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For the Glory of the Deities, Warriors,
and Athletes
Part I
Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece
Class 08
Ancient
Greece
Beginnings of Greek Culture
c. 1100 – Collapse of Mycenaean civilization
New waves of migrations to mainland, Aegean Islands,
and coastal areas of Asia Monor
Origins of migrants not known
Brought iron culture / technology
Detail map showing some of the main centres of Greek
culture during this period.
Map marking the area dominated or colonized by the Greeks
during the middle of the 1st Millennium
Greek Civilization_ Timeline
1050-900 Proto-geometric
900-700 Geometric
(776 Olympics)
700-625 Orientalizing
625-480 Archaic
480-450 Early Classical or
Severe Style
(Transitional Period)
450-400 Mature Classical
400-325 Late Classical
325-31 Hellenistic
27 bc Roman Conquest
Greek artists sought a level of
perfection.
This led them continually improve
upon their past
accomplishments through
changes in style and approach
Periodization of Greek art reflects
the definable stages in stylistic
development rather than
political development
Beginnings of Greek Culture
All immigrants spoke some form of the same language.
Fusion of new migrants and earlier inhabitants came to be called
Greeks.
Established independent communities.
Developed into city states (polis) in the 9th & 8th centuries.
Autonomous regions having a city as the political, economic, religious,
and cultural center (Athens, Corinth, Sparta)
Depended on manufacturing & commercial skills & military might
Development of Greek Culture
7th c. BCE
Adopted two sophisticated new tools from Asia Minor
Manufacture and use of coins
Alphabetic writing
Emergence of Athens as the Most Powerful City State
Originally;
Corinth (the oldest city state) was most powerful
By 6th c. BCE;
Athens became most powerful in commerce and culture
594 BCE in Athens;
Solon was political leader. He developed judiciary,
constitutional government with a popular assembly and
council
Athens - Rise of Democracy
End of 6th c. BCE;
Representative government with every community having
its own assembly and magistrates
Assembly – all citizens participated.
All had equal right;
- to own property
- freedom of speech
- to vote
- to hold public office
- to serve army or navy
However, citizenship was elite male prerogative (privilege)
Democracy in Athens
Citizenship?
Census in 309 BC;
21,000 citizens
10,000 Foreign residents
400,000 Others (women, children, slaves)
Even though citizenship is strictly patriarchal,
the idea of rights and responsibilities was an important
new concept in governance
Warfare with Persia (490-479 BCE)
490 BC - Persians attacked Marathon
480 - Persians destroyed Athens
479 – unified Greek armies with Athenian leadership destroyed
Persian fleet at Salamis
Athens emerged as the leader of city states
After war - re-building the destroyed cities; celebrated Greek culture
Pericles rebuilt Athens. Temples on the Acropolis.
Athens’s artistic achievements unrivaled.
431- 404 : War between Athens and Sparta. Athens collapsed.
New Threats to City States
4th c. - New rival from Macedonia
359 - Philip II – Became King of Macedonia
338 - Defeated Athens; conquered other city states
336 - Philip II was assassinated
Son Alexander (21 yrs) consolidated Greek city states as a
united Greece
Lead conquest against Persia
334 - Conquered Syria and Phoenicia and occupied
331 - Conquered Egypt and founded the seaport Alexandria
326 - Reached India. Troops refused to go any further
323 - Died of fever on the way back home
Hellenistic Rulers: After Alexander
Alexander’s Empire – No consolidation of power
Generals divided the land among themselves
They were known as Hellenistic (Greek-like) rulers
They were patrons of culture
Egypt ruled by the Ptolemies became rich and powerful
Alexandria – Center of learning
Other major Hellenistic cities; Pergamon, Antioch,
Jerusalem, Athens
Flourished between 4th and 3rd centuries
Religious Beliefs & Sacred Places
War between the sky gods and earth gods (Titans or giants)
Sky gods live atop Mt. Olympus
Gods were immortal, visualized in human form, and attributed human
weaknesses and emotions
Zeus & Hera – Ruling god and goddess
Apollo – Healing, arts, & the Sun
Poseidon – Ocean, sea
Ares – War
Aphrodite – Love
Artemis – Hunting and the moon
Athena – Powerful goddess of wisdom
Sanctuaries
Places sacred to one or more gods or goddesses
Enclosed with walls
Placed one or more outdoor altars or shrines
Also had a sacred natural element such as a tree, a rock or a spring
Additional buildings added over time. Palatial home for gods.
One or more temples
Several treasuries for storing valuable offerings
Various monuments & statues
Housing for priests & visitors
Outdoor theater for ritual performances
Stadium for athletic events
Beginnings of Architecture
Earliest public buildings: Sanctuaries
Built at awe-inspiring locations
Simple rectangular structures
Made with wood, mud, and thatch (leaves)
Probably used columns and lintels
No remains
No evidence of private dwellings
Beginnings of Art
Earliest evidence of art – Pottery (vase) painting
Proto-geometric vase painting (1050-900 BC)
Use of geometric forms in painted decoration
Reduction of human and animal forms to simple
geometric forms
Technique
Painted designs with a slip and fired
The slip turned dark-brown on firing, standing out against the
orange color of the unslipped parts of the vase
Forms of Greek Pottery
Proto-geometric and Early-geometric Pottery
Attic Proto-geometric
shoulder-handled
amphora (storage jar)
Made in Athens end of
the 11th century BC.
Attic Early-Geometric
Amphora from Keramikos
ht:69.5cm 9th century BC.
NAM
Attic Geometric Jug, late 9th century BC. BM
A Lidded box(Pyxis) with a finely modelled lid handle and
intricate decoration. Geometric made in Athens ca.850
Geometric Amphora 8th Century BC.
Huge Attic Geometric Amphora.Mid 8th century BC.
ht:1.55m
Geometric Period
Dipylon Vase
c. 600 BC
Compare with Aegean
Pottery
Attic Geometric Krater - Funeral Pyre, Lamentation, Chariot
Procession and and Games afdter the middle of the 8th century
Orientalizing
style
Orientalizing
Style
This scene shows the
heavenly twins or dioscuri,
Castor, Pollux with their
dog. They are returning
from an exploit of some
kind. Signed by Exekias the
painter ca.540-530BC
Black-figure and
Red-figure
Techniques
Black-figure Technique
The other side of the Athenian Jar above from late 6th.c BC. by
Exekias (The dioscuri). Here the scene is Achilles and Ajax playing
dice.
Ajax playing dice.
A Closer detail of Achilles and Ajax
Red-figure Technique
Red-figure Attic cup
or Kylix by the
Painter Epiktetos.
The scenes include
Theseus slaying the
Minotaur, ca.520BC
Diam 11.
Andokides Painter.
From an red-figure
amphora: Herakles
and the two-
headed dog
Cerberus.
ht:58.6cm.
ca.510BC
A Museum Case of Funeral Lekythoi: figure painting on a
white ground.
An oil or perfume
flask in the form of
a kneeling boy
binding a victory
ribbon around his
head. ca.540-530BC
ht:10in. AMA

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Class 08 greek art-part i

  • 1. For the Glory of the Deities, Warriors, and Athletes Part I Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece Class 08
  • 3. Beginnings of Greek Culture c. 1100 – Collapse of Mycenaean civilization New waves of migrations to mainland, Aegean Islands, and coastal areas of Asia Monor Origins of migrants not known Brought iron culture / technology
  • 4. Detail map showing some of the main centres of Greek culture during this period.
  • 5. Map marking the area dominated or colonized by the Greeks during the middle of the 1st Millennium
  • 6. Greek Civilization_ Timeline 1050-900 Proto-geometric 900-700 Geometric (776 Olympics) 700-625 Orientalizing 625-480 Archaic 480-450 Early Classical or Severe Style (Transitional Period) 450-400 Mature Classical 400-325 Late Classical 325-31 Hellenistic 27 bc Roman Conquest Greek artists sought a level of perfection. This led them continually improve upon their past accomplishments through changes in style and approach Periodization of Greek art reflects the definable stages in stylistic development rather than political development
  • 7. Beginnings of Greek Culture All immigrants spoke some form of the same language. Fusion of new migrants and earlier inhabitants came to be called Greeks. Established independent communities. Developed into city states (polis) in the 9th & 8th centuries. Autonomous regions having a city as the political, economic, religious, and cultural center (Athens, Corinth, Sparta) Depended on manufacturing & commercial skills & military might
  • 8. Development of Greek Culture 7th c. BCE Adopted two sophisticated new tools from Asia Minor Manufacture and use of coins Alphabetic writing
  • 9. Emergence of Athens as the Most Powerful City State Originally; Corinth (the oldest city state) was most powerful By 6th c. BCE; Athens became most powerful in commerce and culture 594 BCE in Athens; Solon was political leader. He developed judiciary, constitutional government with a popular assembly and council
  • 10. Athens - Rise of Democracy End of 6th c. BCE; Representative government with every community having its own assembly and magistrates Assembly – all citizens participated. All had equal right; - to own property - freedom of speech - to vote - to hold public office - to serve army or navy However, citizenship was elite male prerogative (privilege)
  • 11. Democracy in Athens Citizenship? Census in 309 BC; 21,000 citizens 10,000 Foreign residents 400,000 Others (women, children, slaves) Even though citizenship is strictly patriarchal, the idea of rights and responsibilities was an important new concept in governance
  • 12. Warfare with Persia (490-479 BCE) 490 BC - Persians attacked Marathon 480 - Persians destroyed Athens 479 – unified Greek armies with Athenian leadership destroyed Persian fleet at Salamis Athens emerged as the leader of city states After war - re-building the destroyed cities; celebrated Greek culture Pericles rebuilt Athens. Temples on the Acropolis. Athens’s artistic achievements unrivaled. 431- 404 : War between Athens and Sparta. Athens collapsed.
  • 13. New Threats to City States 4th c. - New rival from Macedonia 359 - Philip II – Became King of Macedonia 338 - Defeated Athens; conquered other city states 336 - Philip II was assassinated Son Alexander (21 yrs) consolidated Greek city states as a united Greece Lead conquest against Persia 334 - Conquered Syria and Phoenicia and occupied 331 - Conquered Egypt and founded the seaport Alexandria 326 - Reached India. Troops refused to go any further 323 - Died of fever on the way back home
  • 14. Hellenistic Rulers: After Alexander Alexander’s Empire – No consolidation of power Generals divided the land among themselves They were known as Hellenistic (Greek-like) rulers They were patrons of culture Egypt ruled by the Ptolemies became rich and powerful Alexandria – Center of learning Other major Hellenistic cities; Pergamon, Antioch, Jerusalem, Athens Flourished between 4th and 3rd centuries
  • 15. Religious Beliefs & Sacred Places War between the sky gods and earth gods (Titans or giants) Sky gods live atop Mt. Olympus Gods were immortal, visualized in human form, and attributed human weaknesses and emotions Zeus & Hera – Ruling god and goddess Apollo – Healing, arts, & the Sun Poseidon – Ocean, sea Ares – War Aphrodite – Love Artemis – Hunting and the moon Athena – Powerful goddess of wisdom
  • 16. Sanctuaries Places sacred to one or more gods or goddesses Enclosed with walls Placed one or more outdoor altars or shrines Also had a sacred natural element such as a tree, a rock or a spring Additional buildings added over time. Palatial home for gods. One or more temples Several treasuries for storing valuable offerings Various monuments & statues Housing for priests & visitors Outdoor theater for ritual performances Stadium for athletic events
  • 17. Beginnings of Architecture Earliest public buildings: Sanctuaries Built at awe-inspiring locations Simple rectangular structures Made with wood, mud, and thatch (leaves) Probably used columns and lintels No remains No evidence of private dwellings
  • 18. Beginnings of Art Earliest evidence of art – Pottery (vase) painting Proto-geometric vase painting (1050-900 BC) Use of geometric forms in painted decoration Reduction of human and animal forms to simple geometric forms Technique Painted designs with a slip and fired The slip turned dark-brown on firing, standing out against the orange color of the unslipped parts of the vase
  • 19. Forms of Greek Pottery
  • 21. Attic Proto-geometric shoulder-handled amphora (storage jar) Made in Athens end of the 11th century BC.
  • 22. Attic Early-Geometric Amphora from Keramikos ht:69.5cm 9th century BC. NAM
  • 23. Attic Geometric Jug, late 9th century BC. BM
  • 24. A Lidded box(Pyxis) with a finely modelled lid handle and intricate decoration. Geometric made in Athens ca.850
  • 25. Geometric Amphora 8th Century BC.
  • 26. Huge Attic Geometric Amphora.Mid 8th century BC. ht:1.55m
  • 29. Attic Geometric Krater - Funeral Pyre, Lamentation, Chariot Procession and and Games afdter the middle of the 8th century
  • 32. This scene shows the heavenly twins or dioscuri, Castor, Pollux with their dog. They are returning from an exploit of some kind. Signed by Exekias the painter ca.540-530BC
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  • 36. The other side of the Athenian Jar above from late 6th.c BC. by Exekias (The dioscuri). Here the scene is Achilles and Ajax playing dice. Ajax playing dice. A Closer detail of Achilles and Ajax
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  • 39. Red-figure Attic cup or Kylix by the Painter Epiktetos. The scenes include Theseus slaying the Minotaur, ca.520BC Diam 11.
  • 40. Andokides Painter. From an red-figure amphora: Herakles and the two- headed dog Cerberus. ht:58.6cm. ca.510BC
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  • 43. A Museum Case of Funeral Lekythoi: figure painting on a white ground.
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  • 45. An oil or perfume flask in the form of a kneeling boy binding a victory ribbon around his head. ca.540-530BC ht:10in. AMA