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Basics of Interaction Design & Strategy - 4/11/15

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Basics of Interaction Design & Strategy - 4/11/15

  1. 1. Basics of Interaction Design and Strategy School of Visual Arts | April 12, 2015 Robert Stribley
  2. 2. Today’s presentation will be available on SlideShare following the workshop: www.slideshare.net/stribs
  3. 3. Robert Stribley @stribs Introduction My clients have included: • Bank of America, PNC, Wachovia • Citibank, JPMorgan, Morgan Stanley, Oppenheimer Funds, Prudential, Smith Barney, T. Rowe Price • Boston Scientific, Nasonex • Choice Hotels, RCI, Sotheby’s International Realty • Computer Associates, EMC • Ford, Lincoln • FreshDirect • AT&T, Nextel • Day One, Red Cross, Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum • Pearson, Travel Channel, Women’s Wear Daily
  4. 4. About You • What’s your name? • What do you do for work? • What do you do for fun? • If you could see one museum exhibit, what would it be? Introduction
  5. 5. Goals of this workshop • Learn about particular user experience principles in detail • Learn about principles for responsive design in detail • Learn about the value of creating user journeys and create a detailed user journey as a team • Brainstorm and design a responsive home page as a team • Brainstorm and design a mobile app experience as a team Introduction
  6. 6. Agenda
  7. 7. Morning • UX Principles • Grids • Project • User Journeys • Lunch Agenda
  8. 8. Afternoon • Site Map • Responsive Design • Team Exercise: Responsive Home Page • Team Exercise: Mobile App • Review & Feedback • Good Design • Q&A Agenda
  9. 9. UX Principles
  10. 10. Scent of information Progressive disclosure Information clustering & hierarchy Remove paths not taken Tyranny of consistency There is no fold Death of the homepage Know your audience UX Principles
  11. 11. Everything Is Important NOT
  12. 12. Scent of Information 1
  13. 13. 3 Clicks? A myth Designing for scent is more successful than designing for navigation. – Jared Spool, UIE If there is a scientific basis to the Three- Click Rule, we couldn't find it in our data. - User Interface Engineering, April 2003
  14. 14. 3 Clicks? A myth Self Study “Designing for the scent of information” - Jared M. Spool, Christine Perfetti & David Brittan, User Interface Engineering
  15. 15. Progressive Disclosure 2
  16. 16. Tease users. Then draw them to the details.
  17. 17. “Progressive disclosure defers advanced or rarely used features to a secondary screen, making applications easier to learn and less error-prone.” -Jakob NielsenSelf Study “Progressive Disclosure” - Jakob Nielsen, December 4, 2006
  18. 18. Self Study “Progressive Disclosure” – Jennifer Tildwell Progressive disclosure with menus and form design
  19. 19. Information Clustering & Hierarchy Lustmord Table by Jenny Holzer, 1994 3
  20. 20. “Designers can create normalcy out of chaos; they can clearly communicate ideas through the organizing and manipulating of words and pictures.” —Jeffery Veen, The Art and Science of Web Design
  21. 21. When information is clustered appropriately on a screen, users can scan and quickly come to terms with the intent of the content.
  22. 22. 1. Group features and content by type
  23. 23. 1. Group features and content by type 2. Position them according to an intuitive hierarchy
  24. 24. 1. Group features and content by type 2. Position them according to an intuitive hierarchy 3. Drop or demote the less important content
  25. 25. Example Screenshot
  26. 26. Remove Paths Not Taken 4
  27. 27. Reduce the field of view Once users commit to a path, remove irrelevant navigation
  28. 28. Example Screenshot
  29. 29. The Tyranny of Consistency 5
  30. 30. Consistency is an important but sometimes over-rated tool It’s key in maintaining a coherent experience But develop an eye to know when to break from it
  31. 31. Design pages so they're scalable Suppress modules or sections of the page until they're needed Don’t labor to create content just to ensure every page is "consistently" populated
  32. 32. Death of the Home Page 6
  33. 33. People may come to your homepage But more and more likely not They’re more likely coming from Google or social media Many sites report only 20% of visitors landing on their homepages Some as few as 10 or 5% • 88% of traffic coming to The Atlantic not hitting home page • More than 50% of visitors to the NYT not arriving at the home page Have you ever bought a book on Amazon.com because you saw it on the homepage?
  34. 34. More Important? • SEO* • Taxonomy • Meta data • Tagging *search engine optimization
  35. 35. Example Screenshot
  36. 36. There is no fold 7
  37. 37. iamthefold.com
  38. 38. “Web users spend 80% of their time looking at information above the page fold. Although users do scroll, they allocate only 20% of their attention below the fold.” - Jakob Nielsen, “Scrolling and Attention,” March 22, 2010
  39. 39. “People will look very far down a page if (a) the layout encourages scanning, and (b) the initially viewable information makes them believe that it will be worth their time to scroll. Finally, while placing the most important stuff on top, don't forget to put a nice morsel at the very bottom.” - Jakob Nielsen, “Scrolling and Attention,” March 22, 2010
  40. 40. Know Your Audience 8
  41. 41. Consider the amount of attention an audience needs on a particular screen* *It may be zero
  42. 42. Recapping: •Scent of Information •Progressive Disclosure •Information Clustering & Hierarchy •Remove Paths Not Taken •The Tyranny of Consistency •Death of the Home Page •There Is No Fold •Know Your Audience
  43. 43. Grids
  44. 44. “To me, using grids is very much like alphabetizing things… sooner or later, you realize that the alphabet is an incredibly useful organizing principle.” – Khoi Vinh, former design Director, NYTimes.com Grids
  45. 45. “The true benefit of using a grid is that as you learn how to use a grid, you start to think systemically about the solutions you design. You start to try and see how various details can echo one another, how different regions of the canvas can be reused or used for similar things, how like elements can be grouped together.” – Khoi Vinh Grids
  46. 46. More about designing with grids: 960 Grid System 960.gs Design by Grid www.designbygrid.com Hashgrid www.hashgrid.com Grids
  47. 47. Our Project
  48. 48. Develop a museum experience for MOMA which utilizes both a responsive desktop design and a mobile app experience, so users can engage with it both at home on their desktop computer in preparation for their trip and during their visit via mobile app. Our Project
  49. 49. Guidelines • Since the responsive website will display on a mobile phone, the app must not simply repeat the website content • Thought should be given specifically to how the app can help visitors during their onsite visit, but provide some value to users before and after their trip, too • Visitors will have comprehensive access to Wi-Fi throughout the entire museum space Our Project
  50. 50. Personas Our Project
  51. 51. Competitive Review
  52. 52. Key Findings • Ability to highlight multiple exhibits • Access to collections • Display of upcoming events • Focus on membership • Visitor information • Learning and education information • Ability to view different locations • Anything else? • Any key differentiators? Competitive Review
  53. 53. User Journeys
  54. 54. User Journeys “Design is all about entrances and exits.” - Rem Koolhaas
  55. 55. User Journeys Definition: “A user journey, or journey map, visualizes a path or flow through a Web site, application, or service experience—from a starting point to an end objective—based on the user’s motivations and experiences. Journey mapping helps us to create a mental model of an experience that the user goes through to achieve a goal. This valuable information lets us document and visualize existing paths that the user takes and, in turn, analyze and improve upon them.” - Shean Malik, Mapping User Journeys Using Visual Languages
  56. 56. User Journeys Methodology: • Keep developed personas in mind • Determine users’ primary needs • Consider their pain points as well • Brainstorm different ways to help their needs and address their pain points • Develop a journey according to a time-based progression • Consider how various moments in their, which can be handled digitally • Create relevant hooks and calls to action (CTAs) • Strike a balance between freedom of movement and an ideal path Self Study “An introduction to user journeys” - Jason Hobbs, September 6, 2005, Boxes & Arrows
  57. 57. User Journeys
  58. 58. User Journeys
  59. 59. Class Exercise: Develop a user journey. • Divide into teams. • Discuss what you expect a typical user to do … – At home – At the museum – With a specific exhibit – Back home • Develop a high-level diagram, which depicts a single journey • Incorporate features applicable to all 3 personas User Journeys 20min s
  60. 60. Features Identified Let’s discuss some of the features your team identified. User Journeys
  61. 61. Lunch Break
  62. 62. Afternoon • Site Map • Responsive Design • Team Exercise: Responsive Home Page • Team Exercise: MoMA app Design • Team Presentations • Good Design • Q&A Agenda
  63. 63. Create a Site Map
  64. 64. Simple site map illustration Site Map
  65. 65. Class Exercise: Develop 2 high-level site maps based on the features you discovered in your user journey, plus any additional content needed to flesh out the experience. • One for the MoMA web site • One for the MoMA mobile app Site Map 20min s
  66. 66. Review Site Maps Let’s review your site maps Site Map
  67. 67. Responsive Design
  68. 68. Responsive Web Design “Rather than tailoring disconnected designs to each of an ever- increasing number of web devices, we can treat them as facets of the same experience. We can design for an optimal viewing experience, but embed standards-based technologies into our designs to make them not only more flexible, but more adaptive to the media that renders them. In short, we need to practice responsive web design.” – Ethan Marcotte, Responsive Web Design, A List Apart Self Study Ethan Marcotte: Responsive Web Design Responsive Design
  69. 69. Responsive Design Characteristics • Mobile first • Break points • Grids • Handling navigation • Handling tables • Maintain content and features • Maintain hierarchies • Images • Text • Dropping content or features Responsive Design
  70. 70. Mobile First • Design for “mobile first” – the smallest device first, then work up from there • Smallest device may no longer be a mobile phone • Mobile first may encourage simple design, but it need not be simplistic Responsive Design
  71. 71. Break Points • Responsive designs adjust at different “break points” corresponding to the dimensions of various devices, typically desktop, tablet and mobile • However, they’re intended to be content, not device-specific • Typically at least two: – e.g. 320px for mobile, 768px for tablet (portrait), desktop – e.g. 320px for mobile, 768px for tablet (portrait), 1280px for desktop • May also add “minor breakpoints” to address specific issues at various dimensions Responsive Design
  72. 72. Responsive Design
  73. 73. Grids • Grids are fluid within a responsive design – they change according to screen dimensions • For example, a desktop design might utilize a 12-column grid, tablet a 9-column grid, and mobile a 4-column grid • Depending on the screen, modules may shift both in size and in placement Responsive Design
  74. 74. Responsive Design
  75. 75. Responsive Design
  76. 76. Responsive Design
  77. 77. Handling Navigation • Navigation may be repositioned • Often at tablet, especially mobile • In desktop, elements of the navigation can be activated via hover instead of click, since users are utilizing a cursor; whereas in tablet and mobile, these main nav elements must be activated via touch • Design navigation to be touch friendly – e.g. large, tactile targets • Beware of the “hamburger menu” Responsive Design
  78. 78. Responsive Design
  79. 79. Responsive Design
  80. 80. Responsive Design Heavy mobile direction
  81. 81. Handling Navigation – Tabs • Tabs may just reduced in size • They can also be replaced with – Accordions – Dropdowns – Carousel slides • Consider the content to determine, which of these solutions works best Responsive Design
  82. 82. Responsive Design
  83. 83. Handling Tables • Simplest solution for handling tables with multiples columns is to reduce the number of columns (to one if necessary) and stack them in mobile. • You can also allow horizontal scrolling • Or turn columns into individual slides users can swipe through Responsive Design
  84. 84. Responsive Design
  85. 85. Responsive Design Desktop Mobile - Scrolling Mobile - Stacked
  86. 86. Responsive Design Not ideal for mobile
  87. 87. Maintain Content & Features • The goal: Wherever possible, maintain content and features across devices • Must have a strong rationale for dropping any content or features at the mobile level Responsive Design
  88. 88. Responsive Design
  89. 89. Maintain Hierarchies • Modules may be repositioned but hierarchies are maintained Responsive Design
  90. 90. Responsive Design
  91. 91. Responsive Design
  92. 92. Images • Generally, images should be “fluid” • They will scale down in size as the screen resolution changes • Additionally, they may maintain their size, but be cropped if they’re primarily decorative • In this case, images must be selected carefully so that important elements of them aren’t automatically cropped out • In some cases, if the image isn’t needed, it may be dropped entirely for mobile devices Responsive Design
  93. 93. Responsive Design
  94. 94. Responsive Design
  95. 95. Text • Text size is maintained where possible, though headings and headlines may be reduced in size • Text blocks will change in width from desktop to mobile • However, keep lines of text to a maximum of 70 or 80 characters • Do not automatically hyphenate text Responsive Design
  96. 96. Responsive Design
  97. 97. Dropping Content or Features • Whenever possible, avoid dropping content or features • Occasionally, content or features can be dropped to save screen real estate or if they’re not device appropriate • Establish a clear rationale and principles for making such changes Responsive Design
  98. 98. Responsive Design Avoid just shrinking content
  99. 99. Responsive Design Responsive Web Design by Ethan Marcotte
  100. 100. Team Exercise: Design a Responsive Home Page
  101. 101. Design a Responsive Home Page In your teams, design a responsive home page for MoMA’s web site 1) Discuss features needed for a homepage 2) Sketch your ideas for a homepage individually 3) Share your sketches with your team mates 4) Collaborate on a single home page wireframe – for both mobile and desktop Team Exercise
  102. 102. 1) Discuss features needed for a homepage Team Exercise 20min s
  103. 103. 2) Sketch your ideas for a homepage individually Team Exercise 10min s
  104. 104. 3) Share your sketches with your team mates Team Exercise 10min s
  105. 105. 4) Collaborate on a single home page wireframe – for both mobile and desktop Team Exercise 20min s
  106. 106. Team Exercise: Design a Mobile App
  107. 107. Design a Mobile App In your teams, design a mobile app for MoMA 1) Discuss features needed for the app and determine the 3 key screens you want to develop 2) Collaborate to design 3 keys screens 3) Review your work as a team to determine what changes should be made 4) Make any necessary revisions Team Exercise
  108. 108. 1) Discuss features needed for the app and determine the 3 key screens you want to develop No sketching yet! Team Exercise 30min s
  109. 109. 2) Collaborate to design 3 keys screens Team Exercise 30min s
  110. 110. Gather Your Materials If you’re finished, start collecting your app and responsive homepage wires so you can present them to the class as a team Team Exercise
  111. 111. Team Exercise: Review & Feedback
  112. 112. Good Design
  113. 113. Good design is… Good design is innovative. Good design makes a product useful. Good design is aesthetic. Good design makes a product understandable. Good design is unobtrusive. Good design is honest. Good design is long-lasting. Good design is thorough down to the last detail. Good design is environmentally friendly. Good design is as little design as possible. Dieter Rams: 10 Principles of Good Design © Dieter Rams, amended March 2003 and October 2009 Good Design
  114. 114. Q&A
  115. 115. Additional Resources Books: • Information Architecture for the World Wide Web – Louis Rosenfeld, Peter Morville • Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web – Christina Wodtke, Austin Govella • The Elements of User Experience – Jesse James Garrett • Designing Web Navigation: Optimizing the User Experience – James Kalbach, Aaron Gustafson • Design of Everyday Things – Donald Norman • Responsive Web Design – Ethan Marcotte Local Events: • IA Meetup • Brooklyn UX • Content Strategy Meetup Web Sites: • Alertbox • A List Apart • Boxes & Arrows • wireframes.tumblr.com Organizations: • Human Computer Interactions (HCI) • Interaction Designers Association (IxDA) • Usability Professionals Association (UPA) Further Studies: • School of Visual Arts • Continuing Ed classes • MFA in Interaction Design • Pratt – Course in Information Design • Rosenfeld Media • General Assembly • Skillshare • Adaptive Path • The Information Architecture Institute • The IA Summit • Nielsen Norman Group • User Interface Engineering Video: The Right Way to Wireframe by Russ Unger (YouTube)
  116. 116. Slideshare address: http://www.slideshare.net/stribs My article on how to find an IA job: http://blog.onwardsearch.com/2012/08/information-architecture-a-guerilla-guide-to-breaking-in/ @stribs

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Basics of Interaction Design and Strategy
    School of Visual Arts | Spring 2015
    Robert Stribley
    Photo by @stribs
  • Preliminaries
  • Introductions
  • Edward Hopper Sketch - Study Sketch for Morning Sun
    I enjoyed the exhibit of Hopper’s sketches at the Whitney here in New York
  • Introductions
  • Workshop goals
  • Agenda
  • Agenda - Morning
  • Agenda – Afternoon
  • UX Princples
  • UX Principles
  • Everything is not important
  • You’ve seen web sites with this malady: Everything is treated as if it’s important.
  • Uniqlo’s homepage isn’t the worst you could encounter, but I’ll show you in a moment how my colleagues at Razorfish simplified the home page experience for the U.S. site.
  • Scent of Information
  • If you were to take only one thing away with you today, it would be that the 3-click rule is bunk.
    Can actually make for a very cluttered site if you try to flatten content so it’s all available within three clicks
    Users will happily click away 5, 6, 7, 8 times without noticing, if there are clear paths to what they’re looking for, concise navigation, intuitive labels, etc.
    Background: Studies in “information foraging” in the early 90s at PARC (Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated)
    Better: a dynamic tension between reducing the number of clicks and providing strong scent to content
  • Uniqlo Site
  • Moncler
  • Self Study
    “Designing for the scent of information” - Jared M. Spool, Christine Perfetti & David Brittan, User Interface Engineering
    Also, research “information foraging” – 90s studies at PARC (Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated)
  • Progressive Disclosure
  • Reduce clutter, cognitive overload, so there’s less to process at once - Across multiple pages – or within a page or overlay
  • “Progressive Disclosure” by Jakob Nielsen, December 4, 2006
    Originated with studies in the 80s by user interface specialists Jack Carroll's lab work at IBM
  • Reduce clutter, cognitive overload, so there’s less to process at once - Across multiple pages – or within a page or overlay
  • YouTube – Minimized Nav
  • YouTube – Expanded Nav
  • Mercedes Benz product information
  • Progressive disclosure in an app – weather details
  • Information Clustering & Hierarchy
  • Jeffery Veen quote from The Art and Science of Web Design
  • When information is clustered appropriately on a screen, users can scan and quickly come to terms with the intent of the content.
  • Isn’t to say that you couldn’t have a lot of content on the page – e.g. Pinterest. But content is grouped logically, can be scanned easily.
  • Lapham’s Quarterly draws you in with a carefully constructed (and responsive) homepage, which displays stories carefully and artfully
  • Mercedes Benz
  • Remove paths not taken
  • Seems simple, but a lot of sites could benefit from adhering to this principle
  • eBay does the same: sells everything from Beanie Babies to earth moving equipment
    Razorfish design for EMC: storage hardware versus security software & services
  • The Tyranny of Consistency
  • This is a “Know it when you see it” kind of problem – sometimes tough to put a finger on
  • But be sure when you break with consistency, you do have a principle in mind for doing so
  • Found this site by searching on Worst Home Page in the World.
    Clearly, it’s trying to be all things to all people.
    Instead, it looks like a dog’s breakfast.
  • Jakob Nielsen wrote in 2002 that home pages are “the most valuable real estate in the world.”
    Sourcing: http://www.niemanlab.org/2012/08/coming-in-the-side-door-the-value-of-homepages-is-shifting-from-traffic-driver-to-brand/
    88% of traffic coming to The Atlantic not hitting home page
    More than 50% of visitors to the NYT not arriving at the home page
    Have you ever bought a book on Amazon.com because you saw it on the homepage?
  • *Search engine optimization
  • Note how the site offers plenty of scent
  • There is no fold – Photo by Gavin Bell
  • There is no fold - Iamthefold.com
  • Jakob Nielsen, “Scrolling and Attention,” March 22, 2010
  • Eyetracking tests by Nielsen Norman Group - - Jakob Nielsen, “Scrolling and Attention,” March 22, 2010
  • Know Your Audience
  • Yes, your site typically has multiple audiences. But not all of them need to be addressed at once. Giving proper thought to who defines a site's audience helps clean out the chaff.

    Example: Placing find an event functionality in an area where a using is creating an event. Not necessary for that audience.
  • Recap of UX Principles
  • Grids
  • Grids
  • Grids
  • Example: NYTimes
  • Example: NYTimes
  • Example: NYTimes
  • Learn more about grids
  • Our Project
  • Project
  • Project Guidelines
  • Our Project: Personas
  • MoMA Screencaps
  • Met Screencaps
  • Guggenheim Screencaps
  • BMA Screencaps
  • Cooper Hewitt Screencaps
  • Smithsonian NASM Screencaps
  • Key Findings
  • User Journeys
  • User Journeys – Rem Koolhaas quote
  • User Journey Definition - Shean Malik, Mapping User Journeys Using Visual Languages
  • Methodology
  • Sample User Journey
  • Sample User Journey
  • Sample User Journey
    https://www.pinterest.com/daleitch/ux-cx-ui-ixd-cxux-experience-mapsjourneys-and-serv/
  • Sample User Journey
  • Class exercise – Develop a user journey
  • Features Identified
  • Lunch Break
  • Afternoon Agenda
  • Site Maps
  • Simple site map example
  • Class exercise: Develop 2 site maps
  • Review site maps
  • Responsive Design
  • Defining Responsive Web Design
  • Responsive design characteristics
  • Responsive design characteristics – Mobile First
  • Responsive design characteristics – break points
  • Image from here:
    http://www.yourinspirationweb.com/2012/10/25/responsive-design-lo-studio-del-layout-e-la-gestione-dei-contenuti/
  • Responsive design characteristics - Grids
  • Taken from Mojo Motors’ Responsive Redesign With Fireworks: UX And Interaction Design
    http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2013/08/26/mojo-motors-responsive-redesign-with-adobe-fireworks-part-1/
  • Responsive design characteristics - Grids
  • Conceptual Diagram of Bands in responsive designs
  • Responsive design characteristics – Handling Navigation
  • Responsive Design - CNN
  • The Boston Globe
  • Quartz
  • Responsive design characteristics – Handllng Navigation - Tabs
  • Responsive design characteristics – handling tabs
  • Responsive design characteristics – Handling Tables
  • Responsive design characteristics – Handling Tables
  • Handling Tables – Examples from Exis Web - http://exisweb.net/responsive-table-plugins-and-patterns
  • Handling Tables – Examples from Exis Web - http://exisweb.net/responsive-table-plugins-and-patterns – Not ideal for mobile
  • Responsive design characteristics – Content & Features
  • Tom Ford
  • Tom Ford
  • Responsive design characteristics – Maintain Hierarchies
  • http://blog.jerrynixon.com/2013/05/horizontal-screen-breakpoints-for-web.html
  • SVA MFA in Interaction Design site
  • SVA MFA in Interaction Design site
  • Responsive design characteristics - Images
  • Responsive Design – Images - Moncler
  • Responsive design characteristics – Images - Fader
  • Responsive design characteristics - Text
  • Limiting the amount of text per line on a larger screen
  • Responsive design characteristics
  • Responsive design example
  • Responsive Web Design by Ethan Marcotte
  • Team Exercise: Design a Responsive Home Page
  • Team Exercise: Design a Responsive Home Page
  • Team Exercise: Design a Responsive Home Page
  • Team Exercise: Design a Responsive Home Page
  • Team Exercise: Design a Responsive Home Page
  • Team Exercise: Design a Responsive Home Page
  • Team Exercise: Design a Mobile App
  • Team Exercise: Design a Mobile App
  • Team Exercise: Design a Mobile App
  • Team Exercise: Design a Mobile App
  • Team Exercise: Design a Mobile App
  • Team Exercise: Review & Feedback
  • Good Design – Dieter Rams – photo
  • Head of design at Braun, the German consumer electronics manufacturer, DIETER RAMS (1932-) was one of the most influential industrial designers of the late 20th century
  • Q&A
  • Additional Resources
  • Thank you!
    Slideshare address: http://www.slideshare.net/stribs
    IA Job article: http://blog.onwardsearch.com/2012/08/information-architecture-a-guerilla-guide-to-breaking-in/
    @stribs

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