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Motivation
Data on the Web
Some eyecatching opener illustrating growth and or diversity of web data




Linked Data for Open Educational Data Sharing
         and Repository Federation

                                             Stefan Dietze
                    (L3S Research Center, DE, @stefandietze, http://purl.org/dietze)




                                              Stefan Dietze                            02/04/13
Linked Data

 De-facto standard for sharing data on the Web

 Vision: well connected graph of open Web data
                                                                                     rNews
 W3C standards (RDF, SPARQL) to expose data
 Persistent URIs to interlink datasets                           Media                            Geo
                                                                 Ontology                        Ontology
                    Number of
Domain                           Triples          %        (Out-)Links %
                    datasets
Media               25            1,841,852,061   5.82 %    50,440,705     10.01 %                                   Dublin
                                                                                                                      Core
Geographic          31            6,145,532,484 19.43 %     35,812,328 DBpedia
                                                                          7.11 %
Government          49           13,315,009,400 42.09 %     19,343,519 Ontology
                                                                          3.84 %
Publications        87            2,950,720,693   9.33 % 139,925,218       27.76 %
Cross-domain        41            4,184,635,715 13.23 %     63,183,065     12.54 %
Life sciences       41            3,036,336,004   9.60 % 191,844,090   38.06 %
                                                                    FOAF                    FMA                          BIBO
User-generated
                    20             134,127,413    0.42 %     3,449,143      0.68 %         Ontology
content
                    295          31,634,213,770            503,998,829


                                                                             Gene
                                                                            Ontology

                                                                                       Source: http://lod-cloud.net/state, September 2011
Option 1: LD for integration of heterogeneous APIs & data
Use case: biomedical education in
                                   Metamorphosis+         Tailored (L)CMS plugins
                => http://metamorphosis.med.duth.gr/      => http://www.meducator3.net/




                           Data/services integration & retrieval/search APIs




                                                 ?
      Educational Web Resources
Option 1: LD for integration of heterogeneous APIs & data
   Approach:       1) On the fly queries via “SmartLink” (Linked Data registry execution engine for open APIs)
                    2) Data lifting from heterogeneous repositories using “SmartLink” API and lifting
                       specifications
                    3) Data enrichment (via DBpedia, Freebase, BioPortal) & clustering, eg to identify correlated
                       resources
   Goal: improvement of distributed (non-LD) data with public LOD vocabularies; tighter interlinking to
    provide coherent graph of educational data (across disparate stores)

        http://purl.org/smartlink                                                http://linkededucation.org/meducator

                                    Data/services integration & retrieval/search APIs   Linked Educational Resources



Schemas: OAI-DC, LOM, …
Formats: XML, JSON
Interfaces: OAI-PMH, REST, SOAP



             Educational Web Resources
Option 1: LD for integration of heterogeneous APIs & data
LD vocabularies for disambiguation & clustering
                                                                       <led:Resource-BBC-519215>
                                                                       <led:title>…virus…</led:title>
                               db:Life                                 …
                              Sciences                                 </led:Resource-BBC-519215>




                                         db:Disease
                                                                      db:Viral
               db:Human                                              Infections
           Papilloma Virus




  <led:Resource-mEducator-2139393292>                         <led:Resource-OpenLearn-2139393292>
  <led:title>Virtual patient 1002,                            <led:title>…viral…disease…</led:title>
  infections & HPV</led:title>                                …
  …                                                           </led:Resource-OpenLearn-2139393292>
  </led:Resource-mEducator-2139393292>



                                              Stefan Dietze                              08/04/13
Option 1: LD for integration of heterogeneous APIs & data
 Some issues/challenges

      On-the-fly data integration, but issues wrt:
       Annotation and description overhead: data lifting requires well-defined lifting specs for each API
       Performance: distributed queries (multiple HTTP requests), on-the fly data lifting and processing
       Scalability: decrease of query performance with increasing amount of repositories and/or data



        http://purl.org/smartlink                                                http://linkededucation.org/meducator

                                    Data/services integration & retrieval/search APIs   Linked Educational Resources



Schemas: OAI-DC, LOM, …
Formats: XML, JSON
Interfaces: OAI-PMH, REST, SOAP



             Educational Web Resources
Option 2: large-scale data harvesting and LD-ification
Linked Data for automated cross-platform integration
LD and non-LD data

                                                       Step 1 – Alignment of types/properties
                                                                       ?
                                                         <dc:title>        <akt:has-title>
                                                                OER                   VideoLecture

                      LinkedUniversities                             Publication
                      educational videos
                                                       Step 2 – Linking of resources




                                  6 million distinct (but linked) resources

                                  97 million RDF triples

                                  21.6 GB of data

                                  Schema: http://data.linkededucation.org/ns/linked-education.rdf

                                  SPARQL: http://data.linkededucation.org/request/linked-learning/sparql
                                                     Mathieu d‘Aquin, Stefan Dietze        12/03/13   7
Option 2: large-scale data harvesting and LD-ification
Linked Data for automated cross-platform integration
LD and non-LD data
      Larger scale data processing, but issues wrt:
                                                                 Step 1 – Alignment of types/properties
       Scalability and performance of data storage                              ?
                                                                   <dc:title>
        (potential solutions: applying distributed RDF storage, map/reduce etc)      <akt:has-title>
                                                                               OER                   VideoLecture
       Poor query performance (on large-scale datasets)
                                  LinkedUniversities                                Publication
         Redundant data maintenance => periodic data imports
                                  educational videos
                                                                      Step 2 – Linking of resources
       Maintenance of different identifiers (in case of non-LD sources: URIs vs internal IDs)




                                                 6 million distinct (but linked) resources

                                                 97 million RDF triples

                                                 21.6 GB of data

                                                 Schema: http://data.linkededucation.org/ns/linked-education.rdf

                                                 SPARQL: http://data.linkededucation.org/request/linked-learning/sparql
                                                                    Mathieu d‘Aquin, Stefan Dietze        12/03/13   8
Option 3: dataset cataloging and query federation
LinkedUp approach [ http://linkedup-project.eu ]
 “LinkedUp/Linked Education cloud” as (expanded) subset of LOD cloud:
  CKAN – “The DataHub” (http://datahub.io) for data collection in dedicated group “linked-education”

 Public RDF vocabulary of datasets (“Linked Education Catalog”)
  (classification of datasets according to, eg, represented types, disciplines, data quality)

 Additional integration datasets: dataset links and coreferences => providing a unified view on
  educational data => Linked Education Graph

 Infrastructure, unified (SPARQL) endpoint & APIs for distributed/federated querying


                                                                                          LinkedUp    LinkedUp
                                                   Dataset Catalog
                                                   Data Interlinking & Correlation




                                                     Educational Datasets




                                                     Stefan Dietze                                   08/04/13
http://data.linkededucation.org/linkedup/catalog/
Linked Education Cloud & Catalog
                                           http://datahub.io/group/linked-education
Option 3: dataset cataloging and query federation
   Sparse knowledge / metadata about datasets
http://datahub.io/group/linked-education


                                             http://datahub.io/dataset/lak-dataset




                                           Resource Types?

                                           Topics & disciplines?

                                           Quality & availability?
Option 3: dataset cataloging and query federation
Co-occurence of (mapped) types




                             Stefan Dietze          08/04/13
Option 3: dataset cataloging and query federation
Dataset graph (according to type co-occurence)




                             Stefan Dietze          08/04/13
Option 3: dataset cataloging and query federation
 Detection of topics and dataset DBpedia Category
                                 similarities                        Total
                                 Management                                  180
                                 Academia                                    151
 Top-ranked categories/topics
                                 Social_sciences                             131
 in Linked Education Catalog &
                                 Philosophy_of_science                       125
                 their frequency
                                 Design                                      120
                                 Sociology_index                             117
                                 Systems_science                             117
                                 Anthropology                                116
                                 Universities_and_colleges                   116
                                 Economics                                   114
                                 Scientific_method                           111
Approach                         Cognitive_science                           110
                                 Systems                                     107
 Enriching sample               Sociological_terms                          104
   resources from each           Neuropsychological_assessment               100
   dataset with DBpedia          Concepts_in_metaphysics                      96
   entities/categories           Developmental_psychology                     93
 Linking resources to LOD       Political_philosophy                         89
   entities & categories via     Cybernetics                                  88
                                 Education                                    87
                                 Philosophy_of_education                      86
                                 Arts                                         77
                                 Critical_thinking                            73
                                 Biology                                      71
                                 Political_science_termsDietze
                                                    Stefan       02/04/13     71
Summary and outlook

Summary
 Different ways of using LD for federation of OER repositories
 Linked Education data catalog (http://linkedup-project.eu,
  http://data.linkededucation.org/linkedup/catalog/): Linked Data-based catalog of open educational
  datasets (gradual addition of metadata about, eg, types, topics etc)
 On the way: exposing non-LD educational data according to LD priniciples (eg LAK dataset)


Future work
 Data interlinking: complementary dataset of links between datasets and actual data/resources
 Query federation and dedicated APIs
 Exploitation in innovative educational scenarios and applications => LinkedUp Challenge
  (http://linkedup-challenge.org)


                                             40.000 EUR price budget
                                             Large network of organisations in LD & TEL
                                             Dedicated data and support
                                             Series of affiliated events at major conferences
                                              (www2013, ESWC2013, OKCON, LAK2013…)
                                                Stefan Dietze                                    08/04/13
LAK Challenge / LA & Linked Data Tutorial
    in a nutshell
http://www.solaresearch.org/events/lak/lak-data-challenge/




                                              http://linkedu.eu/event/lak2013-linkeddata-tutorial/




                                                                 Stefan Dietze
Thank you!


                                    Contact
                    http://purl.org/dietze | @stefandietze


                              See also (general)
                          http://linkedup-project.eu
                         http://linkedup-challenge.org
                         http://linkededucation.org
                         http://linkeduniversities.org


                                See also (data)
                   http://datahub.io/group/linked-education
              http://data.linkededucation.org/linkedup/catalog /
              http://www.solaresearch.org/resources/lak-dataset/
                     http://datahub.io/dataset/meducator




                               Stefan Dietze                        08/04/13

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Linked Data for Federation of OER Data &amp; Repositories

  • 1. Motivation Data on the Web Some eyecatching opener illustrating growth and or diversity of web data Linked Data for Open Educational Data Sharing and Repository Federation Stefan Dietze (L3S Research Center, DE, @stefandietze, http://purl.org/dietze) Stefan Dietze 02/04/13
  • 2. Linked Data  De-facto standard for sharing data on the Web  Vision: well connected graph of open Web data rNews  W3C standards (RDF, SPARQL) to expose data  Persistent URIs to interlink datasets Media Geo Ontology Ontology Number of Domain Triples % (Out-)Links % datasets Media 25 1,841,852,061 5.82 % 50,440,705 10.01 % Dublin Core Geographic 31 6,145,532,484 19.43 % 35,812,328 DBpedia 7.11 % Government 49 13,315,009,400 42.09 % 19,343,519 Ontology 3.84 % Publications 87 2,950,720,693 9.33 % 139,925,218 27.76 % Cross-domain 41 4,184,635,715 13.23 % 63,183,065 12.54 % Life sciences 41 3,036,336,004 9.60 % 191,844,090 38.06 % FOAF FMA BIBO User-generated 20 134,127,413 0.42 % 3,449,143 0.68 % Ontology content 295 31,634,213,770 503,998,829 Gene Ontology Source: http://lod-cloud.net/state, September 2011
  • 3. Option 1: LD for integration of heterogeneous APIs & data Use case: biomedical education in Metamorphosis+ Tailored (L)CMS plugins => http://metamorphosis.med.duth.gr/ => http://www.meducator3.net/ Data/services integration & retrieval/search APIs ? Educational Web Resources
  • 4. Option 1: LD for integration of heterogeneous APIs & data  Approach: 1) On the fly queries via “SmartLink” (Linked Data registry execution engine for open APIs) 2) Data lifting from heterogeneous repositories using “SmartLink” API and lifting specifications 3) Data enrichment (via DBpedia, Freebase, BioPortal) & clustering, eg to identify correlated resources  Goal: improvement of distributed (non-LD) data with public LOD vocabularies; tighter interlinking to provide coherent graph of educational data (across disparate stores) http://purl.org/smartlink  http://linkededucation.org/meducator Data/services integration & retrieval/search APIs Linked Educational Resources Schemas: OAI-DC, LOM, … Formats: XML, JSON Interfaces: OAI-PMH, REST, SOAP Educational Web Resources
  • 5. Option 1: LD for integration of heterogeneous APIs & data LD vocabularies for disambiguation & clustering <led:Resource-BBC-519215> <led:title>…virus…</led:title> db:Life … Sciences </led:Resource-BBC-519215> db:Disease db:Viral db:Human Infections Papilloma Virus <led:Resource-mEducator-2139393292> <led:Resource-OpenLearn-2139393292> <led:title>Virtual patient 1002, <led:title>…viral…disease…</led:title> infections & HPV</led:title> … … </led:Resource-OpenLearn-2139393292> </led:Resource-mEducator-2139393292> Stefan Dietze 08/04/13
  • 6. Option 1: LD for integration of heterogeneous APIs & data Some issues/challenges On-the-fly data integration, but issues wrt:  Annotation and description overhead: data lifting requires well-defined lifting specs for each API  Performance: distributed queries (multiple HTTP requests), on-the fly data lifting and processing  Scalability: decrease of query performance with increasing amount of repositories and/or data http://purl.org/smartlink  http://linkededucation.org/meducator Data/services integration & retrieval/search APIs Linked Educational Resources Schemas: OAI-DC, LOM, … Formats: XML, JSON Interfaces: OAI-PMH, REST, SOAP Educational Web Resources
  • 7. Option 2: large-scale data harvesting and LD-ification Linked Data for automated cross-platform integration LD and non-LD data Step 1 – Alignment of types/properties ? <dc:title> <akt:has-title> OER VideoLecture LinkedUniversities Publication educational videos Step 2 – Linking of resources  6 million distinct (but linked) resources  97 million RDF triples  21.6 GB of data  Schema: http://data.linkededucation.org/ns/linked-education.rdf  SPARQL: http://data.linkededucation.org/request/linked-learning/sparql Mathieu d‘Aquin, Stefan Dietze 12/03/13 7
  • 8. Option 2: large-scale data harvesting and LD-ification Linked Data for automated cross-platform integration LD and non-LD data Larger scale data processing, but issues wrt: Step 1 – Alignment of types/properties  Scalability and performance of data storage ? <dc:title> (potential solutions: applying distributed RDF storage, map/reduce etc) <akt:has-title> OER VideoLecture  Poor query performance (on large-scale datasets) LinkedUniversities Publication  Redundant data maintenance => periodic data imports educational videos Step 2 – Linking of resources  Maintenance of different identifiers (in case of non-LD sources: URIs vs internal IDs)  6 million distinct (but linked) resources  97 million RDF triples  21.6 GB of data  Schema: http://data.linkededucation.org/ns/linked-education.rdf  SPARQL: http://data.linkededucation.org/request/linked-learning/sparql Mathieu d‘Aquin, Stefan Dietze 12/03/13 8
  • 9. Option 3: dataset cataloging and query federation LinkedUp approach [ http://linkedup-project.eu ]  “LinkedUp/Linked Education cloud” as (expanded) subset of LOD cloud: CKAN – “The DataHub” (http://datahub.io) for data collection in dedicated group “linked-education”  Public RDF vocabulary of datasets (“Linked Education Catalog”) (classification of datasets according to, eg, represented types, disciplines, data quality)  Additional integration datasets: dataset links and coreferences => providing a unified view on educational data => Linked Education Graph  Infrastructure, unified (SPARQL) endpoint & APIs for distributed/federated querying LinkedUp LinkedUp  Dataset Catalog  Data Interlinking & Correlation Educational Datasets Stefan Dietze 08/04/13
  • 10. http://data.linkededucation.org/linkedup/catalog/ Linked Education Cloud & Catalog http://datahub.io/group/linked-education
  • 11. Option 3: dataset cataloging and query federation Sparse knowledge / metadata about datasets http://datahub.io/group/linked-education http://datahub.io/dataset/lak-dataset Resource Types? Topics & disciplines? Quality & availability?
  • 12. Option 3: dataset cataloging and query federation Co-occurence of (mapped) types Stefan Dietze 08/04/13
  • 13. Option 3: dataset cataloging and query federation Dataset graph (according to type co-occurence) Stefan Dietze 08/04/13
  • 14. Option 3: dataset cataloging and query federation Detection of topics and dataset DBpedia Category similarities Total Management 180 Academia 151 Top-ranked categories/topics Social_sciences 131 in Linked Education Catalog & Philosophy_of_science 125 their frequency Design 120 Sociology_index 117 Systems_science 117 Anthropology 116 Universities_and_colleges 116 Economics 114 Scientific_method 111 Approach Cognitive_science 110 Systems 107  Enriching sample Sociological_terms 104 resources from each Neuropsychological_assessment 100 dataset with DBpedia Concepts_in_metaphysics 96 entities/categories Developmental_psychology 93  Linking resources to LOD Political_philosophy 89 entities & categories via Cybernetics 88 Education 87 Philosophy_of_education 86 Arts 77 Critical_thinking 73 Biology 71 Political_science_termsDietze Stefan 02/04/13 71
  • 15.
  • 16. Summary and outlook Summary  Different ways of using LD for federation of OER repositories  Linked Education data catalog (http://linkedup-project.eu, http://data.linkededucation.org/linkedup/catalog/): Linked Data-based catalog of open educational datasets (gradual addition of metadata about, eg, types, topics etc)  On the way: exposing non-LD educational data according to LD priniciples (eg LAK dataset) Future work  Data interlinking: complementary dataset of links between datasets and actual data/resources  Query federation and dedicated APIs  Exploitation in innovative educational scenarios and applications => LinkedUp Challenge (http://linkedup-challenge.org)  40.000 EUR price budget  Large network of organisations in LD & TEL  Dedicated data and support  Series of affiliated events at major conferences (www2013, ESWC2013, OKCON, LAK2013…) Stefan Dietze 08/04/13
  • 17. LAK Challenge / LA & Linked Data Tutorial in a nutshell http://www.solaresearch.org/events/lak/lak-data-challenge/ http://linkedu.eu/event/lak2013-linkeddata-tutorial/ Stefan Dietze
  • 18. Thank you! Contact  http://purl.org/dietze | @stefandietze See also (general)  http://linkedup-project.eu  http://linkedup-challenge.org http://linkededucation.org  http://linkeduniversities.org See also (data)  http://datahub.io/group/linked-education  http://data.linkededucation.org/linkedup/catalog /  http://www.solaresearch.org/resources/lak-dataset/  http://datahub.io/dataset/meducator Stefan Dietze 08/04/13