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Class 08 greek art-part i

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Greek Civilization
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Class 08 greek art-part i

  1. 1. For the Glory of the Deities, Warriors, and Athletes Part I Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece Class 08
  2. 2. Ancient Greece
  3. 3. Beginnings of Greek Culture c. 1100 – Collapse of Mycenaean civilization New waves of migrations to mainland, Aegean Islands, and coastal areas of Asia Monor Origins of migrants not known Brought iron culture / technology
  4. 4. Detail map showing some of the main centres of Greek culture during this period.
  5. 5. Map marking the area dominated or colonized by the Greeks during the middle of the 1st Millennium
  6. 6. Greek Civilization_ Timeline 1050-900 Proto-geometric 900-700 Geometric (776 Olympics) 700-625 Orientalizing 625-480 Archaic 480-450 Early Classical or Severe Style (Transitional Period) 450-400 Mature Classical 400-325 Late Classical 325-31 Hellenistic 27 bc Roman Conquest Greek artists sought a level of perfection. This led them continually improve upon their past accomplishments through changes in style and approach Periodization of Greek art reflects the definable stages in stylistic development rather than political development
  7. 7. Beginnings of Greek Culture All immigrants spoke some form of the same language. Fusion of new migrants and earlier inhabitants came to be called Greeks. Established independent communities. Developed into city states (polis) in the 9th & 8th centuries. Autonomous regions having a city as the political, economic, religious, and cultural center (Athens, Corinth, Sparta) Depended on manufacturing & commercial skills & military might
  8. 8. Development of Greek Culture 7th c. BCE Adopted two sophisticated new tools from Asia Minor Manufacture and use of coins Alphabetic writing
  9. 9. Emergence of Athens as the Most Powerful City State Originally; Corinth (the oldest city state) was most powerful By 6th c. BCE; Athens became most powerful in commerce and culture 594 BCE in Athens; Solon was political leader. He developed judiciary, constitutional government with a popular assembly and council
  10. 10. Athens - Rise of Democracy End of 6th c. BCE; Representative government with every community having its own assembly and magistrates Assembly – all citizens participated. All had equal right; - to own property - freedom of speech - to vote - to hold public office - to serve army or navy However, citizenship was elite male prerogative (privilege)
  11. 11. Democracy in Athens Citizenship? Census in 309 BC; 21,000 citizens 10,000 Foreign residents 400,000 Others (women, children, slaves) Even though citizenship is strictly patriarchal, the idea of rights and responsibilities was an important new concept in governance
  12. 12. Warfare with Persia (490-479 BCE) 490 BC - Persians attacked Marathon 480 - Persians destroyed Athens 479 – unified Greek armies with Athenian leadership destroyed Persian fleet at Salamis Athens emerged as the leader of city states After war - re-building the destroyed cities; celebrated Greek culture Pericles rebuilt Athens. Temples on the Acropolis. Athens’s artistic achievements unrivaled. 431- 404 : War between Athens and Sparta. Athens collapsed.
  13. 13. New Threats to City States 4th c. - New rival from Macedonia 359 - Philip II – Became King of Macedonia 338 - Defeated Athens; conquered other city states 336 - Philip II was assassinated Son Alexander (21 yrs) consolidated Greek city states as a united Greece Lead conquest against Persia 334 - Conquered Syria and Phoenicia and occupied 331 - Conquered Egypt and founded the seaport Alexandria 326 - Reached India. Troops refused to go any further 323 - Died of fever on the way back home
  14. 14. Hellenistic Rulers: After Alexander Alexander’s Empire – No consolidation of power Generals divided the land among themselves They were known as Hellenistic (Greek-like) rulers They were patrons of culture Egypt ruled by the Ptolemies became rich and powerful Alexandria – Center of learning Other major Hellenistic cities; Pergamon, Antioch, Jerusalem, Athens Flourished between 4th and 3rd centuries
  15. 15. Religious Beliefs & Sacred Places War between the sky gods and earth gods (Titans or giants) Sky gods live atop Mt. Olympus Gods were immortal, visualized in human form, and attributed human weaknesses and emotions Zeus & Hera – Ruling god and goddess Apollo – Healing, arts, & the Sun Poseidon – Ocean, sea Ares – War Aphrodite – Love Artemis – Hunting and the moon Athena – Powerful goddess of wisdom
  16. 16. Sanctuaries Places sacred to one or more gods or goddesses Enclosed with walls Placed one or more outdoor altars or shrines Also had a sacred natural element such as a tree, a rock or a spring Additional buildings added over time. Palatial home for gods. One or more temples Several treasuries for storing valuable offerings Various monuments & statues Housing for priests & visitors Outdoor theater for ritual performances Stadium for athletic events
  17. 17. Beginnings of Architecture Earliest public buildings: Sanctuaries Built at awe-inspiring locations Simple rectangular structures Made with wood, mud, and thatch (leaves) Probably used columns and lintels No remains No evidence of private dwellings
  18. 18. Beginnings of Art Earliest evidence of art – Pottery (vase) painting Proto-geometric vase painting (1050-900 BC) Use of geometric forms in painted decoration Reduction of human and animal forms to simple geometric forms Technique Painted designs with a slip and fired The slip turned dark-brown on firing, standing out against the orange color of the unslipped parts of the vase
  19. 19. Forms of Greek Pottery
  20. 20. Proto-geometric and Early-geometric Pottery
  21. 21. Attic Proto-geometric shoulder-handled amphora (storage jar) Made in Athens end of the 11th century BC.
  22. 22. Attic Early-Geometric Amphora from Keramikos ht:69.5cm 9th century BC. NAM
  23. 23. Attic Geometric Jug, late 9th century BC. BM
  24. 24. A Lidded box(Pyxis) with a finely modelled lid handle and intricate decoration. Geometric made in Athens ca.850
  25. 25. Geometric Amphora 8th Century BC.
  26. 26. Huge Attic Geometric Amphora.Mid 8th century BC. ht:1.55m
  27. 27. Geometric Period Dipylon Vase c. 600 BC
  28. 28. Compare with Aegean Pottery
  29. 29. Attic Geometric Krater - Funeral Pyre, Lamentation, Chariot Procession and and Games afdter the middle of the 8th century
  30. 30. Orientalizing style
  31. 31. Orientalizing Style
  32. 32. This scene shows the heavenly twins or dioscuri, Castor, Pollux with their dog. They are returning from an exploit of some kind. Signed by Exekias the painter ca.540-530BC
  33. 33. Black-figure and Red-figure Techniques
  34. 34. Black-figure Technique
  35. 35. The other side of the Athenian Jar above from late 6th.c BC. by Exekias (The dioscuri). Here the scene is Achilles and Ajax playing dice. Ajax playing dice. A Closer detail of Achilles and Ajax
  36. 36. Red-figure Technique
  37. 37. Red-figure Attic cup or Kylix by the Painter Epiktetos. The scenes include Theseus slaying the Minotaur, ca.520BC Diam 11.
  38. 38. Andokides Painter. From an red-figure amphora: Herakles and the two- headed dog Cerberus. ht:58.6cm. ca.510BC
  39. 39. A Museum Case of Funeral Lekythoi: figure painting on a white ground.
  40. 40. An oil or perfume flask in the form of a kneeling boy binding a victory ribbon around his head. ca.540-530BC ht:10in. AMA