acid synthesis
AMPK
37
CGA
Adiponectin
AMPK Phosphorylation
ACC
Muscle glucose transport Gluconeogenesis Fatty acid synthesis
Fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, Insulin Sensitivity
Triglyceride, & Cholesterol, Hepatic Steatosis
GLUT4
G6pase
Conclusion
• Administration of CGA inhibited hepatic G6Pase expression and
activity, reduces hepatic steatosis, improved lipid profiles and
skeletal muscle glucose uptake by increasing the GLUT 4
expression in the muscle.
• CGA up regulates AMPK (Adenosine Monophosphate Protein
Kinase) pathway by reducing ACC and Glucose 6 phosphate
enzyme and enhances insulin sensitivity.
38
To investigate the effects of high cholesterol diet in rats
with or without the supplementation of Chlorogenic acid.
Chlorogenic acid exhibits cholesterol lowering and fatty liver
attenuating properties in hypercholesterolemic rats induced
with a high-cholesterol diet.
Chun et al., 2012
Phytotherapy Research
Objective:
39
Material and Methods
40
for 28 days
Animals sacrificed: Blood samples and liver tissues
2 month old male rats
Control group (Standard chow diet)
HCD (1% Cholic acid, 2% pure cholesterol & 5.5% Canola oil)
Chlorogenic acid –Low :CA-L (1mg/kg/day)
Chlorogenic acid –High: CA-H (10mg/kg/day)
4 groups (n=10)
Atherogenic index Cardiac risk factors Lipid profile
Table 1. Plasma lipid levels of rats in the Control, HCD, CA-L and
CA-H groups
41
Animal group Control HCD CA-L CA-H
Total cholesterol
(mmol/L)
Before 1.89 2.26 2.49 2.29
After 1.76 5.70 5.78 4.83
Triglyceride
(mmol/L)
Before 0.71 0.70 0.73 0.73
After 0.71 0.70 0.73 0.73
LDL
(mmol/L)
Before 0.69 0.83 0.85 0.95
After 0.40 9.91 8.74 6.93
HDL
(mmol/L)
Before 0.95 1.08 1.12 1.10
After 0.90 0.44 0.81 0.96
CA-L (1mg/kg/day) CA-H(10mg/kg/day)
NS
42
Fig.1. The Atherogenic index and Cardiac risk factors of experimental animals
AGI= Total serum cholesterol- HDL/ HDL
CRF= Total serum cholesterol/ HDL
Fig .2. Gene expressions of HMGR, CYP51, ACAT, CYP7A1 and PPAR- α in
isolated livers. 43
GADPH- Glyceraldehyde 3 –phosphate dehydrogenase
PPAR- Peroxisome Proliferation Activator Receptor
HMGR- 3 Hydroxyl-3- Methylglutaryl co-enzyme A reductase
ACAT- Acyl-CoA cholesterol Acyltransferase
CYP7A1- Cytochrome P450 family 7 Subfamily A Member 1
CYP51- Cytochrome P450 family 5 member1 Enzyme
(A) The gross appearance of the entire liver
Fig. 3. Effect of Chlorogenic acid on the appearance and lipid contents of liver
(B) Total lipid content per gram of liver
44
Mechanism of PPAR
45
Conclusion
 CGA-significantly reduced the total cholesterol and LDL, but
alleviating HDL in hypercholesterolemic rats.
 Hypocholesterolemic effect of CGA leads to Atheroscleroprotective,
Cardioprotective and Hepatoprotective acticity by increasing the
Adiponectin and Fat oxidation.
 The Hypocholesterolemic effect of CGA are probably due to the
increase in fatty acids utilization in liver through the up regulation of
PPAR (Peroxisome proliferation Activator Receptor) gene expression.
46
Stimulation of postprandial fat utilization in healthy humans
by daily consumption of Chlorogenic acids.
To study the effect of CGA consumption on
energy expenditure in humans.
47
Objective
Satoko et al., 2013
Biosci. Biotech. & Biochem.
Material and Methods
48
Ethical committee approval
Written consent : 18 healthy male (Age 36 ±7) 2 groups (n=9)
Control group: (0 mg CGA /185 ml)
Test group: (329 mg/ 185 ml)
Instructed to consume 185ml in 2 intervals/ day
After 4 weeks the energy metabolism
Height, body weight and body fat ratio
Can
4 weeks
Same meal:
2500kcal/d
49
Table 1. Composition of the Test Beverage
CGA beverage Control beverage
CGA (mg/can) 329 0
Caffeine (mg/can) 50 51
Nutritional facts
Energy (kcal/can) 20 22
Protein (g/can) 1.1 0.7
Fat (g/can) 0.6 0.4
Carbohydrates (g/can) 2.6 3.9
Total volume(ml/can) 185 185
50
Table 2. Changes in Anthropometric variables and Blood glucose
Initial 4 weeks
Body weight (kg)
Control group 66.4 66.4
CGA group 66.2 66.2
BMI(kg/m2)
Control group 22.0 22.0
CGA group 21.9 22.0
Body fat ratio (%)
Control group 16.9 16.7
CGA group 16.6 16.7
Glucose (ml/dL)
Control group 104.6 97.8
CGA group 107.6 99.0
NS
NS
NS
6.8
8.6
51
Fig. 1. Changes in the Energy Expenditure in control and test group
52
Table 3. Average Carbohydrate and Fat Utilization
Initial 4 weeks
Carbohydrate utilization (mg/min/kg)
Control group 2.56 2.55
CGA group 2.60 2.59
Fat utilization (mg/min/kg)
Control group 0.914 0.912
CGA group 0.903 0.958
NS
SREBP Mechanism
Cholesterol synthesis: >30gene
Adiponectin: Regulate glucose, Fat oxidation, Ghrelin
AMPK Phosphorylation
HMGR- 3 Hydroxyl-3- Methyl glutaryl reductase
Cholesterol, Liver Steatosis and Insulin resistance
53
Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein
Conclusion
 Beverage containing CGA lead to a significant increase in the
postprandial fat utilization and energy expenditure of healthy
individuals.
 These effects are mediated by the suppression of SREBP (Sterol
Regulatory Element Binding Protein) gene, which regulates the
Cholesterol synthesis in the liver.
 CGA proves to decrease the HMGR- 3 Hydroxyl-3- Methylglutaryl co-
enzyme A reductase and thus in turn reduces the storage of excess fat
by increasing the Insulin sensitivity.
54
55
Effects of ingestion of Chlorogenic acids on sleep architecture
and energy metabolism : a randomized, placebo-controlled,
double-blinded cross-over trial
To determine the effects of CGA ingestion over 5
days on energy metabolism and sleep quality in humans.
Objective
Insung et al., 2017
Bri. J. of Nutri.
Material and Methods
56
9 healthy subjects (4 male and 5 female) (Age25year)
Placebo control (n=4)
Test beverage containing 600 mg of CGA for 5 days
On the fifth night, subjects stayed in a whole-room metabolic chamber
to measure energy metabolism
Evaluated the sleep by using Polysomnographic recording
100ml CGA was consumed 10 min before bed time
Subjects ingested specified meals for breakfast, lunch and dinner
15 E% protein, 25 E% fat and 60 E% carbohydrates
Energy distribution was 30 E% for breakfast, 30 E% for lunch and 40 E% for dinner
57
58
Table 1. Anthropometric variables before and after ingestion of CGA and
placebo beverage
Initial After 5 days
Body weight (kg)
Placebo group 63.90 64.00
CGA group 62.90 63.30
BMI (kg/m2)
Placebo group 21.80 22.10
CGA group 21.70 21.90
Body fat (%)
Placebo group 24.60 25.10
CGA group 23.80 24.60
59
Table 2. Sleep Architecture
Parameters Control CGA
Total bedtime (min) 480.00 480.00
Total sleep time (min) 436.00 444.20
Wakefulness (min) 27.90 26.70
Sleep latency (min) 15.60 08.70
Sleep efficiency (%) 90.90 92.50
Stage 1 (min) 58.40 56.70
Stage 2 (min) 274.10 279.80
SWS (min) 15.70 19.20
REM sleep (min) 87.80 88.30
8hr
44min
14 min
94min
4.4hr
32 min
1.47hr
1.54hr
7.4hr
60
Fig. 1. Sympathetic (a) and Parasympathetic (b) nervous system activities
during calorimetry after 5 d of ingestion of the chlorogenic acids and placebo beverage
Chlorogenic acids beverage (●)
Placebo beverage (○)
61
Fig. 2. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during sleep after 5 d of
ingestion of the chlorogenic acids and placebo beverage.
Chlorogenic acids beverage (■)
Placebo beverage (□)
Energy metabolism was measured for 16 h (from 3 h before
bedtime on the 5th day to 5 h after waking the next morning)
62
Consumption of CGA significantly increased the fat
oxidation during sleep.
Ingestion of CGA proved to increase parasympathetic
activity during sleep.
CGA stimulated fat oxidation without an adverse effect
on sleep architecture; rather, it shortened sleep latency.
Conclusion
Fatemeh et al., 2017
Asia. Pac. J. Clin. Nutr.
63
Energy restriction combined with Green coffee bean extract affects
serum adipocytokines and the body composition in obese women
To evaluate the efficacy of green coffee bean extract combined with
an energy-restricted diet on the body composition and serum adipocytokines
in obese women.
Objective
Material and Methods
64
8 weeks
64 obese women (20–45 years )
2 groups
Intervention group (400 mg GCBE capsule)
Control group (Placebo 400mg of Starch)
All participants were on an energy-restricted diet
Body composition, Leptin, Adiponectin, Lipid profile,
Free fatty acids (FFAs) and fasting blood sugar
25% Energy restriction
15% Protein
55% CHO
30% Fat
65
Table 1. Anthropometric characteristics of the study population
Parameters Placebo group Green coffee group
Weight (kg)
Week 0 12.43 11.98
Week 8 12.16 10.40
BMI (kg/m2)
Week 0 4.96 4.37
Week 8 4.84 3.89
Fat mass (kg)
Week 0 4.07 4.27
Week 8 4.74 3.75
FMI (kg/m2)
Week 0 3.69 3.23
Week 8 3.23 3.23
WHR
Week 0 0.20 0.08
Week 8 0.04 0.02
Visceral fat
Week 0 0.50 0.30
Week 8 0.33 0.13
NS
66
Table 2. Effect of GCBE on FBS, Fasting insulin and lipid profile in the study population
Parameters Placebo group Green coffee group
FBS (mg/dL)
Week 0 5.63 5.83
Week 8 5.08 5.56
Fasting Insulin(µm/mL)
Week 0 0.71 0.68
Week 8 0.70 0.67
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)
Week 0 13.50 14.06
Week 8 12.58 10.53
LDL (mg/dL)
Week 0 9.24 10.71
Week 8 7.79 03.62
HDL (mg/dL)
Week 0 1.47 1.61
Week 8 1.02 1.45
TG (mg/dL)
Week 0 26.52 33.99
Week 8 25.73 31.25
67
Table 3. Effect of Green coffee bean extract on Leptin and Adiponectin
Variable Placebo group Green coffee group
Leptin (ng/mL)
Week 0 9.05 8.06
Week 8 7.32 8.31
Adiponectin(µg/mL)
Week 0 1.05 1.07
Week 8 2.03 1.03
Conclusion
 Energy restriction combined with GCBE may effectively reduce the
BMI, FMI, total cholesterol and LDL and also alter serum
adipocytokines.
 The presence of Chlorogenic acid in green coffee bean extract reduced
the weight effectively in obese people.
68
69
Abdulrahim , 2017
J.of Chem. & Pharma. Res.
Objective
Effect of Orlistat Drug and Green Coffee in Body Weight of
Hypercholesterolemia Male Albino Rats
To determine the effect of Orlistat drug and Green
coffee in the body weight and lipid profiles in
hypercholesterolemia rats.
Material and Methods
70
40 male Albino rats (190-210g)
 Control - normal diet
 Control rats fed with high fat diet
 Rats fed with high fat diet - 4 mg/kg bw/day Orlistat
 Rats fed with high fat diet - 2.5 g/kg bw/day Green Coffee (powder)
Blood was collected from all groups at zero time
and after 4 weeks
After 4 weeks.
n=10
Plasma glucose and lipid profile levels and Body weight was measured
71
Table 1: Initial and final body weight in study groups
Study groups Body weight (kg) Percentage
At zero time After 4 weeks
Control rats (Normal diet) 172 225 24%
Control rats (HFD) 193 320 40%
Green coffee (HFD) 184 233 22%
Orlistat (HFD) 190 213 11%
72
Table 2: Plasma glucose and lipid profile levels of different high fat
diet groups
Parameters
Control rats
(Normal diet)
At zero time
Orlistat
after 4
weeks
Percentage
Green coffee
after 4
weeks
Percentage
Cholesterol
(mg/dl)
183 133 28% 148 20%
Triglyceride
(mg/dl)
196 155 21% 139 30%
LDL
(mg/dl)
64 46 29% 53 18%
HDL
(mg/dl)
26 39 34% 41 37%
Glucose
(mg/dl)
316 285 10% 263 17%
 Both the Green Coffee and Orlistat drug reduced the body
weight and lipid profile in Hypercholesterolemic rats.
 Ingestion of GCBE significantly reduced the HDL content
due to the presence of polyphenolic substance called CGA
than in Orlistat drug.
73
Conclusion
Summary
 Obesity has been emerged as a most epidemic health problem, which causes other
health complexes such as Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases, Hypertension and
Cancer etc.
 In this context a natural phytochemical present highly in Green coffee called
Chlorogenic acid (CGA), belongs to the family Caffeoylic Acid has got considerable
media attention as an effective antiobesity agent.
 The different scientific evidences on CGA proves its anti-inflammation, antioxidant,
anti hypertensive, anti diabetic and antimicrobial properties.
 Administration of CGA inhibited hepatic G6Pase expression and activity, reduces
hepatic steatosis, improved lipid profiles and skeletal muscle glucose uptake.
 CGA up regulates AMPK (Adenosine Monophosphate Protein Kinase) pathway and
suppress the hepatic glucose production and fatty acid synthesis, thereby reduces
body weight.
74
Cont ….
 Hypocholesterolemic effect of CGA leads to Atheroscleroprotective,
Cardioprotective and Hepatoprotective acticity by increasing the Adiponectin
and Fat oxidation.
 The Hypocholesterolemic effect of CGA are probably due to the increase in fatty
acids unitization in liver through the up regulation of PPAR (Peroxisome
proliferation Activator Receptor) gene expression.
 CGA oxidizes more fat by supressing SREBP (Sterol Regulatory Element
Binding Protein) gene, which regulates the Cholesterol synthesis in the liver.
 Ingestion of CGA stimulated fat oxidation without an adverse effect on sleep
quality; rather, it shortened sleep latency.
 Both the Green Coffee and Orlistat drug reduced the body weight and lipid
profile in Hypercholesterolemic rats.
 The presence of Chlorogenic acid in green coffee bean extract reduced the weight
effectively in obese people.
75
REFERENCES
ABDULRAHIM, A., 2017, Effect of Orlistat drug and Green coffee in body weight of
hypercholesterolemic male albino rats. J. of Chem. and Pharma. Res. 9(12): 9-12.
AGARWAL, B.B., 2010, Targeting inflammation-induced Obesity and metabolic diseases by Curcumin
and other nutraceuticals. Annu Rev. Nutr. 30(2): 173-199.
CHUN, W.W., CANDY, N.Y.W. AND WING, K. P., 2017, Chlorogenic acid exhibits cholesterol
lowering and fatty liver attenuating properties in Hypercholesterolemic rats induced with a high-
cholesterol diet. Phytotherapy Research. 3(3): 1-7.
ERNEST, S., 2013, Distribution of Chlorogenic Acid in Plants. Archives of Biochemistry and
Biophysics .74: 131-138 .
FATEMEH, H., MEHNOOSH, S., MAJID, M., MOHAMMAD, T.J. AND KAMBIZ, A. E., 2017,
Energy restriction combined with Green coffee bean extract affects serum adipocytokines and the
body composition in obese women. Asia. Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 26(6):1048-1054.
INSUNG, P., RYUJI, O., HITOMI, O., MOMOKO, K., SAYAKA, H. AND KUMPEI, T., 2017, Effects
of sub acute ingestion of chlorogenic acids on sleep architecture and energy metabolism through
activity of the autonomic nervous system. British Journal of Nutrition: 92 (5): 1-6.
77
KHANG, W. O., ANNIE, H. AND BENNY, K. H. T., 2016, Anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic
effects of Chlorogenic acid. Biochemical Pharmacology. 85(3): 1341–1351.
MUHAMMAD, N.,B., VEGHAR, H. AND MUHAMMAD, A., 2018, Chlorogenic acid (CGA): A
pharmacological review and call for further research. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 97 (2): 67–74.
MULLEN, W., NEMZAB, B. OU, B., 2011, CGA profiles of whole coffee fruits are influenced by
the extraction procedures. J. Agril. and Fd. Chem., 59(3): 3754-3762.
SATOKO, S., NORIYASU, O. AND AKIRA, S., 2013, Stimulation of postprandial fat utilization
in healthy humans by daily consumption of Chlorogenic acids. Biosci. Biotech. and Biochem.
77(8), 1633-1636.
RANDALL, S., DAVID, C. AND RADLEY, B.A., 2003, National Trends in Antiobesity
Medication Use. Arch. Intern. Med,.163(9): 1046-1050.
WHO, 1998, Global Health Observatory data.
78
Cont ….
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Chlorogenic acid (CGA): A potential Anti-obesity Phytochemical

  • 1. 1 Dr. Sudharani, N. Assistant Professor (Food Science and Nutrition) College of Horticulture Mudigere, Karnataka-577132
  • 3. Glossary • CGA- Chlorogenic Acid • GCBE- Green Coffee Bean Extract • LDL- Low Density Lipo Protein • HDL- High Density Lipo Protein • WHR- Waist to Hip ratio • BMI- Body Mass Index • FBS- Fasting Blood Sugar • OGTT- Oral Glucose Tolerance Test • SREBP- Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein • BAT- Brown Adipose Tissue • WAT- White Adipose Tissue • GADPH- Glyceraldehyde 3 –phosphate dehydrogenase • PPAR- Peroxisome Proliferation Activator Receptor • HMGR- 3 Hydroxyl-3- Methylglutaryl co-enzyme A reductase • ACAT- Acyl-CoA cholesterol Acyltransferase • CYP7A1- Cytochrome P450 family 7 Subfamily A Member 1 Enzyme • CYP51- Cytochrome P450 family 5 member1 Enzyme • ACC- Acetyl Co A Carboxylase • AMPK- Adenosine Monophosphate Protein Kinase 3
  • 4. 4 Phenotypic manifestation of abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that alters health and increases mortality. WHO, (1998) Intake Expenditure Obesity
  • 5. BMI>18.5-24.9 = Normal BMI> 25-29.9= Overweight BMI >30 Obese 5 How do you know that you are Obese? Kelly et al., 2015
  • 6. 6 Types of Obesity- Are you an Apple or a Pear?? Excess fat on abdomen Common in Men Apple / Android Pear / Gynoid Excess fat on thighs and buttocks Common in Women Kelly et al., 2015
  • 9. 9 Socio cultural determinants Biological determinant Behavioral determinants Causes of Obesity •Smoking •Alcohol consumption • Heredity • Pregnancy • Age • Pre and post menopausal • Socio economic status Molly et al., 2018
  • 12. 12 cJun –N- terminal- kinase (JNK) Muhammad et al., 2018
  • 13. TREATMENTS  Dietary changes  Behavioral changes  Exercise  Weight-loss surgery  Medication 13 Molly et al., 2018
  • 14. 14 Orlistat (Xenical) Met formin (Gucophage) Lorcaserin (Belviq) Liraglutide (Saxenda ) Phentermine-topiramate (Qsymia) Phentermine (Adipex-P, Suprenza) Bupropion and Naltrexone (Contrave) Fenfluramine (Pondimin) Sibutramine (Meridia) The General Anti-obesity medications Randall et al., 2003 FDA, 1994 Cost: Rs. 43000/- to 52000/- (30 capsules )
  • 15. Phytochemical  Greek: “Phyton” - ‘plant’  Chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them protect against competitors, predators, or pathogens.  Fruits, vegetables, grains, beans, and other plants.  Some of these phytochemicals are believed to protect cells from several disease.  Anti-inflammatory, Anti-diabetic and Antiobesity etc.. 15 Ginger, Turmeric, Cinnamon, Aloe vera, Cabbage, Amla, Garlic, Chilli, Pepper, watermelon, Avacado, Curry leaves, GLV’s, tomatoes etc..... Chandrasekaran et al., 2012
  • 16. 16 How the Phytochemicals generally targets Obesity? Reduction in adipose tissue mass by inhibition of precursor cell proliferation. Enhancing apoptosis of fat cells.  Hindering the absorption of triglyceride by reducing formation of pancreatic lipase.
  • 17. CHLOROGENIC ACID Derivatives  Caffeic acid  Quinic acid  Ferulic acid  Coumaric acid  Hydroxy Cinnamic acid 17 “Chloro" -Greek (light green) and Genic means "giving rise to” Green color produced when Chlorogenic acids are oxidized. Caffeoylic Acid
  • 18. 18 Distribution of Chlorogenic acid in various foods Source Chlorogenic acid (%) Coffee bean (Green) 12-14.0 Coffee bean (roasted) 3- 4.0 Blue berry 1.6-2.0 Apple 1.5-1.8 Sunflower 1.0- 1.2 Bell pepper 0.3-1.0 Bamboo leaves 0.6-0.9 Sweet potato 0.3-0.7 Pear 0.3-0.5 Plums 0.4 Cherries 0.3 Hibiscus 0.3 Tomato 0.1 Ernest, S., 2013 18 0.1- 2%
  • 20. Coffee Family: Rubiaceae Scientific name: Coffea arabica Native: Ethiopia 20 World production: 78 lakh tones (Area: 10.44mHa) Indian production: 2.75 lakh tones (Area: 3.47 lakh Ha) Productivity- 793kg/Ha CCRI, 2015
  • 21. Difference?? COFFEE • Matured • Ripen • Roasting • Processing Dry and Wet method • High Caffeine • Low CGA GREEN COFFEE • Matured • Un Ripen • Unroasted • Processing Dry method  Low Caffeine  High CGA 21
  • 22. Processing of Green coffee 22 CCRI
  • 24. Determination of CGA • Gas chromatography • HPLC • UHPLC • Spectrometry • Ultra sonic Extraction 24
  • 25. Side effects of CGA • Higher Homocysteine levels 25 Caffeine: Strong coffee: 95mg (Robusta) Light coffee: 63mg (Arabica) Decaffeinated coffee: <2mg Green coffee: 3-4 mg Mullen et al., 2011Mullen et al., 2011
  • 26. 26 B. CGA levels in coffee fruit samplesA. Caffeine levels in coffee fruit samples a. Dry c. Hot air oven (120° C) b. Wet d. Deep freeze (-12 ° C) Mullen et al., 2011 Fig. 1. Effect of Processing on Caffeine and CGA content Coffee fruits
  • 27. Green coffee brands available in market 27 Beans: (200mg) 300-350/- Instant Powder: (75g) 25 sachet (3g each)- 750-800/- Capsules (90 no. and ): 800-850/- Flakes : (100g): 250- 320/-
  • 28. How to consume Green Coffee ???? 28
  • 29. 29
  • 30. Anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic effects of Chlorogenic acid To investigate the effect of CGA on glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism before and after 2-week treatment in mice. Objective: 30 Khang et al., 2016 Biochemical Pharmacology
  • 31. Material and Methods 31 Two weeks Mice (National University of Singapore): 5 groups :(n=4) 1. Lean 2. Dc (Diabetic control) 3. 250mg/kg CGA 4. 250mg/kg CGA+ Compound ‘C’ 5. 250mg/kg Metformin OGTT- before treatment and 10 min 20, 30, 40 , 50 … upto 120min after treatment Reassigned randomly (n=4) and treated with 250mg CGA and Metformin /kg daily. AMPK activity was measured One week rest to clear the acute effects of various treatments After 2 weeks: body weight and food intake was measured
  • 32. 32 Fig. 1. Effects of CGA on glucose tolerance and inhibitory effect of compound c in mice A B A
  • 33. 33 Table 1: Body weight and food intake in 2-week treatment of mice with CGA and Metformin Treatment Body weight (g) Food intake (g/kg) Day 1 Day 14 Day 1 Day 14 Lean 21.5 22.5 0.55 0.60 DC 51.5 53.5 0.66 0.81 Metformin 53.25 50.25 0.63 0.74 CGA 50.75 44.75 0.69 0.73 Dc (Diabetic control)
  • 34. 34 Fig. 2. CGA ameliorates Hepatic lipid accumulation by inhibition of Fatty acid synthesis
  • 35. Fig. 3. CGA administration on Phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in mice AMPK- Adenosine Monophosphate Protein KinaseACC- Acetyl Co A Carboxylase 35 C
  • 36. 36 Fig. 4. CGA ameliorates hepatic lipid accumulation by inhibition of fatty acid synthesis
  • 37. AMPK 37 CGA Adiponectin AMPK Phosphorylation ACC Muscle glucose transport Gluconeogenesis Fatty acid synthesis Fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, Insulin Sensitivity Triglyceride, & Cholesterol, Hepatic Steatosis GLUT4 G6pase
  • 38. Conclusion • Administration of CGA inhibited hepatic G6Pase expression and activity, reduces hepatic steatosis, improved lipid profiles and skeletal muscle glucose uptake by increasing the GLUT 4 expression in the muscle. • CGA up regulates AMPK (Adenosine Monophosphate Protein Kinase) pathway by reducing ACC and Glucose 6 phosphate enzyme and enhances insulin sensitivity. 38
  • 39. To investigate the effects of high cholesterol diet in rats with or without the supplementation of Chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid exhibits cholesterol lowering and fatty liver attenuating properties in hypercholesterolemic rats induced with a high-cholesterol diet. Chun et al., 2012 Phytotherapy Research Objective: 39
  • 40. Material and Methods 40 for 28 days Animals sacrificed: Blood samples and liver tissues 2 month old male rats Control group (Standard chow diet) HCD (1% Cholic acid, 2% pure cholesterol & 5.5% Canola oil) Chlorogenic acid –Low :CA-L (1mg/kg/day) Chlorogenic acid –High: CA-H (10mg/kg/day) 4 groups (n=10) Atherogenic index Cardiac risk factors Lipid profile
  • 41. Table 1. Plasma lipid levels of rats in the Control, HCD, CA-L and CA-H groups 41 Animal group Control HCD CA-L CA-H Total cholesterol (mmol/L) Before 1.89 2.26 2.49 2.29 After 1.76 5.70 5.78 4.83 Triglyceride (mmol/L) Before 0.71 0.70 0.73 0.73 After 0.71 0.70 0.73 0.73 LDL (mmol/L) Before 0.69 0.83 0.85 0.95 After 0.40 9.91 8.74 6.93 HDL (mmol/L) Before 0.95 1.08 1.12 1.10 After 0.90 0.44 0.81 0.96 CA-L (1mg/kg/day) CA-H(10mg/kg/day) NS
  • 42. 42 Fig.1. The Atherogenic index and Cardiac risk factors of experimental animals AGI= Total serum cholesterol- HDL/ HDL CRF= Total serum cholesterol/ HDL
  • 43. Fig .2. Gene expressions of HMGR, CYP51, ACAT, CYP7A1 and PPAR- α in isolated livers. 43 GADPH- Glyceraldehyde 3 –phosphate dehydrogenase PPAR- Peroxisome Proliferation Activator Receptor HMGR- 3 Hydroxyl-3- Methylglutaryl co-enzyme A reductase ACAT- Acyl-CoA cholesterol Acyltransferase CYP7A1- Cytochrome P450 family 7 Subfamily A Member 1 CYP51- Cytochrome P450 family 5 member1 Enzyme
  • 44. (A) The gross appearance of the entire liver Fig. 3. Effect of Chlorogenic acid on the appearance and lipid contents of liver (B) Total lipid content per gram of liver 44
  • 46. Conclusion  CGA-significantly reduced the total cholesterol and LDL, but alleviating HDL in hypercholesterolemic rats.  Hypocholesterolemic effect of CGA leads to Atheroscleroprotective, Cardioprotective and Hepatoprotective acticity by increasing the Adiponectin and Fat oxidation.  The Hypocholesterolemic effect of CGA are probably due to the increase in fatty acids utilization in liver through the up regulation of PPAR (Peroxisome proliferation Activator Receptor) gene expression. 46
  • 47. Stimulation of postprandial fat utilization in healthy humans by daily consumption of Chlorogenic acids. To study the effect of CGA consumption on energy expenditure in humans. 47 Objective Satoko et al., 2013 Biosci. Biotech. & Biochem.
  • 48. Material and Methods 48 Ethical committee approval Written consent : 18 healthy male (Age 36 ±7) 2 groups (n=9) Control group: (0 mg CGA /185 ml) Test group: (329 mg/ 185 ml) Instructed to consume 185ml in 2 intervals/ day After 4 weeks the energy metabolism Height, body weight and body fat ratio Can 4 weeks Same meal: 2500kcal/d
  • 49. 49 Table 1. Composition of the Test Beverage CGA beverage Control beverage CGA (mg/can) 329 0 Caffeine (mg/can) 50 51 Nutritional facts Energy (kcal/can) 20 22 Protein (g/can) 1.1 0.7 Fat (g/can) 0.6 0.4 Carbohydrates (g/can) 2.6 3.9 Total volume(ml/can) 185 185
  • 50. 50 Table 2. Changes in Anthropometric variables and Blood glucose Initial 4 weeks Body weight (kg) Control group 66.4 66.4 CGA group 66.2 66.2 BMI(kg/m2) Control group 22.0 22.0 CGA group 21.9 22.0 Body fat ratio (%) Control group 16.9 16.7 CGA group 16.6 16.7 Glucose (ml/dL) Control group 104.6 97.8 CGA group 107.6 99.0 NS NS NS 6.8 8.6
  • 51. 51 Fig. 1. Changes in the Energy Expenditure in control and test group
  • 52. 52 Table 3. Average Carbohydrate and Fat Utilization Initial 4 weeks Carbohydrate utilization (mg/min/kg) Control group 2.56 2.55 CGA group 2.60 2.59 Fat utilization (mg/min/kg) Control group 0.914 0.912 CGA group 0.903 0.958 NS
  • 53. SREBP Mechanism Cholesterol synthesis: >30gene Adiponectin: Regulate glucose, Fat oxidation, Ghrelin AMPK Phosphorylation HMGR- 3 Hydroxyl-3- Methyl glutaryl reductase Cholesterol, Liver Steatosis and Insulin resistance 53 Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein
  • 54. Conclusion  Beverage containing CGA lead to a significant increase in the postprandial fat utilization and energy expenditure of healthy individuals.  These effects are mediated by the suppression of SREBP (Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein) gene, which regulates the Cholesterol synthesis in the liver.  CGA proves to decrease the HMGR- 3 Hydroxyl-3- Methylglutaryl co- enzyme A reductase and thus in turn reduces the storage of excess fat by increasing the Insulin sensitivity. 54
  • 55. 55 Effects of ingestion of Chlorogenic acids on sleep architecture and energy metabolism : a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded cross-over trial To determine the effects of CGA ingestion over 5 days on energy metabolism and sleep quality in humans. Objective Insung et al., 2017 Bri. J. of Nutri.
  • 56. Material and Methods 56 9 healthy subjects (4 male and 5 female) (Age25year) Placebo control (n=4) Test beverage containing 600 mg of CGA for 5 days On the fifth night, subjects stayed in a whole-room metabolic chamber to measure energy metabolism Evaluated the sleep by using Polysomnographic recording 100ml CGA was consumed 10 min before bed time Subjects ingested specified meals for breakfast, lunch and dinner 15 E% protein, 25 E% fat and 60 E% carbohydrates Energy distribution was 30 E% for breakfast, 30 E% for lunch and 40 E% for dinner
  • 57. 57
  • 58. 58 Table 1. Anthropometric variables before and after ingestion of CGA and placebo beverage Initial After 5 days Body weight (kg) Placebo group 63.90 64.00 CGA group 62.90 63.30 BMI (kg/m2) Placebo group 21.80 22.10 CGA group 21.70 21.90 Body fat (%) Placebo group 24.60 25.10 CGA group 23.80 24.60
  • 59. 59 Table 2. Sleep Architecture Parameters Control CGA Total bedtime (min) 480.00 480.00 Total sleep time (min) 436.00 444.20 Wakefulness (min) 27.90 26.70 Sleep latency (min) 15.60 08.70 Sleep efficiency (%) 90.90 92.50 Stage 1 (min) 58.40 56.70 Stage 2 (min) 274.10 279.80 SWS (min) 15.70 19.20 REM sleep (min) 87.80 88.30 8hr 44min 14 min 94min 4.4hr 32 min 1.47hr 1.54hr 7.4hr
  • 60. 60 Fig. 1. Sympathetic (a) and Parasympathetic (b) nervous system activities during calorimetry after 5 d of ingestion of the chlorogenic acids and placebo beverage Chlorogenic acids beverage (●) Placebo beverage (○)
  • 61. 61 Fig. 2. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during sleep after 5 d of ingestion of the chlorogenic acids and placebo beverage. Chlorogenic acids beverage (■) Placebo beverage (□) Energy metabolism was measured for 16 h (from 3 h before bedtime on the 5th day to 5 h after waking the next morning)
  • 62. 62 Consumption of CGA significantly increased the fat oxidation during sleep. Ingestion of CGA proved to increase parasympathetic activity during sleep. CGA stimulated fat oxidation without an adverse effect on sleep architecture; rather, it shortened sleep latency. Conclusion
  • 63. Fatemeh et al., 2017 Asia. Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 63 Energy restriction combined with Green coffee bean extract affects serum adipocytokines and the body composition in obese women To evaluate the efficacy of green coffee bean extract combined with an energy-restricted diet on the body composition and serum adipocytokines in obese women. Objective
  • 64. Material and Methods 64 8 weeks 64 obese women (20–45 years ) 2 groups Intervention group (400 mg GCBE capsule) Control group (Placebo 400mg of Starch) All participants were on an energy-restricted diet Body composition, Leptin, Adiponectin, Lipid profile, Free fatty acids (FFAs) and fasting blood sugar 25% Energy restriction 15% Protein 55% CHO 30% Fat
  • 65. 65 Table 1. Anthropometric characteristics of the study population Parameters Placebo group Green coffee group Weight (kg) Week 0 12.43 11.98 Week 8 12.16 10.40 BMI (kg/m2) Week 0 4.96 4.37 Week 8 4.84 3.89 Fat mass (kg) Week 0 4.07 4.27 Week 8 4.74 3.75 FMI (kg/m2) Week 0 3.69 3.23 Week 8 3.23 3.23 WHR Week 0 0.20 0.08 Week 8 0.04 0.02 Visceral fat Week 0 0.50 0.30 Week 8 0.33 0.13 NS
  • 66. 66 Table 2. Effect of GCBE on FBS, Fasting insulin and lipid profile in the study population Parameters Placebo group Green coffee group FBS (mg/dL) Week 0 5.63 5.83 Week 8 5.08 5.56 Fasting Insulin(µm/mL) Week 0 0.71 0.68 Week 8 0.70 0.67 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) Week 0 13.50 14.06 Week 8 12.58 10.53 LDL (mg/dL) Week 0 9.24 10.71 Week 8 7.79 03.62 HDL (mg/dL) Week 0 1.47 1.61 Week 8 1.02 1.45 TG (mg/dL) Week 0 26.52 33.99 Week 8 25.73 31.25
  • 67. 67 Table 3. Effect of Green coffee bean extract on Leptin and Adiponectin Variable Placebo group Green coffee group Leptin (ng/mL) Week 0 9.05 8.06 Week 8 7.32 8.31 Adiponectin(µg/mL) Week 0 1.05 1.07 Week 8 2.03 1.03
  • 68. Conclusion  Energy restriction combined with GCBE may effectively reduce the BMI, FMI, total cholesterol and LDL and also alter serum adipocytokines.  The presence of Chlorogenic acid in green coffee bean extract reduced the weight effectively in obese people. 68
  • 69. 69 Abdulrahim , 2017 J.of Chem. & Pharma. Res. Objective Effect of Orlistat Drug and Green Coffee in Body Weight of Hypercholesterolemia Male Albino Rats To determine the effect of Orlistat drug and Green coffee in the body weight and lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemia rats.
  • 70. Material and Methods 70 40 male Albino rats (190-210g)  Control - normal diet  Control rats fed with high fat diet  Rats fed with high fat diet - 4 mg/kg bw/day Orlistat  Rats fed with high fat diet - 2.5 g/kg bw/day Green Coffee (powder) Blood was collected from all groups at zero time and after 4 weeks After 4 weeks. n=10 Plasma glucose and lipid profile levels and Body weight was measured
  • 71. 71 Table 1: Initial and final body weight in study groups Study groups Body weight (kg) Percentage At zero time After 4 weeks Control rats (Normal diet) 172 225 24% Control rats (HFD) 193 320 40% Green coffee (HFD) 184 233 22% Orlistat (HFD) 190 213 11%
  • 72. 72 Table 2: Plasma glucose and lipid profile levels of different high fat diet groups Parameters Control rats (Normal diet) At zero time Orlistat after 4 weeks Percentage Green coffee after 4 weeks Percentage Cholesterol (mg/dl) 183 133 28% 148 20% Triglyceride (mg/dl) 196 155 21% 139 30% LDL (mg/dl) 64 46 29% 53 18% HDL (mg/dl) 26 39 34% 41 37% Glucose (mg/dl) 316 285 10% 263 17%
  • 73.  Both the Green Coffee and Orlistat drug reduced the body weight and lipid profile in Hypercholesterolemic rats.  Ingestion of GCBE significantly reduced the HDL content due to the presence of polyphenolic substance called CGA than in Orlistat drug. 73 Conclusion
  • 74. Summary  Obesity has been emerged as a most epidemic health problem, which causes other health complexes such as Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases, Hypertension and Cancer etc.  In this context a natural phytochemical present highly in Green coffee called Chlorogenic acid (CGA), belongs to the family Caffeoylic Acid has got considerable media attention as an effective antiobesity agent.  The different scientific evidences on CGA proves its anti-inflammation, antioxidant, anti hypertensive, anti diabetic and antimicrobial properties.  Administration of CGA inhibited hepatic G6Pase expression and activity, reduces hepatic steatosis, improved lipid profiles and skeletal muscle glucose uptake.  CGA up regulates AMPK (Adenosine Monophosphate Protein Kinase) pathway and suppress the hepatic glucose production and fatty acid synthesis, thereby reduces body weight. 74
  • 75. Cont ….  Hypocholesterolemic effect of CGA leads to Atheroscleroprotective, Cardioprotective and Hepatoprotective acticity by increasing the Adiponectin and Fat oxidation.  The Hypocholesterolemic effect of CGA are probably due to the increase in fatty acids unitization in liver through the up regulation of PPAR (Peroxisome proliferation Activator Receptor) gene expression.  CGA oxidizes more fat by supressing SREBP (Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein) gene, which regulates the Cholesterol synthesis in the liver.  Ingestion of CGA stimulated fat oxidation without an adverse effect on sleep quality; rather, it shortened sleep latency.  Both the Green Coffee and Orlistat drug reduced the body weight and lipid profile in Hypercholesterolemic rats.  The presence of Chlorogenic acid in green coffee bean extract reduced the weight effectively in obese people. 75
  • 76.
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