2. What Is Genre?
Genre is a French word, pronounced as “Jon-Dra”.
It is the term for any category of literature or other forms of art or
entertainment, e.g. music, whether written or spoken, audio or
visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria.
Genres are formed by conventions that change over time as new
genres are invented and the use of old ones are discontinued.
Often, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and
recombining these conventions.
3. Classification of Genres
Genre classification is the process of grouping objects together
based on defined similarities such as subject, format, style, or
There are 4 Main Genres. i.e. Literary, Film and Television, video
games, and music genres.
These 4 Genres further divides into sub-genres like Action,
Adventure, Comedy, Crime, Fantasy, Horror, Romance, Sci-fiction,
Thriller, and many more.
4. Genres are further divided into Sub-
Biopic films – sub-genre of the larger drama and epic film genres,
Chick-Flicks or gal films – mostly include romantic comedies,
fantasy-action adventures, family crisis and women’s issues,
Detective & Mystery films – sub-genres of crime/gangster films or
Disaster films – sub-genre of action films,
Fantasy films– usually considered a sub-genre, are most likely to
overlap with the film genres of science fiction and horror e.g. super-
Guy-Films – Composed of macho films that are often packed with
sophomoric humor, action, cartoon violence, competition, mean-
spirited putdowns and gratuitous nudity and sex.
Supernatural films – a sub-genre of comedy, sci-fi, fantasy or horror.
5. CODES & CONVENTIONS.
All genres have some similar features through which we recognize
Codes and conventions – are responses to what the industry believed
the consumers / audience wanted. Codes and conventions in film
industry were used to insure maximum pleasure or engagement of
audience in relation to the film narrative.
Codes and conventions differ with film industry. Hollywood & Bollywood
film industry follows the codes and conventions for the same genre in a
different way. For example Hollywood films are realistic, they usually
follow the genre & theme in a simple way where as Bollywood films are
more exaggerated and they add more “spice” because their
audience prefer to see such films so they need to keep the wishes of
their targeted audience in their mind.
In normal viewing we experience simultaneously a number of codes
which all comes under the MISEN SCENE. Mis en scene is a French word.
It literally means “put in the scene”. It refers to almost everything that
goes into the shot: Settings, Props, Costumes, Performance and
Movement, Lightning, Camera and Camera Movement, Editing, Sound
6. Genre: Drama
The purpose of a dramatic storyline is to move the audience
emotionally. Drama films depend mostly on the development of
realistic characters dealing with emotional issues.
In most cases the film concentrates on normal character(s) that is
dealing with a conflict or dilemma. Dramas often give actors a
chance to stretch into a role that other genres wouldn’t allow them
to do. This is because drama films focus on building up characters
that the audience can engage with.
7. How Drama Film Is Structured?
A drama film is structured in a very specific way in order to keep the
audiences attention, and make them become emotionally
attached to the action what is going on in the film. To do this they
structure the films to have climaxes and anti-climaxes so that there
are peaks and troths in the tension. This keeps the audience
interested and stops their mind wandering from the film.
8. Genre: Drama
The central theme of a drama genre is that it is character driven. A
drama film doesn’t have some elements e.g. amazing (possibly CGI-
created) location (adventure), awesome stunts or explosions
(action) and there is no excitement or fear from a dark, spooky
castle (thriller). But without these elements, a drama film has to take
the audience on an emotional rollercoaster ride. This is done
through that the story line revolves around emotions of the influential
characters. A drama film offers intense character development and
tells an honest story of human struggle. The heart of a drama film is
conflict. There is a climax in drama films usually and they are
extremely plot driven. A drama film is essentially a drama film
because of the way it makes the audience relate and sympathize
with the characters. This is done through a mixture of a cleverly
written script, a heightened level of tension and a good use of
9. Sub-Genres of Drama
drama and crim
10. Sub-Genres of Drama
Romantic Drama film is a genre that explores the complex side of
love. The plot usually centers on an obstacle that is preventing love
between two people. It ends with the lovers separating because of
the enormity of the obstacle, the realization of incompatibility, or
Tragedy Drama is a genre wherein the downfall of the character is
caused by a flaw within the character.
Historical is a sub-genre of Drama film that examines a specific time
in history or group of people.
11. Sub-Genres of Drama
Period Piece is a sub-genre of Drama film that focuses
on a specific time era. The era in which the film is set
adds not only to the plot, but to the characters and
costumes as well.
Courtroom drama film uses the justice system as a main
component of the plot. The story usually unfolds inside
a courtroom with the prosecutor, judge, jury, and the
defense. Tension plays a large part in courtroom
dramas as the verdict can often mean life or death.
Crime drama films comprises of character
development based on themes involving criminals, law
enforcement and the legal system.
12. Sub-Genre: Social Drama
Dramatic themes such as alcoholism, drug
addiction, infidelity, moral dilemmas, racial prejudice, religious
intolerance, sexuality, poverty, class divisions, violence against
women and corruption are presented in drama films.
Drama films often, but not always, have tragic ending or painful
resolutions. This can be applied to my film as the mother dies in the
13. MIS EN SCENE:
Lighting – Low key lighting is usually used in drama films. But High key
lighting can also be used to show happiness.
Camera Angles/Shots – As far as the shots are concerned, close-
ups of characters are used to show expressions and Low Angle and
High angle shots are used to portray strength and weakness
.Props such as Knifes, Guns, Alcohol, Mobile phones, Drugs are
usually used in drama films.
14. MIS EN SCENE:
Setting – Outdoors, Run down buildings/houses, Council flats, Houses
Costume – The characters will be seen wearing costumes which the
audience can relate to in a drama film. E.g. Business man in a suit,
doctor in a white lab coat, teenagers wearing hoodie and hat etc.
Editing – Different editing techniques can be used in a drama film
depending on its narrative. Mostly, shot reverse shots and parallel
editing are most common.
Sound – Intense music is usually used in dram films. Filmi music can
also be used in Bollywood drama films.
15. Codes & Conventions of Social
Exhibits real life situations with realistic characters, settings, and
Portrays journeys of character development
Intense social interaction
Purpose of a dramatic story line is to move the audience
Heart of drama is the conflict
Conflicts include inner/outer realistic struggles depicting hardships,
difficulty, and pain
Audience can relate to the Characters (Preferred reading – Halls
Structured with climaxes and anti climaxes to keep the audience
emotionally attached and the tension ongoing
16. Codes & Conventions of Social
Portrays a characters journey and developments
Exhibits real life characters, situations, settings and stories
Intense social interaction
Dramatic sounds and exaggerated performance.