2. • The term diagnosis has been taken from
• Difficulties in learning occur at all levels and
among pupils of both high and low mental
• Like a doctor, teacher uses similar techniques to
diagnose the relative strength and weaknesses
of pupil in specific area of study, analyse the
causes for the same and then gives remedial
measures as per necessity.
• It is corrective in nature.
• It pinpoints the specific type of error each
pupil is making and searches for
underlying cause of problem.
• It is more comprehensive.
• It can be done by constant observation of
pupils,analysis of performance,
achievement test ,analysis of cumulative
record and anecdotal records
• The diagnostic test takes off where
formative test leaves off
• It is a means by which an individual profile
is examined and compared under certain
norms or criteria.
• It is more intensive and act as a tool for
analysis of learning difficulties.
• It is more limited to low ability students.
• It can be conducted by observing the pupil’s participation
in class room activities, peer relationship’ independent
• By taking physical and health records about vision,
hearing etc. and family background.
• By interviewing pupil to know the problem and their
• By parent conference.
• By clinic guide like vision tester, audio-meter etc.,
consultation with doctor ,counselors, psychologists.
• By developing strong motivation, token economy.
6. Criterion- referenced evaluation
• A criterion-referenced test is used to ascertain
an individual’s status with respect to a defined
• It is concerned with the performance of an
individual in terms of what he can do or the
behaviour he can demonstrate.
• In this evaluation there is a reference to a
criterion but there is no reference to the
performance of other individuals in the group.
• In it we refer an individual’s performance to a
predetermined criterion which is well defined.
• It is objective based test.
• It includes the entire terminal behaviour that is
supposed to be shaped through the
• It is not the test of grading the students rather it
is a test designed to measure the extent to
which students have mastered their learning
8. Norm- referenced evaluation-
• A norm referenced evaluation test is used
to ascertain an individual’s status with
respect to the performance of other
individual on that test.
• Here measurement act relates to some
norm, group or a typical performance.
• It is an attempt to interpret the result in
terms of the performance of certain group
• It is used by teachers to differentiate and
classify among students of some defined
group like age or grade.
• In it comparison of students is relative
rather than absolute.
It is used for
• discriminating students who have different
• Classifying the students for the purpose of
selection in some course
• As a guideline for students
• Promoting the students in higher class
• The selection of employees by the employers
• Counsellors and guidance workers
• Teachers to rank the students