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Hillario Padilla - SRI Plastic Mulch

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Hillario Padilla- SRI Plastic Mulch

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Hillario Padilla - SRI Plastic Mulch

  1. 1. SRI-Plastic Mulch: Remarkably High Yield and Large-Scale Adoption Lu Shihua, Hil Padilla & Joanne Li
  2. 2. Large scale promotion in Sichuan, China – 500,000 hectares adoption (450 hectares organic)
  3. 3. More with less fertilizer
  4. 4. 在不同覆盖方式下氮肥对水稻产量的影响 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0 800.0 0 4 8 12 16 施氮水平(kg/mu) 产量(kg/mu) 盖膜 盖草 裸地 Higher yield even with 66-75 % reduction in chemical fertilizer use Nitrogen Applied (kg/ha) Plastic Mulch Straw Mulch Traditional Farming The rice yield under different mulching materials and nitrogen level 0 60 120 180 240 Yield(t/ha) 12 9 6 3
  5. 5. Plastic Mulch Multi-Location Testing (as inspected by experts) Date Location Farmer Organization Rice yield (kg/ha) 08.8.03 Hongqi Village, Niufo Township, Da’an Area Zeng Yuanshuai Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences 10,179 08.8.13 Daping Village, Juexi Township, Yibin County Mao Xiuyan Yibin Science and Technology Bureau 8,464 08.8.14 Kaochong Village, Quan’an Township, Neijiang City Chen Dayuan Neijiang Science and Technology Bureau 10,941 08.8.19 Heihu Village, Zhujia Township, Renshou County Liao Liebing Science and Technology Bureau of Sichuan Province 11,404 08.9.01 Xiangshui Village, Yanjiang Township, Yanjiang Li Junqing Science and Technology Bureau of Sichuan Province 11,701 08.9.01 Xiangshui Village, Yanjiang Township, Yanjiang Chen Shengfu Science and Technology Bureau of Sichuan Province 11,516 08.9.01 Xiangshui Village, Yanjiang Township, Yanjiang Yang Hua Science and Technology Bureau of Sichuan Province 10,020 08.9.11 Zhonghe Village, Qiandi Township, Shifang City Zhao Daohua Science and Technology Bureau of Sichuan Province 9,600 08.9.19 Jianyang Village, Dongxi Township, Fenghuang Village Liu Zijie Science and Technology Bureau of Sichuan Province 11,816 08.9.19 Jianyang Village, Dongxi Township, Fenghuang Village Li Tongying Science and Technology Bureau of Sichuan Province 10,424 08.9.19 Jianyang Village, Dongxi Township, Fenghuang Village Zhang Xingfu Science and Technology Bureau of Sichuan Province 9,494 Average 10,506
  6. 6. Weeds Drought P: Plastic Mulch T: Traditional P T Vigour PestT T T P P P (P stabilizes yield)
  7. 7. Organic Rice 10.8 tons/ha PT Plastic-mulched Organic Rice yielding more than 7,500 kg/ha (Sichuan Village Daily, 13 Sep 2009)
  8. 8. Comparative Yield of Traditional Variety and Hybrid under SRI-Plastic Mulch(2011) Experimental Site Rice Variety Traditional Method (tons/ha) SRI-Plastic Mulch (tons/ha) 1. Ziyang, Sichuan Guiyu no.7 (traditional variety) 6.30 7.65 Chuan xiang 8108 (hybrid) 6.52 8.80 2. Jianyang, Sichuan Guiyu no. 7 (traditional variety) 5.50 6.75 Chuan xiang 8108 (hybrid) 5.85 8.00 Site1. The traditional variety under SRI-Plastic Mulch is higher by 17.3% compared to hybrid under traditional farming; Site 2. The traditional variety under SRI-Plastic Mulch is higher by 15.4% compared to hybrid under traditional farming. Proves that in rice development: Path not only gene-centered but also culture method
  9. 9. Core technology Plastic mulch Support technology 1. Dryland seedling nursery (from SRI) 2. Raised-bed : No-till or tilled 3. Transplanting young seedlings (from SRI) 4. Wide; Triangle plant spacing (modified from SRI) 5. Ditch irrigation – makes it aerobic (Intermittent irrigation in SRI) 6. Reduced but balance fertilizer based on recommended amount What are the tricks?
  10. 10. 在不同覆盖方式下氮肥对水稻产量的影响 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0 800.0 0 4 8 12 16 施氮水平(kg/mu) 产量(kg/mu) 盖膜 盖草 裸地 At all levels of fertilizer, plastic mulch outperforms straw mulch and traditional rice farming Nitrogen Applied (kg/ha) Plastic Mulch Straw Mulch Traditional Farming The rice yield under different mulching materials and nitrogen level 0 60 120 180 240 Yield(t/ha) 12 9 6 3
  11. 11. Soil condition Treatment Thousand grain weight (g) Effective grain(%) Effective panicles (104/ha) No. of Gains per panicle Yield (kg/ha) Perpetually submerged paddy soil T N0 30.16a 85.31a 147.2d 191.4a 6285c T N180 31.02a 85.86a 165.0cd 171.1b 7087bc FM N0 29.79a 87.81a 175.3bc 170.6b 9229a FM N120 30.15a 88.66a 194.7ab 159.4b 9439a FM N180 30.07a 87.66a 216.0a 159.1b 9105a Intermittent dry- wet paddy soil T N0 29.51c 78.65c 148.0b 152.0a 5125c T N180 30.60ab 82.11bc 210.0a 138.2a 7129b FM N0 30.32b 86.20ab 179.7ab 158.6a 8225a FM N120 31.21a 89.99a 216.0a 155.4a 9178a FM N180 30.60ab 88.84a 213.0a 151.5a 9216a Submerged paddy soil T N0 30.27a 88.98a 106.0c 172.6a 5709d T N180 31.49a 87.44a 164.0b 178.1a 8189c FM N0 30.85a 90.29a 198.67a 164.1a 9154b FM N120 30.41a 85.72a 200.0a 178.0a 9769ab FM N180 31.16a 87.04a 208.7a 171.1a 9972a Rice growth and yield using plastic mulch in various soil type Data from Xiangshui Village, Yanjian area, Ziyang, Sichuan, China (2011-2015) T-traditional FM-Film Mulch N-Nitrogen
  12. 12. 2006年响水村采用和未采用农户水稻产量的差异 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 会员户 非会员户 产量(kg/mu) Rice yield in Xiangshui Village, 2006 Yield(t/ha) P T 9 6 3 0 Plastic mulch matures earlier
  13. 13. Soiltemperature(C0) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 early tillering middle tillering late tillering A: soil surface (0 cm depth) B: soil subsurface (10 cm depth) 10:00 9:00 11:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 Time of day (hour:minute) 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 PM SM TF Effect of different mulches on soil temperature
  14. 14. Applying Plastic Mulch on Raised Bed
  15. 15. Plastic problem Plastic outweighs negative effects of pesticides and fertilizers on the environment
  16. 16. Carbon Footprint Reduction from Nitrogen Fertilizer (Sichuan, China) Application Area (Ha) Nitrogen reduction (kg/ha/yr) Nitrogen reduction (t/yr) Cost reduction (US$/yr) Carbon footprint reduction (t/yr) Reduced Nitrogen 66% (180kg/ha) 450,000 120 54,000 38.4 M 282,000 Organic 450 180 81 0.6 M 423 Total 54,081 39 M 282,423 Note: [1] Cost of urea in Chengdu is US$ 320 per ton. [2] Production of 1kg Urea, release 2.35kg of CO2 (S. Wood & A. Cowie (2004) A Review of Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Fertilizer Production. IEA Bio-energy Task 38) [3] Urea = 45% N
  17. 17. Trade Off Saves water, fertilizer and labor Irrigation expense (USD/ha) 8.31 80.56 72.25 Nitrogen fertilizer (kg/ha) 106.05 189.75 83.7 Labor (person/ha) 175.5 348 172.5 Plastic Mulch Traditional Saving effect
  18. 18. Plastic recycling
  19. 19. Shift to Biodegradable Plastic Mulch (2016) Conventional (No mulch) Biodegradable Plastic Mulch Programmed degradation rate
  20. 20. Flooded nursery Dry nursery 1. Dry seedling nursery
  21. 21. 2.Why raised-bed? Convenient for drainage and irrigation Conflict - water and temperature Flood Low temp Slow growth Drainage Drought Stop growth • Only ditch irrigation – saves water • Increase temperature in raised bed (aerobic)
  22. 22. 5 ft No-Till Raised Bed
  23. 23. Mechanization developed by farmers (2012)
  24. 24. Convenient for transplanting 5 ft 3. Transplanting young seedlings
  25. 25. 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 600.00 700.00 800.00 0 4 8 12 16 施氮水平(kg/mu) 产量(kg/mu) 2叶期 4叶期 6叶期 2 leaf stage 4 leaf stage 6 leaf stage Two-leaf stage gives the better yield especially at lower fertilizer rates 12 9 6 3 0 60 120 180 240 Nitrogen Applied (kg/ha) Yield(t/ha)
  26. 26. 4. Triangle planting
  27. 27. 40-50cm 40 - 50 cm 10-15cm
  28. 28. • Allows the sun to hit the base of the plants (Fukuoka’s experience) • Prevents unproductive tillers at later growth stage
  29. 29. Effect of different cultivation methods on the no. of seedlings per clump (Cultviar: Xiangyou No. 1) 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 Single se e dling thre e se e dlings tria ngula r Single se e dling thre e se e dlings 三角 50cm *50cm 30cm *30cm Theno.ofseedlingsperclump triangular
  30. 30. Use of log with spikes to mark triangle planting holes
  31. 31. 5. Ditch irrigation i. saves water ii. makes the raised-bed aerobic iii. reduces CH4 emission
  32. 32. b Intensifying SRI and Conservation Agriculture (CA) •Organic no-till rice-canola rotation •Plant residue of canola oil (rape seed) is used as mulch for rice (inset)
  33. 33. Average of Organic SRI Rice Yield from 2012 to 2017 Continuous straw mulching eventually out-yields plastic mulchYield(t/ha) 9 8.3 7.5 T TP NP NS NSP T - Traditional TP – Traditional with Plastic Mulch NP – No-till with Plastic Mulch NS – No-till with Straw Mulch NSP- No-till with Straw Mulch with Plastic Mulch
  34. 34. Organic SRI Rice Yield from 2012 to 2017 [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE][CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 RiceYield(kg/ha) T TP NP NS NSP
  35. 35. Combining Mulch-No Till System with Perennial Rice PR 23 from Yunnan Lazy farmer’s variety from Sichuan
  36. 36. CH4 Study in collaboration with the Institute of Soil Science, CAS in 2010
  37. 37. CH4 fluxes and emissions during the rice-growing period Compared to TF, PM decreased CH4 emission by 85%. The application of DCD/HQ reduced CH4 emission by 1-5%. 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 30 60 90 120 Days after flooding (Apr. 18, 2010) CH4flux(mgCH4m -2 h -1 ) TF TF-DCD/HQ PM PM-DCD/HQ Transplanting 0 10 20 30 40 50 CH4emission(gCH4m -2 ) TF TF-DCD/HQ PM PM-DCD/HQ Plastic Mulch reduces greenhouse gas emission DCD - Dicyandiamide HQ - Hydroquinone
  38. 38. Thank You!Contact: hilpaddy@kfbg.org
  39. 39. Plastic mulch is the core technology Nitrogen efficiency and absorption rate with different mulching materials and amount of nitrogen Applied Nitrogen (kg/ha) 60 120 180 240 N Use efficiency (kg/kg) Plastic mulched 28.7 23.4 19.4 15.3 Straw mulched 9.4 4.4 10.1 6 Traditional 5.3 9.6 6 6.1 Absorption rate (%) Plastic mulched 32.8 11.6 17 16.1 Straw mulched -1 -6.3 1.7 4.4 Traditional 3.2 8.3 5.8 8.7

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