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Enamu Haque - CA Presentation for Thailand

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NO-TILL CROP ESTABLISHMENT OF
TRANSPLANTED AND DIRECT SEEDED RICE IN
CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE

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Enamu Haque - CA Presentation for Thailand

  1. 1. Welcome
  2. 2. NO-TILLCROPESTABLISHMENTOF TRANSPLANTEDANDDIRECT SEEDEDRICE IN CONSERVATIONAGRICULTURE Md. Enamul Haque Coordinator, Nutrient Management for Diversified Cropping (NUMAN) and Conservation Agriculture Projects, Bangladesh SRI-LMB Regional Workshop 2018 1-2 November, 2018, Bangkok,Thailand
  3. 3. ConservationAgriculture(CA) as an opportunity • Save labour and time • Save fuel • Save water • Lower costs of production The CA practices are well-developed for dry land and non-rice crops, but practicing CA in rice-based systems remains challenging. Machineryandtechnologydevelopedfor CAfor4-wheeltractors • How can this technology be adapted for smallholders (1-2 ha farms; ~1000 m2 fields)
  4. 4. The use of VMP - • reduce crop establishment cost from 30-59%; • reduce diesel fuel use up to 80%; • reduce labour use from16 to 54%; • reduce irrigation water use up to 36%; • reduced CO2 emission up to 82%; • increase grain yield up to 40%; • increase profit from up to 546%. Benefits of adopting CA on farms: A$700/ha/yr For 1 ha farm Innovations with small-scale planters: Versatile Multi-crop Planter (VMP) suitable for upland crops and direct seeded rice
  5. 5. Manual for CA in Rice Systems
  6. 6. Versatile No-Till Strip Seed Drill
  7. 7. How to incorporate rice in CA? Option 1: Non-puddled transplanting rice in paddies Option 2: Non-puddled Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) in paddies
  8. 8. Option 1: Methodology of non-puddled rice 3-4cmwidestripsmadeby VMPfollowedbyapplicationof irrigationwater Transplanting of rice seedling in strip manually or by transplanter after 24-hrs of irrigation water application Furtherculturalpractices aresameaspuddled transplanting
  9. 9. Non-puddled Rice Establishment Trials in Bangladesh • 150 on-farm monsoon season (aman) and dry season irrigated (boro) rice experiments conducted in 8 Upazilas (sub-district) of Bangladesh during 2013 to 2015 • Each field treated as a replicate for both crop establishment types. • Treatments consisted of two rice establishment methods 1. CP - conventional-puddled transplanting 2. NP - non-puddled transplanting • Farmers in aman season used a range of rice cultivars. • BRRIdhan-28 used in all locations in all years for boro season. • 25- to 36-day- and 35-to 55-day-old seedlings were transplanted in aman and boro season, respectively.
  10. 10. • Between NP and CP no significant differences were observed on the total labour cost for aman season rice cultivation during 2013 and 2014; • Significantly higher (P<0.01) cost for total labour uses was recorded in 2015 in CP. • Significantly higher total labour cost for boro season rice cultivation was reported for CP than NP during 2013, 2014, and 2015. Results: Labour use
  11. 11. Results: Rice Grain and Straw Yield • No yield differences in 2013 and 2014 • In the boro season of 2015 highest (P<0.05) grain yield (6.10 t ha-1) was in NP. • During the aman and boro seasons of 2015, significantly higher straw yield was recorded for NP than CP.
  12. 12. Results: Aman Season Profitability • 49 out of 66 farmers reported higher yield with NP • In aman season, 53 out of 66 farmers who practiced NP reported higher net returns than in CP •
  13. 13. Results: Boro Season Profitability • 75 % had the same or higher grain yield in NP. • In boro season of 2013, 2014 and 2015, the net return was higher in 90 - 92 % of cases in NP than with CP
  14. 14. Farmers’ acceptance • Conducted FGD in all 3 years to elicit farmers’ opinions about the suitability of non-puddled transplanting and how their perceptions changed over time • Questions were asked about: • Cost of land preparation • Labour use • Weed • Water use • Grain yield • Difficulties/observation
  15. 15. Change of farmers’ perception • In boro season of 2013, ~55 % of farmers reported that the adoption of NP could reduce land preparation cost, but after 6th season that perception increased up to 92 %. • While 50 % farmers in 2013 boro season reported higher grain yield that increased to 70 % at the end of aman season of 2015. • Farmers’ perception and experience on the negative aspects of NP declined over time at Alipur, Choighati and Digram locations
  16. 16. • Farmers’ perception and experience on the negative aspects of NP declined over time at Alipur, Choighati and Digram locations
  17. 17. Conclusions on non-puddled rice • 150 farmer-managed comparisons in both aman and boro seasons during 2013, 2014, and 2015, we conclude that – transplanting of rice seedlings in NP was feasible as a farm practice, cost of rice cultivation was reduced, while gross margin was increased by NP. • Over three consecutive years comprising six rice seasons, there was generally no significant yield difference between NP and CP; • however, in the boro season of 2015, NP produced significantly greater grain and straw yield of rice than CP.
  18. 18. Conclusions on non-puddled rice • Farmers perceptions about benefits of NP increased over time • Farmers’ perceptions about negative aspects of NP decreased over time • These findings were consistent over farms on alluvial and High Barind Tract soils • In farmers’ fields, strip tillage, flooding soils for 24 hours and then transplanting rice into non-puddled soil could be a profitable and labour-saving option for rice establishment under conservation agriculture systems.
  19. 19. Option2:StripPlantedDirectSeededRice Experiment:PerformanceEvaluationofVMPonDirect SeededRiceinAusSeason 24-hr socked seed planted in strips by VMP Direct Seeded Rice in growth stage • Location: Durgapur, Rajshahi, Bangladesh • Replication: Four (dispersed) • Variety: BRRI dhan48 • Date of trans/planting: 27 March, 2018 in case of DSR 22 April, 2018 in case of 25-day old seedlings • Date of harvest: DSR on 12 July, 2018; puddled transplanted on 22 July, 2018 Treatments: T1=Rice seedlings transplanting in puddled soil T2=Rice seed sowing by VMP
  20. 20. Methodology • T1: Land puddled by 2WT with 4 tillage passes Recommended basal fertilizers applied during field preparation. 25-day old seedlings transplanted manually in the fields. Weed control done by pre- and post- emergence herbicides. All agronomic management done as recommended. • T2: Pre-planted herbicide (Roundup) was sprayed 1-day before planting to control pre-germinated weeds. 2-3 cm strips made by VMP, sown 24 hours primed seed and bended basal fertilizers in single pass operation. Pre- and post- emergence weeds were control by herbicides. All agronomic management done as recommended. (Note: For seedling preparation, the rice seed was sown as the same day of DSR establishment in the seedbed and 25-day old seedlings were transplanted in case of puddled rice (T1)).
  21. 21. Results and discussion 2.77 2.91 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 T1 (CP) (T2) DSR Ricegrainyieldt/ha -98 214 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 T1 (CP) (T2) DSR Netprofit/lossUS$/ha • Non-significant higher rice grain yield obtained from DSR (2.91) over puddled transplanting. • However, significantly higher net profit reported from DSR over puddled transplanting. • This results confirmed that although DSR does not having significant grain yield advance, however, confirmed greater profitability over puddled transplanting.
  22. 22. CA is practiced at all scales:
  23. 23. CA is applicable to all crops & cropping systems: Cropping systems: soya wheat corn vegetable rice potato perennials agroforestry
  24. 24. 24 Two-wheel no-till seeder – small farmers, Bangladesh No-till rice In North Korea Multi-row tine ‘Happy Seeder’ – medium size farmers, India No-till rice In Bihar India
  25. 25. CHINA: innovation with raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha; Liu’s 2001 yield (16 t/ha) set provincial yield record and persuaded Prof.Yuan Longping 25 CA-SRT rice-based system, Saguna Baug, Maharastra, India
  26. 26. Happy Seeder
  27. 27. Paddy Seeding
  28. 28. Maize Seeding
  29. 29. 5 Row & Easily detachable
  30. 30. Zero Tillage to Conservation Agriculture Shown the way for infusion of out-of-box thinking on technologies 1990- 91 • On-farm testing of ZT drill • Aitcheson drill in Pakistan & India-CIMMYT 1991- 95 • Pantnagar zero till drill • Inverted T Openers 1996- 99 • Commercial version of ZT drills- National-RWC • Large scale demonstrations-RWC and NARS 1999- 2003 • On-farm long term trials by CCS HAU, RWC • Long-term RCTs trials by DWR 2003- 2005 • Long term RCTs trials by RWC-IRRI-CIMMYT, PDCSR, CSSRI, HAU • Fabrication of machinery for standing residue seeding 2006- 2014 • Initiation on long-term CA trials by ICAR, CIMMYT, IRRI, ICAR-CRP, BISA on CA • Large scale adoption in system based approach CA has proven to bring south American Agriculture out of its stagnant state almost 25 years ago through reversal of soil degradation
  31. 31. 0 5 10 15 20 25 NW IGP Central IGP Eastern IGP FP CA Diversification Documented Benefits of Conservation Agriculture India • Improves the carbon sustainability • Enhances productivity Saves irrigation water 26% in RW systems 72% in diversification • Reduces energy use 72% in rice-wheat 30% maize-wheat system • Provides options for diversification and intensification with high value crops vegetables, legumes, maize
  32. 32. Worldwideadoptionof ConservationAgriculture ** Area of cropland under CA by continent – 2015/16 (source: FAO AquaStat: www.fao/ag/ca/6c.html & Kassam et al. 2018) slide 2/x Continent Area (Mill. ha) Per cent of global total Per cent of arable land of reporting countries South America 69.9 (49.6)* 38.7 (41.0)# 63.2 North America 63.2 (40.0) 35.0 (57.9) 28.1 Australia & NZ 22.7 (12.2) 12.6 (86.1) 45.5+ Asia Russia & Ukraine Europe Africa 13.9 (2.6) 5.7 (0.1) 3.6 (1.6) 1.5 (0.5) 7.7 (430) 3.2(5000) 2.0 (74.7) 0.8 (211) 4.1 3.6 5.0 1.1 Global total 180.4 (107)* ( )* 2008/9 100 (69.4)# ( )# % change since 2008/09 12.5 (7.4)* %global cropland + includes non- cropland 32 ~50% in developing regions, ~50 % in industrialized regions Increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 M ha
  33. 33. Country CA area 2008/09 CA area 2013/14 CA area 2015/16 China 1,330.00 6,670.00 9,000.00 Kazakhstan 1,300.00 2,000.00 2,500.00 India - 1,500.00 1,500.00# Kyrgyzstan - 0.70 50.00 Turkey - 45.00 45.00 Syria - 30.00 30.00# Korea, DPR - 23.00 23.00# Iraq - 15.00 15.00# Uzbekistan - 2.45 10.00 Azerbaijan - 1.30 1.30# Lebanon - 1.20 1.20# Pakistan - - 600.00 Iran - - 150.00 Bangladesh - - 1.50 Tajikistan - - 1.20 Vietnam - - 1.00 Cambodia - - 0.50 Laos - - 0.50 Total 2,630.00 10,288.65 13,930.20 % difference 291.2 since 2008/09 429.7 since 2008/09 35.4 since 2013/14 Extent of CA adoption (‘000 ha) in Asia in 2008/09, 2013/14 and 2015/16. . #from 2013/14
  34. 34. Thank you

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