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Contents… Introduction Definition What is Massage Therapy? History Types of massage Physiological effects of massage
Introduction Massage is the systemic rubbing and manipulation of different part of the body for the therapeutic benefits The word Massage is a derivation from the Greek massein, or the French masser, which both mean: to knead A male operator is called a masseur, a female operator, a masseuse
Definition…Massage is a scientific treatment, by certain passive systematic manipulations, upon the nude skin of the human body.
What is Massage Therapy? It is a mechanical modality Act of rubbing, kneading, or stroking for the purpose of modifying nutrition, restoring power of movement or breaking up adhesions Used to manipulate the body’s tissue
History of the massageo In the Chinese and indian history massage can be traced back as early as 3000 years agoo In Ayurveda text, in Dinacharya concept it is mentioned that massage should be done after doing exercise.o “The Cong-Fou of the Tao-Tse”(Chinese text) was probably the foundation both of modern massage and of the manual Swedish movements.
In Japan the massage used to be delivered by blind man. The masseur used to go to the street and shout amma! Amma!(shampooing or massage). The ancient Greeks and Romans used to employ the massage along with their therapeutic baths. Herodicus(Hippocrates master ) said “friction can relax brace, incarnate(fleshen)”
Asclepiades (Greek physician) stopped all his medicines and rely on massage alone. He noticed that sleep can be induced by stroking The Julius Caesar, who had epilepsy used to pinch the whole body for the relief. Pliny (Roman naturalist) used to rub own body for the relief from the chronic asthma. Celsus,(Roman physician) recommended the manipulation of the head during headache.
The natives of sandwich island called the massage as lomi lomi and delivered frequently to the exhausted swimmer. The Moaris of New Zealand called the massage as romi-romi The Tonga island natives delivered massage in the name of toogi toogi which means to beat, for the relief of sleeplessness and fatigue.
Types of massage Swedish massage Kellogg massage
Swedish massage Dr. Mezger, of Amsterdam was among the first to apply the massage treatment scientifically. Their method is now used throughout Europe. According to Mezger, massage is a scientific treatment -- i.e., based upon the anatomy and the physiology of the human body; his manipulations are certain -- that is, given or fixed, so that an uninstructed person can not pick up the treatment -- it is an art that can not be self-acquired; all manipulations are passive -- i.e., applied to the patient without his assistance or resistance; the manipulations are also systematic -- i.e., they are arranged so as to act systematically upon the different tissues of the human
Dr.Mezger divided the massage treatment into four principal manipulation. Effleurage (stroking) Frictions Petrissage (kneading) Tapotement (percussion)
Effleurage Stroking of the skin Performed with palm of hand: Stimulates deep tissues Performed with fingertips: Stimulates sensory nerves Superficial, rhythmic stroking: Contours the body or relates to direction of underlying muscles Deep stroking: Follows course of veins & lymph vessel Performed in rhythmic manner
Petrissage Performed with fingers or hand Skin is gently lifted between thumb & fingers or fingers & palm & gently rolled & kneaded in the hand Often performed without lotion
Tapotement Gentle tapping or pounding of the skin Promotes relaxation & densitization of irritated nerve endings
Kellogg massage It had been formulated by J.H. Kellogg. Superficial movements Touch Stroking and Friction Deep movements Kneading vibration Percussion joint movements
Physiological effects of massage Each and every manipulation movements used in massage has their own physiological effects. These physiological effects can be classified under following headings. Mechanical reflex and metabolic effects
Mechanical effects Here the mechanical action of the hands produces the effects like blood and lymph movements in their respective channels
Reflex effects Impressions on nerve ends of sensory or afferent fibers nerve centers of the cerebro-spinal and sympathetic systemsAfferents nerve fibres synapses Local related area Internal organs
Metabolic effects Manipulation always affect the cellular activities of the local areas as well as the distant and internal organs which may be due to mechanical effects or the reflex actions.
Effects on Nervous system Direct stimulating effects Reflex effects Sedative effects Restorative or reconstructive effects
Direct stimulating effects Vibration and nerve compression may be made to act directly upon nerve trunks, thereby causing powerful stimulation not only of the peripheral nerves but of all the nerve centers with which a nerve trunk is connected. Friction is an effective means of exciting nerves. Tapping, clapping, and hacking are the most effective means of exciting nerve trunks.
Sedative effects Strong percussion relief the pain by tiring out thus reducing the irritability Gentle Stroking has the sedative effect. Very marked sedative effects are produced by derivative friction and kneading. Centrifugal friction (rubbing down) diminishes the blood supply of the brain, and hence lessens cerebral activity.
Restorative or Reconstructive Effects.o Mental fatigue is relieved by massage, through its effect upon the circulation and the eliminative organs. The toxic substances produced by mental activity, are more rapidly oxidized and removed from the body, while the hastened blood current more thoroughly repairs and cleanses the wearied nerve tissues.o General reconstructive effects are experienced by the entire nervous s stem through the improved nutrition induced by massage.
Effect on muscular system1. Encourage nutrition and development of the muscle. Massage blood circulation nutrition Increase the size of muscle firmness and elasticity2. Excite muscular contraction3. Increase the electro-excitability of the muscles .o smaller number of mill amperes of current is required to cause contraction of the muscle after massage than before.
Effects of massage on bones and ligaments It promotes the growth of bones and ligaments and improves blood circulation to the bones. Improved muscular and thus bone circulation also influences the blood forming process in red bone marrow, in both quantity and quality.
Effects on circulation Massage profoundly effects the general and local circulation, depending upon the mode and area of application. General massage increase the rate and force of heart beats The vigor of circulatory activities increases. The reflex influence of massage acts as a tonic for the heart, while the dilatation of the vessels decreases the resistance so that the heart acts more freely and efficiently in performing its functions
Massage has chiefly to do with the circulation of fluid in the veins and the lymph channels, since these are more readily accessible from the surface than the arteries. Friction acts on superficial veins but petrissage acts on deeper veins.
Effect on respiration Increase cellular respiration: massage increase the cellular metabolism thus increase o2 consumption and increase production of co2 Increase the respiratory activity: increase the depth of respiration increase the diaphragmatic action thus helps in lung movements heart action and movements of lymph and circulation
Effect on digestion Improve the appetite Increase secretion of digestive enzymes Increase the absorption Aid in peristalsis
Effect on nutrition hematogenesis and phogocytosis Increase the no. of red blood corpuscles immediately after general massage RBC increases by 3 t0 7 % WBC increases by 40 to 80% Cold treatment followed by massage will drastically improve the blood counts Phagocytosis is also the principal means by which the body antagonizes an invasion of foreign microbes which always takes place in connection with infectious disease .
Massage is also valuable as a regulator of the nutritive processes. Hopadze has proven that massage increases the assimilation of nitrogenous food substances Zabludowski has shown that massage both diminishes the weight of very fleshy persons and increases the weight of badly nourished persons, giving increased appetite and sleep. He showed that these effects continue not only during the treatment but for some time afterward
Influence of massage on Elimination• Encourage elimination: increase oxygenation , increase venous and lymphatic drainage, exchange of nutrients and toxic cellular products• Increase the activity of liver: portal circulation, vibratory and percussion movements over liver area activate the liver Detoxification action of liver is encouraged
• To Encourage Renal Activity. – Abdominal massage frequently gives rise to, a copious discharge of newly formed urine, although massage of the back or loins does not produce the same effect. Abdominal massage doubtless promotes kidney activity through its influence upon the lumbar ganglia of the abdominal sympathetic and the solar plexus.• Promote activity of the skin increase glandular activity and increase circulatory changes hyperemia of the skin