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INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT

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this ppt consists introduction to management, 14 principles and motivational theories and F.W taylor contribution

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INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT

  1. 1. Introduction to Management: Concepts of Management and organization- nature, importance and Functions of Management, Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory, Fayol’s Principles of Management, Mayo’s Hawthorne Experiments, Maslow’s Theory of Human Needs, Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation, Systems Approach to Management, Leadership Styles, Social responsibilities of Management
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Management is what managers do. M A --- The Manager N A G --- Knowledge E M E --- The People N T --- Technology/Techniques/Tactics
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS: “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups” --- Koontz “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people” --- Mary Parker “Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest way” - -- F.W. Taylor “Management is the accomplishment of results through the efforts of other people” --- Lawrence “Management is to manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and control”. -- Henry Fayol (1916) MANAGEMENT
  4. 4. Nature of Management Multidisciplinary Dynamic nature of Principles Relative, Not absolute Principles Management: Science or Art Management as profession Universality of management Management is a Situational in Nature
  5. 5. Importance of Management Management has been important to the daily lives of people and to the organisations. The importance of management may be traces with the following. Effective utilisation of Resources Development of Resources It ensures continuity in the organization Integrating various interest groups Stability in the society
  6. 6. Functions of Management Writers Management Functions Henry Fayol Luther Gullick R. Davis E.F.L. Breech Koontz Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, Controlling POSDCORD- Planning, Organising, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting, Directing Planning , Organising, Controlling Planning, Organising, Motivating, Coordinating, Controlling Planning, Organising, Staffing, Leading, Controlling
  7. 7. Functions of Management
  8. 8. Managerial Skills & Managerial Levels Technical Skills Human Skills Conceptual Skills Design Skills Top level / Administrative level Middle level / Executory Low level / Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers
  9. 9. The scientific management period hold prominently two greatest exponents of classical theories. They are F.W.Taylor (1856-1915) Henry Fayol (1841-1925)and TAYLOR & SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor in USA in the beginning of 20th century. He is Father of Scientific Management
  10. 10. “Scientific management is concerned with art of knowing exactly what you want to do and then see in that they do it in the best and cheapest way”
  11. 11. Tools: Separation of planning & doing Functional Foremanship Job Analysis Standardization Scientific selection and training of workers Financial Incentives Economy Mental Revolution Principles of Scientific Management Replacing rule of thumb with science Harmony in group action Co-operation Maximum output Development of workers
  12. 12. Tools: Functional Foremanship Work Shop Manager Planning In charge Production In charge Route Boss workers DisciplinarianInstruction Card clerk Time and Cost Clerk Route Clerk Gang Boss inspector Maintenance Foreman
  13. 13. Criticism of Scientific Management: The theory of Scientific Management was heavily criticised by the employers, the workers, and psychologists. Employers criticised the process of scientific approach as costly and unworkable It ignores the functional areas of management such as marketing, finance and so on Individual creativity is ignored by favouring one best way Workers is reduced to a cog in the machines. Mobility among workers gets restricted because of narrow specialisation Workers are not involved in the planning part of the job which was controlled by the management.
  14. 14. “Management is to manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and control”. Qualities of a manager General principles of management Elements of management Physical ( Health, Vigor and Health ) Mental ( Ability to understand and learn, judgment , mental vigor and capability) Moral ( energy, firmness, initiative, loyalty, tact etc.,) Educational Technical ( peculiar to the function being performed ) Experience Qualities of a manager (1841-1925) Father of Administrative Management
  15. 15. Division of work Authority and Responsibility Discipline Unity of Command Unity of Direction Subordination of individual interest to general interest Remuneration Centralization Scalar Chain Order Equity Stability Initiative Esprit de corps General principles of management Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, Controlling Elements of management
  16. 16. A team of four members Elton mayo, White head, Roethlisberger and William Dickson They conducted various researches in four phases with each phase attempting to answer the question raised at the previous phase. The phases are --- Illumination experiments (1924-27) Relay assembly test room experiments (1927-28) Mass Interviewing Programme (1928-1930) Bank wiring observation room experiments (1931-32)
  17. 17. Conclusions Individual workers must be seen as members of a group The sense of belongingness and effective management were the two secrets unfolded by the Hawthorne experiments. Informal or personal groups influenced the behaviour of workers on the job To seek workers cooperation, the management should be aware of their social needs and cater to them
  18. 18. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation". Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity
  19. 19. Conclusion: Maslow suggest that the various levels are interdependent and overlapping, each higher level need emerging before the lower level need has been completely satisfied. Since one need does not disappear when another emerges, all needs tend to be partially satisfied in each area.
  20. 20. Frederick Irving Herzberg born in Massachusetts was an American psychologist who became one of the most influential names in business management. He is most famous for introducing job enrichment and the Motivator- Hygiene theory Frederick Hertzberg conducted a structured interview programme to analyse the experience and feelings of 200 engineers and accountants in nine different companies in Pittsburg area, U.S.A during the structured interview, they were asked to describe a few previous job experiences in which they felt ‘exceptionally good’ or exceptionally bad about jobs.
  21. 21. Douglas Mc Gregor in his books “The Human Side of the Enterprise” has pointed out two sharply opposite concepts of Management Styles for the Motivation of Human Behaviour. There are two sets of assumptions about human nature: Theory X and Theory Y Theory X presents an essentially negative view of people Theory Y offers a positive view
  22. 22. Kast and Rosenweig defines, “A system is an organised or complex whole: an assemblage or combination of things or parts forming a complex unitary whole”. The central idea of this approach is that any object depends on a method of analysis involving simultaneous variations of mutually dependent variables. Systems are a set or assemblage of various interdependent and inter related variables. i.e. sub-systems, so as to form a complex unity
  23. 23. This is the most interesting area in the management. Effective management lies in good leadership qualities exhibited by the manager. Leadership is the process of influencing the behaviour of other to work willingly an enthusiastically for achieving predetermined goals
  24. 24. Definitions: “Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically toward achieving objectives”. – Barnard Key. “Leadership is the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals” – Stephon. P. Robins “Leadership is interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and directed through communication process, towards the attainment of a specified goal or goals”. – Tennenbaum.
  25. 25. Transformation Leader 1.Independent 2.Inspirational 3.Achievement 4.Initiative 5.Change oriented 6.Proactive 7.Influencing Transactional Leader 1.Clarification giving 2. Counseling 3. Passive 4. Directing 5.Task Oriented 6.Practical
  26. 26. Leader injects team spirit, confidence, ambition etc. into the minds of followers Leader is a representative of subordinates Leader is a counselor, mediator, mentor etc to the followers Leader uses power for the best interests of the followers Leader strives hard for leadership effectiveness Leader seeks willing co-operation of the subordinates/ followers Leader furnishes a good working climate etc
  27. 27. Autocratic (or) Authoritarian leaders Participative (or) Democratic leaders Free rein (or) Laiser faire leaders
  28. 28. Advantages:- 1. It provides strong motivation and reward to a manager exercising this style. 2. It permits very quick decisions as most of the decisions are taken by a single person. 3. Strict discipline will be maintained. 4. Less competent subordinates also have scope to work in the organisation under his leadership style. Disadvantages:- 1. People in the organisation dislike it specially when it is strict and the motivational style is negative. 2. Employees lack motivation frustration, low morale and conflict develops in the organisation. 3. There is more dependence and less individuality in the organisation
  29. 29. It is also called as democratic, consultative or idiographic leadership style In this style the manager decentralizes his decision-making process. Instead of taking unilateral decision he emphasizes consultation and participation of his subordinates. Advantages:- Employees are highly motivated. The productivity of employees is very high. Subordinates share the responsibility with the superior and try to safeguard them also.
  30. 30. Disadvantages:- Complex nature of organisation requires as through understanding of its Problems which lower-level employees may not be able to do. Some people in the organisation want minimum interaction with their superior. Some leaders may use this style as a way of avoiding responsibility.
  31. 31. A free-rein leader does not lead, but leaves the group entirely to itself as shown in the following figure. manager once determines policy, programmes, and limitations for action and the entire process is left to subordinates group members perform everything and the manager usually maintains contacts with outside persons to bring the information and materials which the group needs
  32. 32. Social responsibilities came in the 1930’s when the view was advanced and accepted that managers of large companies must make decision which maintain an equitable balance among the shareholders, employees, customer, suppliers & general public. Definition: “It is a serious consideration, by the corporate sector, of the impact of, its actions, on society”. -----Koontz “This is a principle teaching that rich people have to feel obliged to come down to help the down trodden, depressed people of the society” ----- Jame A Stoner “Investment on social responsibility & Welfare of the masses is a guarantee for the long0run business survival itself” -----Smt. Indira Gandhi
  33. 33. Towards Consumers Towards Share Holders Towards Employees Towards Trade Unions Towards Government Arguments in favour of Social Responsibility: Give & Take Better Environment Society Reduced State interventions Authority and Responsibility A special place for Business
  34. 34. Arguments not in favour of Social Responsibility: Primary Task Costly Unfavourable to the Foreign Trade Not right Man No Formal Accountability Progress in India: L&T: It spends nearly Rs.5 crores annually on social projects. It takes up programmes like: Family Planning, Camps to checkup Tuber Culosis, Dairy and Poultry development in and around. Tata Steel: This company is a pioneer company as far as S.R. is concerned Deeply involved in environmental conservation activities, education, vocational training and health care for the under privileged etc.

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