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Health 10 Q3 wk 1-4.pptx

  2. LET US KNOW For its central role in global affairs, health issues are among the priority concerns of the United Nations. It thus designated the World Health Organization to serve as the lead agency tasked to direct and coordinate with all member nations regarding leadership, supervision, technical support, and education on matters about health, which affects many countries—including the Philippines. In the 21st century, public health protection is viewed both as a shared duty and obligation. Thus, people need to understand global issues, concerns and trends that include fair access to essential healthcare and protection against multinational threats which directly or indirectly affect the health and lives of billions of people worldwide. This learning activity sheet will help you learn about different global health issues and the initiatives made to help address these problems. Readings and activities are provided to improve your understanding of health concerns and how these are treated or implemented around the world and locally.
  3. LET US REVIEW Answer these questions: 1. What are the current health issues and concerns in your community? Share and discuss these health initiatives. 2. What will the world be like if health issues and concerns are not properly addressed by peoples around the world? 3. If you are a health worker in your community, what health issues and concerns do you think should be addressed immediately? Why?
  4. LET US STUDY GLOBAL HEALTH AND THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS The term “global health” rose in popularity along with the rise of globalization. Both terms improved public awareness of vulnerabilities and shared responsibilities among people for the different injustices in the world. Ilona Kickbush (2006), director of the Global Health Program at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland states that global health pertains to various health issues, concerns, and trends which go beyond national boundaries and call for global initiatives for the protection and promotion of peoples’ health across the world. Koplan and Associates (2009) states that global health is an area for study, research and practice that prioritizes health improvement and achieving impartiality in healthcare and wellness worldwide. Beaglehole and Bonita (2010) gave a short but meaningful definition of global health: cooperative research and action of international communities to promote health for all.
  5. 8 MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS The United Nations Millennium Development Goals are eight targets that all 191 UN Member States have agreed to achieve by 2015. The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000 commits world leaders to fight discrimination against women and children, disease, hunger, poverty, illiteracy, and environmental degradation. All these goals cannot attain without addressing each and everyone. All of them influence, affect, and depend on better global health programs and policies. 1. Developing country particularly in Africa and Asia suffer from extreme poverty and hunger. Poverty and hunger lead to severe malnutrition which leads to lifelong physical and cognitive (learning and reasoning) damage and affects health, well-being, and the economy. Some key suggestions to eradicate poverty and hunger are: • Education • Promoting gender equality • Producing more jobs • Investing more in agriculture • Strengthened nutrition programs for children and infants. • Support and protection of developing and vulnerable countries during crises
  6. 2. Persons, particularly women who are educated, are more likely to seek medical care especially during pregnancy, ensuring proper nutrition for their family, adopting healthy sanitary practices, and ensuring immunization of children. As an effect, infants 2 and children have better survival rates, are healthier and better nourished. If these are attained, children who receive primary education are more likely to: • Marry and have their own families at a later stage in life. • Practice family planning and have fewer children. • Know rights, responsibilities, and civic obligations. • Seek employment and sustain personal and family needs. • Have decreased risk of getting sexually transmitted infections like HIV/AIDS. • Support and protection of developing and vulnerable countries during crises
  7. 3. Gender equality means equal representation of men and women. It implies that all gender should have equal value and treatment. Equal gender treatment empowers women and other groups creating opportunities in education, work, finances, and other aspects which improves the economy and lessen effects of financial crises. Gender equality can be achieved through: • Early childhood development intervention. • Promotion of women’s political rights and involvement. • Improved reproductive health programs and policies. • Education and integrating gender equality in school curriculum. • Improved women’s access to work and strengthened labor policies for women. • Support and protection of developing and vulnerable countries during crises.
  8. 4. Programs and policies which help reduce child mortality like improving nutritional intake, healthcare facilities and infrastructure, and other fields which improve children’s lives. Strengthening local and national health programs and policies is one way to reduce child mortality. This includes: • Immunization programs. • Assuring the survival and better health of mothers. • Improving reproductive health programs and policies. • Better nutrition program for infants, children, and mothers.
  9. 5. Improved maternal health is not only about mother’s health but also involves the health and wellness of the family. Maternal health also helps eradicate other problems like poverty, gender inequality, decreased workforce, lower birth deaths, and disability of women. Some ways to improve maternal health include: • Improved and proper nutrition of mothers. • Teaching the benefits of birth spacing and small family size. • Educating young boys and girls about the importance of maternal health. • Better and improved access to hospital care especially obstetrics-gynecology, prenatal and postnatal care.
  10. 6. Emerging and re-emerging diseases like HIV/AIDS, malaria, influenza, and other diseases affect productivity and growth of nations. Some of the effects of disease outbreak are loss of jobs, shortage in professional workers, and creating social crises. Children are the most vulnerable and are exposed to exploitation and abuse undermining their normal growth and development. Some ways to combat diseases include effective prevention, treatment and care like: • Improved housing conditions. • Increased access to anti-malarial medicines. • Promoting safer sex behavior and preventive education for all. • Promoting Tuberculosis (TB) screening of HIV/AIDS persons and • TB - Directly Observed Treatment Short (TB-DOTS) Course therapy. • Promoting the use of insecticide-treated nets to fight mosquito-borne diseases.
  11. 7. Investing and supporting sustainable energy like solar, wind and water energy help support jobs, create business opportunities, and save remaining non-renewable energy sources. Environmental sustainability assures peoples to live healthier and enjoy a clean and green environment. Some of the benefits of a sustainable environment are: • Cleaner air and environment. • Clean, environment-friendly, and renewable energy. • New and aspiring jobs and business in energy. • Increased access to sanitation.
  12. 8. The United Nations, World Health Organization, World Bank, and governments work together to make sure there is fair trade and that heavily indebted countries obtain relief and funds to combat poverty, malnutrition and funds for education and social projects. Some benefits of global partnership are: • Expanded international trade agreements. • Improved access to affordable medicine. • Reduced poverty through government debt relief grant. • Developed information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure.
  13. GLOBAL HEALTH INITIATIVES One of the benefits of globalization to the world is the development and improvement of various health initiatives initiated by different nations and governments to address health issues and concerns. Global health initiatives are programs set in motion by the United Nations through the World Health Organization and in partnership with the World Bank which targets specific health problems including but not limited to emerging and re-emerging diseases, climate change, environmental sanitation, mental health, tobacco regulation, and alcohol use. THE GLOBAL FIGHT AGAINST COMMUNICABLE DISEASES 1. Roll Back Malaria is a global effort to reduce the number of deaths from malaria infection through heightened prevention tools, rapid response to outbreaks, development of new anti-malarial products, and effective treatment of the infection. Specific objective: a. To enable and to increase the capacity of caregivers to recognize malaria promptly and take early appropriate action. b. To empower service providers by imparting adequate knowledge, skill and capacity which enable them to respond to malaria illness appropriately. c. To create an enabling environment for implementation.
  14. 2. Stop TB is a global effort to prevent further transmission of tuberculosis or TB around the world. One of the programs for Stop TB is the implementation of the TB-DOTS short-course strategy. Objectives: a. To achieve universal access to high-quality diagnosis and patient-centered treatment. b. b. To reduce the suffering and socio-economic burden associated with TB. c. c. To protect poor and vulnerable populations from TB, TB/HIV and multi drugresistant – TB (MDR-TB). d. To support development of new tools and enable their timely and effective use. 3. The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization is a global strategy which aims to strengthen children’s immunization programs and introduce new generation of licensed vaccines into use in developing countries across the globe. These new vaccines which could help reduce the number of deaths in children aged 5 years old and below includes: a. Hepatitis B vaccine b. b. Childhood meningitis vaccine c. c. Yellow fever vaccine d. d. Influenza vaccine e. e. Vaccine for pneumonia
  15. 4. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria is a funding project rather than an initiative. Nevertheless, it helps in the prevention, reduction, and mitigation of the negative impacts of the three diseases to humanity which contributes to the fulfillment of the Millennium Development Goals. Global Prevention and Control of Tobacco and Alcohol Use WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is the prime international treaty negotiated under WHO. The WHO FCTC came into existence in reaction to the global epidemic of tobacco use and abuse. It reaffirms the right of every individual across the world to the highest standard of health promoting public health and providing new legal means for global health cooperation. The following summarizes the WHO FCTC provisions: 1. Price and tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco, and 2. Non-price measures to reduce the demand for tobacco, namely: • Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke. • Regulation of the contents of tobacco products. • Regulation of tobacco product disclosures. • New packaging and labeling of tobacco products. • Education, communication, training, and public awareness. • Demand reduction measures concerning tobacco dependence and cessation; and • Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship.
  16. Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. The Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol recognizes the close ties between the harmful use of alcohol and the socio-economic development of a nation. Likewise, this strategy builds and supports other global health initiatives like the global strategy for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases. The Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases is a global action plan to prevent and control the following non-communicable diseases: cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, cancers, and diabetes and the four shared risk factors: unhealthy eating, physical inactivity, tobacco use and alcohol use. Objectives of the Action Plan: 1. To raise the priority accorded to non-communicable disease at global and national levels and to integrate prevention and control of such diseases into policies across all governments. 2. To establish and strengthen national policies and plans for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. 3. To promote interventions to reduce the main shared but preventable risk factors for non-communicable diseases: unhealthy eating, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and harmful use of alcohol. 4. To promote research for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.
  17. 5. To promote partnerships for the prevention and control of non -communicable diseases. 6. To monitor non-communicable diseases and their causal factors and evaluate progress at the local, national, and global levels. Global Initiative for Mental Health Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 The “Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan 2013- 2020” is the result of extensive research and consultations by stakeholders, member nations, academic and non- government centers across the globe. The mental health action plan should be impartial, life-based, and preventive in nature. It basically addresses the following: • To fight and alleviate negative trends in mental health. • To improve and make mental health services and care accessible, and • To prevent abuse of rights and unjust treatment against people with mental problems, disorders, and disabilities which are still prevalent around the world.
  18. LET US PRACTICE ACTIVITY NO. 1 - ISSUES, CONCERNS, AND TRENDS (ICT) Write in each box the different health issues, concerns and trends encountered around the world. These issues concerns and trends may have not been mentioned in the readings but should also be addressed by international and national communities. Add more boxes if needed. GLOBAL HEALTH ISSUES, CONCERNS AND TRENDS
  19. LET US REMEMBER ACTIVITY NO. 2 Read and finish the statement base on the lesson learned and write your answer on the space provided. 1. I learned that _____________________________________________________________ 2. In my opinion _____________________________________________________________ 3. I plan to __________________________________________________________________ 4. I am happy that ___________________________________________________________ 5. I was surprised that________________________________________________________
  20. LET US APPRECIATE ACTIVITY NO. 3 - PRESENT AND FUTURE Think of the present status of these global health issues and concerns. Write these in the Present column. Predict what will happen if these global health issues and concerns are properly addressed by different nations. Write these in the Future column. PRESENT GLOBAL HEALTH ISSUES AND CONCERNS FUTURE Communicable Diseases Tobacco and Alcohol Use Mental Health
  21. LET US PRACTICE MORE ACTIVITY NO. 4 – RELATED ARTICLES Search for at least two related articles or case studies about different global health issues, concerns and trends. Paste these in the activity sheet or notebook. Use these guide questions: 1. Should the health issues, concerns, and trends you have gathered deserved to be addressed by international and national government? Why? 2. Rate the top 10 health issues, concerns and trends with 1 as the highest priority. Explain your opinion on its urgency. 3. What do you think are reasons these health initiatives are difficult to implement worldwide? Explain. 4. If you are to implement a health initiative in your community, which would you initiate and why? Discuss the ways you would organize and finance the program.