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Project achievement and the “way forward” by Wijay

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Project achievement and the “way forward” by Wijay

  1. 1. Final Workshop Organized by the ACISAI, AIT (01-02 November 2018, NOVOTEL BANGKOK SUKHUMVIT 20, Thailand) SUSTAINING AND ENHANCING THE MOMENTUM FOR INNOVATION AND LEARNING AROUND THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI) IN THE LOWER MEKONG RIVER BASIN (SRI-LMB) Project achievement and the “way forward”
  2. 2. AIT-led, EU financed SRI-LMB project  Implemented in food-insecure, rainfed rice production areas of the Lower Mekong River Basin countries; Lao, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand (2013-18)  Brought together various stakeholders working at global, regional, national, and local levels;  Increased crop yield, productivity and profitability on sustainable basis at smallholder farmers’ fields and,  Significantly contributed towards enhancing the resilience of rainfed farmers confronting climate change variability
  3. 3. Completed a wide range of activities, within a short time  Farmers’ participatory action research (FPAR)  Field experiments and demonstrations on low-cost technological options  Local adaptation of SRI practices and  Associated capacity building and experience sharing were numerous; few are listed below: Farmers’ Congress, exposure visits, district & provincial meetings, Review & Planning Workshops (RPW) at national & regional levels, development and dissemination of Education and Communication (IEC) material including but not limited to: Newsletters, Brochures, Banners, case studies (including women farmers’ success stories), leaflets, flyers, journal publications, international conference papers, radio programs, pocket guides, press release and university student Theses. Dedicated Project website continuously up-dated information. National Review & Planning Meeting, Vietnam (18 Nov 2016)
  4. 4. Project Organization
  5. 5. Project Achievement –few selected outputs  66% increase in crop yield (compared to baseline)  70% increase in farmers’ net profitability  66% increase in labor use efficiency  59% increase in water productivity  Three-fold enhancement of fertilizer use efficiency (regional)  37% reduction in energy input for farming. Reduction in greenhouse gas emission from rainfed & irrigated area by 16% and 13%, respectively  National and international recognition (clearly evident) National Workshop and Farmer Congress, Uttaradit, Thailand (29- 30 March 2018)
  6. 6. Adoption and adaptation Source: MEL study-SRI-LMB Project
  7. 7. Selected Recommendations from Policy studies Articulate different domains and activities of each ministry and department Climate change action strategy into practical plans Policies on farmers‘ cooperatives for multiple functions: financing, extension, access to market Support farmer participation in profitable organic market: extension, value chain coordination and market generation/promotion, organic certification Policy incentives for private sector to participate as service provider {suggest partnerships with FOs} Promote access to credit by smallholders. Support for productive use of credit
  8. 8. Conclusion based on results analysis  Project’s contribution to climate-smart agriculture, through enhancement of agriculture productivity in an environmentally-sound and cost-effective way, was evident from analysis of results  Project demonstrated increased rice farm productivity under different climatic conditions through SRI + conservation farming  A “sense of ownership of the project” developed among stakeholders at multiple strata — from the local community to national and regional levels including senior policymakers. FPAR 2017 Ha Tinh, Vietnam
  9. 9. Rationale for follow-up Project  ASEAN Food Security’s Action Plan 2015-2020 has identified “SRI and conservation agriculture as climate- smart integrated practices to be implemented in ASEAN member States to address the future risk associated with climate change”  Therefore, SRI-LMB was a timely intervention. It has paved the way for more intensive and wider application of “SRI-centered climate-smart and profitable agriculture”.  Hence Phase 2 is proposed SRI-LMB FPAR women groups in Bac Giang province, Vietnam, SRI-LMB Newsletter; Volume 5, Issue 2: 2017
  10. 10. The Way Forward….  A cost-effective and climate-smart scaling up of SRI- SCI can be achieved using the successful platform built by the SRI-LMB project. A follow-up project is proposed for scaling- up of SRI-SCI targeting multiple benefits, especially focusing on profits to small farmers through: Strengthening Farmers’ Organizations (FOs), not only for small farmers to capture economies of scale and commercialize farming to become active partners of market economy, but also to adopt a integrated water shed-based holistic approach towards Climate-smart agriculture FPAR 2017 Ha Tinh, Vietnam
  11. 11. The major strategies proposed for Phase 2  Collective Action by Farmers’ Organizations (FOs) and FO- Network to benefit all activities  Expanding to other crops- SCI  Continued focus on climate- smart agriculture, with a watershed-based approach  Participatory Action Research on Local Adaptation (of SRI, SCI)  Special focus on women & youth  Capacity building of stakeholders at different levels, especially government agencies, universities  Continued support to policy research, dialogue and advocacy: special focus on women and youth Strategy to maintain momentum until Phase 2 is launched Regional Review & Planning Workshop, Siem Reap, Cambodia (2-3 June 2015)
  12. 12. Extending to other crops - SCI  Extend to other crops utilizing principles of System of Crop Intensification, SCI  Planned diversification, development / adaptation and adoption of agroecological farming methods  Development of low-cost, location-specific and demand-driven technologies: Already started in Phase 1 but broader opportunities exist for Phase 2: e.g. mechanization, post-harvest management including value addition. Processing of rice by a woman farmer from X village, Nakai district Khammouan province, Lao
  13. 13. Watershed-based approach for SRI-SCI scaling-up and Climate-smart Agriculture  Various parts of the watershed are physically and operationally linked, the adverse environmental (and health impacts) are the result of cumulative effects of farming practices that are mostly non-point source pollutions  Environment-friendly crop management practices by some farmers (say, due to exposure to project) would be less effective due to eco-unfriendly practices by others  Watershed-network of FOs would Collectively address issues AIT visit for monitoring landless household training-Cambodia (Sep. 2017)
  14. 14. Further research on local adaptation of SRI and SCI What practices were chosen by farmers? (continuation of Phase 1 research on local adaptation) What are the main reasons for choosing each practice or a cluster of practices? Have they modified practice(s)? Is there a (statistically significant) location-specific pattern and reasons for choosing “package(s) of practices” or “modifications” ? Therefore, Research involving multiple disciplines (e.g. soil physics, plant’s bio-chemical reactions, socioeconomic) FPAR in Yommalath district, Khammaouan, Lao PDR (18 Aug 2015)
  15. 15. Active participation of women and youth: Manage the “ways” of transforming small-farm agriculture Intensifying and diversify market-driven activities “creating” more opportunities for women, including in input-output services and value-chains {through FO- managed Collective Action – discussed later}, with  Policy support: e.g. performance- based incentives to FOs, including FCs and FCo-ops (credit, infrastructure like storage /processing also to attract youth and reverse migration); Policy and special programs to help close the gender gap in agriculture and rural employment Farmer's Participatory Action Research 2016, Cambodia
  16. 16. Capacity building of stakeholders  In addition to capacity building of farmers, Phase 2 of the project would include special mechanisms for building the capacities of other stakeholders like government agencies including Ministries, departments & Universities  Would include short, medium and long-term training, support to “exchange-programs”, national and international conferences / workshops, study tours, etc. Regional Review & Planning Workshop, Siem Reap, Cambodia (2-3 June 2015)
  17. 17. Key strategy: promote farmers’ CA for SRI scaling-up More rapid scaling-up of SRI is important because it has the potential for contributing significantly to poverty reduction in SEA and world-wide Farmers’ collective action (CA) would be made a key strategy for accelerating the scaling-up of SRI Capturing economies of scale through novel institutional arrangements like multi-functional FOs (Farmers’ Companies and Farmer Cooperatives) would be pivotal for commercialization of small-farmer agriculture. FOs would develop over time as self- sustained business entities This strategy would develop mutually-beneficial partnerships with the private sector to facilitate farmers’ engaging more fully/fairly in market economy 17
  18. 18. Farmers’ CA for SRI Scaling-Up (continued)  CA in production planning, input-output services, including post-harvest management / value-addition An integrated approach to accelerate adoption of SRI, SCI aimed at Climate-smart agriculture This strategy would develop mutually-beneficial partnerships with the private sector to facilitate farmers’ engaging more fully/fairly in market economy The following slides are adopted from RPW-2017 (Keynote presentation Wijay with Norman) 18
  19. 19. 19 Beyond On-Farm Activity: Economic Strength CA managed by a strong network of FOs (Farmers’ Companies + Farmers’ Cooperatives) would enable small farmers to move beyond on-farm activity, e.g., achieve profits through post- harvest management incl. value-addition. • CA would address the crucial issue: once farmers are successful on the agronomic side, how can they be similarly successful on the economic side? • Further, how can farmers’ avoid their agronomic success leading to economic setbacks? Answers to these questions are crucial for food security. CFPAR in Yommalath district, Khammouan province, Lao PDR (18 Aug 2015)
  20. 20. Conclusion 1 Collective Action is proposed for future SRI-SCI scaling-up strategy mainly because crop yield and profit of (small) farmers who adopt SRI depend on a variety of complementary factors like: a) adoption of other technologies, post-harvest as well as production technologies; b) timely availability of key inputs; and c) prices of inputs and outputs, access to markets, etc. Farmers’ CA is capable of dealing with most of these factors. If these other factors are well-managed, overall productivity and profit will be greater, and farmers can capture the full benefits of SRI-SCI. This should help to accelerate rate of SRI-SCI adoption. 20
  21. 21. Conclusion 2 SRI has demonstrated that it is higher-yielding, water- saving, time-saving and climate-smart. With such advantages, SRI can lead the way to poverty reduction, especially because the majority are resource-poor, small farmers vulnerable to climate change. They are the major suppliers of staple food in Asia. If farmers’ CA is supportive of SRI utilization, it can benefit urban residents also, and especially the urban poor who spend a larger portion of their meagre incomes on rice. This should become less expensive with higher efficiency and productivity in rice-growing. 21
  22. 22. Conclusion 3 Most small farmers grow also non-rice crops and could benefit from SCI. But many non-rice crops are more perishable and CA can make them more remunerative. Collective action by FOs -- including Farmer Companies and Farmer Co-operatives -- does double duty for improving the utilization of SCI as well as SRI. Therefore, SRI initiatives should attempt to catalyze and facilitate the development of a strong, vertically and horizontally integrated network of FOs to manage collective action for enhancing agronomic efficiency, farmer incomes, and agroecological sustainability. 22
  23. 23. Multi-functional FO/Farmers’ Company / Farmers’ Co-operative OPEN MARKET (Others) GoodDistributionofIncome Base Organization (Farmers’ Organization / Co-op) Value Addition Private Companies Other service Providers Ø Government Agencies Ø Private Sector Project § FINANCE (e.g. Revolving Funds”); MANAGEMENT INPUTS § FACILITATION (Catalyzing / Mentoring & Tech. inputs) Higher-level Multi- Functional Farmers’ Organization (incl. / Co-op; Farmer Company Form FC/ Multi- functional W UA Plan and organize Production Provide services: Inputs Information, Transport, Collection etc (Sell) Watershed Management (water harvesting and other) Purchase produce through Forward contracts Value addition Sell /buy Products and Services through contractual agreements
  24. 24. CA in expansion of SRI, SCI. intensifying conservation farming SRI-LMB Project- The “Way forward” towards Climate-smart Agriculture - Components for consideration - CA in appropriate mechanization / attracting youth CA in water harvesting: enhance and extend water availability: In-depth participatory research on Local Adaptation of SRI, SCI CA in input supply, FO-led Extension, post-harvest mgt., incl. marketing, value-chain Collective Action by Farmers’ Organizations (FOs) including Farmers’ Companies and Cooperatives FO-Network: Horizontal & Vertical links: FO-FO; FO- Government Agencies; FO -Private Sector Capacity building of Government agencies, Universities on SRI, SCI and Conservation/ Green growth Policy research and advocacy including legal support to FOs Widening Scope: Watershed- base; extend to other crops (SCI), intensive action on climate-smart agric.
  25. 25. 19-11-2018 25

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Project area is rainfed - ”adaptation" is expected. Project assisted farmers to adapt SRI practices
  • Important to assess achievement against "time"
    4 countries, 11 Provinces, A large number of field sites
    So, many field sites - - experiments (knowledge-building) and knowledge sharing combined implying "experiential learning", in addition,
    A variety of methods of experience sharing and debate at different levels: International recognitions-can quote evidence
  • Regional, national and local Coordination Units enhanced coordination and collaboration
    Project Management Unit (PMU) / country office at country level and Local Management Unit (LMU) at provincial level, respectively. AIT,s Asian Centre of Innovation for Sustainable Agriculture Intensification (ACISAI) hosts the project AIT
  • Adoption and Adaptation Figure: At once you see there is no significant change? But in some locations it has been extra-ordinary. That's why we need to dig into Local Adaptation. How can we isolate location specificity in adaptation? How can we focus PAR and help? Location/ situation (like farm-size, shortage of labor) mechanization? More focus on specific SRI/SCI practices? Collective Action for achieving economies of scale? FCs??
  • .
  • POLICY STUDIES: I think it is difficult to examine a lot in a limited number of studies with limited scope
  • Refer my earlier suggestions / issues here.
    How can PAR assist (refer earlier notes)
    Collective Action
  • SRI/SCI adoption deserves more support from PAR (then much renowned, resourceful international reserach centers would “open their eyes”. In my opinion, what they should have done was to conduct “scientific” (against OR supplementary PAR??) research to check?? Then they would quickly realize the merits of SRI/SCI and “redesign their research, teaching, recimmendations??
  • There is no doubt, Phase 2 of SRI-LMB needs to conduct special programs focusing on women and underprivileged (PLUS, on youth, for different reason/goal {of "Attracting youth"). In addition, Phase 2 may consider employing mechanisms / activities for ensuring "mainstreaming" women's participation {"Gender Mainstreaming"). .

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