FABRIC_DESIGN_PPT_2_ppt.ppt

29. May 2023
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FABRIC_DESIGN_PPT_2_ppt.ppt

• 1. Guest lecture on FABRIC STRUCTURE AND DESIGN by Gopalakrishnan Duraisamy Quantum Textile Professional & Team Coimbatore 29 May 2023 1
• 2. PART – II TYPES OF WEAVES by Gopalakrishnan Duraisamy Quantum Textile Professional & Team Coimbatore 29 May 2023 2
• 3. 29 May 2023 3
• 4. Fundamental Weaves • Weft or warp threads must have only one warp or weft overlapping within the repeat. • The number of warp threads in a repeat must be equal to the number threads. • There are 3 kinds of fundamental weaves: • Plain • Twill • Sateen • Each weave is determined by 2 parameters: • The repeat, R of weave. • The shift, S of overlapping either vertical shift, Sx or Horizontal shift, Sy 29 May 2023 4
• 5. Plain Weave • The simplest weave where the threads interlace in alternate order and classified as balanced and unbalanced. • In trade, such terms as tabby, calico, batiste are applied to plain weave fabrics. 29 May 2023 5
• 6. Twill Weaves • The twill order of interlacing produces diagonal lines on the cloth. • The purpose is to make cloth havier, closer setting and better drapping. • The parameters: R ≥ 3 Sx = Sy = + 1 29 May 2023 6
• 7. Regular Sateen and Satin and Irregular Sateen Weaves Sateen Weaves • In pure sateen weaves the surface of the cloth consists almost entirely of weft floats. • The parameters of sateen weaves: R ≥ 5; 1 < S < (R – 1) • For regular sateen the shift (S) and repeat (R) must be expressed by prime numbers, it’s called weft face fabric. • The sateen weave is denoted by a fraction and the numerator of this fraction is equal to the repeat of weave. • The denominator is equal to the shift (Sy) of overlaps. 29 May 2023 7
• 8. Satin (Warp Face Fabric) • Usually constructed using the vertical shift (Sx). • Satin has the warp effect, and the density of warp is much higher than the density of weft. Sx=3 29 May 2023 8
• 9. Irregular Sateen • Regular sateen cannot be constructed with a repeat of four or six threads, because the repeat and shift cannot be expressed by mutually prime numbers. • It is impossible to construct the regular sateen if R = 6, because among the possible values of shift found from the formula 1 < S < (R - 1), i.e. 1 < S < 5, the number 2, 3, 4 have a common divisor with 6. • In this case, we cannot choose a constant shift, but the sateen with a variable shift can be constructed. • This sateen is called irregular sateen. • 4-shaft irregular sateen can be constructed by using the shifts 1, 2, 3, 2 as shown aside. • 6-shaft irregular sateen with constructed shifts 2, 3, 4, 4, 3, 2 as shown aside. 29 May 2023 9
• 10. Derivatives of Fundamental Weaves “Constructed by means of deriving from plain, twill and sateen weaves, and retain their structural features” 29 May 2023 10
• 11. Plain Weave Derivatives • This group of structure comprises various simple weave which are varieties of the plain weave and can be produced on two heald shafts. Warp Rep Weaves: Denoted by a fraction. The numerator shows the number of warp overlapping and the denominator, the number of weft overlapping on the same thread within repeat. Extending the plain weave vertically. 29 May 2023 11
• 12. Weft Rep Weave: Opposite to warp rep weave. Extending the plain weave horizontally. Denoted by a fraction. Sum of the fraction numerator and denominator equal to the warp repeat. 29 May 2023 12
• 13. Rug from Rep Weave 29 May 2023 13
• 14. Hopsack Weaves: Constructed by extending the plain weave both vertically and horizontally. There are 2 or more warp threads working in the same manner and 2 or more weft threads grouped in the same shed. It’s denoted by a fraction, the numerator is the number of warp overlapping, and the denominator is that of weft overlapping on each thread. The sum of the numerator and denominator shows the repeat on warp and weft. 29 May 2023 14
• 15. 29 May 2023 15
• 16. Fabric from Hopsack Weave 29 May 2023 16
• 17. Fabric from Hopsack Weave 29 May 2023 17
• 18. 29 May 2023 18
• 19. Weaves Constructed on Twill Bases • Regular twill are often used as the bases for the construction of new weaves. Reinforced Twills:  Warp overlaps are added to the single warp overlaps of the basic weft-face twill.  The simplest reinforced twill is twill 2/2 (widely used).  In producing this twill the same four shafts can be used for making the selvedges on the warp rep weave (necessary to coordinate the operation of shedding and picking mechanisms).  Retain the property of the original twill. 29 May 2023 19
• 20. Reinforced twill 2/2 (left hand twill, Sy = -1) 29 May 2023 20
• 21. Compound Twill: It is obtained in parallel construction of two or more twill weaves on the same area. The number of shafts for producing compound twill is equal to its repeat. Retain the property of the original twill. 29 May 2023 21
• 22. Fabric from compound twill 29 May 2023 22
• 23. Angled Twill Constructed by changing the sign of shift from plus to minus, after an assigned number of threads. With the change of sign, the direction of twill diagonal is also changed. To construct: i. Calculate its repeat ii. Weft repeat = Repeat of basic twill iii. Warp repeat can be determined by the formula, Rx = 2Kx - 2 Rx = repeat of warp Kx = number of warp threads after the sign of shift changes. Ryb = repeat of the basic twill Ky = no of weft threads after the sign of shit changes 29 May 2023 23
• 24.  Example: Construct the angled twill on the basis of twill 2/4. The repeat of basis twill is 6. Answer: Ry = Ryb = 6 Rx = 2Kx – 2 = 2 (6) – 2 = 10 29 May 2023 24
• 25. Diagonal Twill Construct the basic twill with an increased vertical shift (to increase the inclination angle of the diagonal changes). The increase of the shift from one to two is equivalent to the doubling of warp density (practically the shift can be accepted equal to two or three). Can be constructed into 2 cases: i. The repeat of basic twill can be divided by the increased shift. Warp repeat, Rx = R ÷ So Weft repeat, Ry = R ii. The repeat of the basic twill cannot be divided by the increased shift. 29 May 2023 25
• 26.  Example 1: Construct a diagonal weave on the basis of twill 4 . 4 . 1 , if Sx = 2. 1 . 2 . 2 Answer: Warp repeat; Rx = R ÷ Sx R = 14 = 14 ÷ 2 Sx = 2 = 7 Weft repeat; Ry = R = 14  First warp constructed according the basic twill.  Second warp constructed according to the same formula but the shift equal to two, and so on.  If the repeat of the basis twill is nit divided by the increased shift the diagonal weave will have repeat Rx = Ry = R. 29 May 2023 26
• 27.  Example 2: Construct a diagonal weave on the basis of twill 5 . 1 . 1 , if Sx= 2 1 . 2 . 1 Answer: In this case, Rx = 11 and Ry = 11 29 May 2023 27
• 28. Fabric from diagonal twill 29 May 2023 28
• 29. Shaded Twill: Represent a gradual transition from twill with weft effect to the twill with warp effect and vice-versa. Mostly used Jacquard weaving for large-pattern fabrics. The repeat on warp and weft for the shaded twill is determined by the formula; Warp repeat, Rx = Rxb (Rxb – 1) Weft repeat, Ry = Ryb Only straight draft is used. 29 May 2023 29
• 30.  Example: Construct a shaded twill weave on the transitions of shaded twill 1 to 4 . 4 1 Answer: Rx = Rxb (Rxb – 1) = 5 (5 -1) = 5 X 4 = 20 Ry = Ryb = 5 29 May 2023 30
• 31. Fabric from shaded twill 29 May 2023 31
• 32. Weaves Constructed on Sateen Bases In simple derivatives, a new design is built up by using the original sateen as the base and adding overlaps, as required to each base overlap. 29 May 2023 32
• 33. Reinforced Sateen: Similar to reinforced twill. If it is necessary to construct the reinforced sateen on the basis of simple sateen 8/5. One more overlap should be added to every overlap of the basis sateen. Widely used in cotton weaving (additional overlaps in the repeat make the fabric structure stronger). 29 May 2023 33
• 34. Shaded Sateen:  Like the shaded twill.  Shaded sateen represents a gradual transition from the sateen with weft effect to the sateen with warp effect, vice versa.  The repeat Ry and Ro of the shaded sateen is determined by the formula;  Ry = Ryb  Ro = Rob (Rob – 1)  Example: Construct a shaded sateen weave on the transitions of shaded sateen 5/3. Answer: Ry – Ryb = 5 Ro = Rob (Rob -1) = 5 (5 – 1) = 5 X 4 = 20 29 May 2023 34
• 35. THANK YOU Email: dgk.psgtech@gmail.com Mobile: +91 9600953305 29 May 2023 35