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Bancy - SRI in Kenya and towards SRI-Africa learning network

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Bancy - SRI in Kenya and towards SRI-Africa learning network

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Bancy - SRI in Kenya and towards SRI-Africa learning network

  1. 1. System of Rice Intensification in Kenya & Towards SRI-Africa Learning Network Presented by: Prof. Bancy M. Mati Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Nairobi, Kenya Paper presented at the: Workshop on Sustaining and Enhancing the Momentum for Innovation and Learning on SRI in the Lower Mekong River Basin (SRI-LMB) Novotel, Bangkok, Thailand 1st – 2nd November 2018
  2. 2. Problem Statement – Africa’s Rice Deficit • Demand for rice is increasing with growing populations, urbanization and changing culinary habits • Africa rice production is about 26.4 million tons of paddy or 17.3 million tons of milled rice. • Rice is grown in 38 African countries • But all the countries in Africa are net importers of rice • Rice yields are low, less than 3 t/ha (potential can be up to 15 t/ha) • Traditional agronomic practices also result in low productivity of rice. • Water management poses major challenges (from scarcity to poor drainage) 2
  3. 3. Problem Statement Fully flooded paddies have low paddy productivity • Rice grown under fully flooded paddies utilizing too much water (3,000 -5,000 litres/kg of grain) • Rice grown in fully flooded paddies does not achieve optimum productivity • Fully flooded paddies become habitats for water borne disease vectors • Water scarcity is a major problem in many parts of Africa, even within irrigation schemes 3
  4. 4. Components of SRI – practised in Kenya SRI has seven major components (deviating from conventional flooded paddy) 1. Transplant very young seedlings; i.e. at 12 to 14 days old, (instead of the conventional 3-4 weeks) 2. Raising the seedlings in un-flooded nurseries (sic) and well-supplied with organic matter 3. Transplant seedlings at wider spacings and in lines, usually 20x20 cm, 4. Transplanting only one seedling per hill (NOT of clumps of 3-4 seedlings), 5. Alternate wetting and drying of the paddy field (do not continuously flood the soil) to ensure aerating of the root zone, 6. Weed control is preferably done with a simple mechanical rotary weeder (challenge) 11/27/2018 4
  5. 5. Transforming from conventional paddy nursery to SRI Conventional flooded nursery Transplanting SRI young seedlingTransplanting conventional rice seedlings SRI dry nursery, and 8-day old seedling SRI requires less seed
  6. 6. Transforming from conventional paddy to SRI Practice Weeding SRI paddy with rotary weederWomen weeding conventional rice paddy SRI wetting & drying paddy fieldConventional fully flooded paddy
  7. 7. Background to SRI efforts in Kenya • SRI was introduced in Kenya at the Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Aug 2009 • Initial partners - JKUAT, NIB, AICAD, WB, WBI, MoA, MWI, KARI, Cornell University (of USA), Mwea Irrigation Scheme/MIAD, farmers • Aug 2009 – Jan 2010, only two pioneer farmers accepted to do trials voluntarily & on-station research trials at MIAD – supported by AICAD • Within that time, Training & awareness creation using the two farmer trials, Video conferences, special ladies’ training • Since April 2010, JKUAT Innovation Fund has been supporting a 3-year SRI research & capacity building project in Mwea. • From June 2011, NIB is supporting a six-month project to upscale SRI in 4 schemes, i.e. Ahero, West Kano, Bunyala & Mwea and SW Kano (2012). • In 2013, lack of funds saw little activity towards promotion of SRI, but framers continued to adopt learning from each other • In 2014, NIB provided funding for developing a marketing value chain for SRI • Also in 2014, AICAD provided funding for SRI research on labor and weeds. • In 2016, Agri-SRI funded a project on Extension f SRI in Western Kenya.
  8. 8. Research on SRI (1 PhD, 12 MSc & MIAD trials) 1. PhD student is assessing SRI for up- scaling in Mwea irrigation scheme. - Using AQUACROP model to predict scheme-level grain yields, amounts of water saved, and cost/benefit analysis. 2. MSC assessed adaptability of SRI in Mwea - completed 3. MSC assessed the effects of SRI on mosquito survival rates. 4. MSC has assessed bio-physical characteristics of four schemes; Mwea, Ahero, West Kano and Bunyala for SRI adaptability 5. MSC is assessing impacts of labour SRI 6. Other MIAD research on SRI spacings Measuring water input in a research plot Mosquito trap in research plot
  9. 9. 11/27/2018 Participatory Research (SRI Farmer trials) SRI Farmer trials Innovations by farmers
  10. 10. Extension (Capacity building) • ToT training with field visits • Hands-on training • Training of trainers (ToT) • Special Training for Ladies • Several field days across which are rotated form block to block • Field days according to crop agronomy • Invited trainers supported by WBI trained staff & farmers from India & Japan • Exchange visits for farmers & staff • Capacity building - at least 3,000 individuals trained on SRI • Some 5,400 farmers had adopted SRI in Mwea, Ahero, West Kano and Bunyala irrigation schemes by October 2018. 10
  11. 11. 11 11/27/201811 Field days & open days for SRI training SRI field day in Mwea-5th August 2010 SRI Open Day- 4th November 2010 SRI field day (transplanting) -21 July 2011 SRI field day in Bunyala – Nov 2012
  12. 12. Awareness creation & Outreach • Open days with invited guests • Displays in the Nairobi International Show • Media outings • Radio broadcast/adverts in vernacular languages • Engaging with private sector e.g. rice millers • Scientific papers & forums • Presenting SRI at Exhibitions and other forums • SMS Messaging as a mode of extension • Marketing of SRI branded rice in the new project SRI Exhibits at Nairobi Show-2012 SRI Display at African Forum for STI in Nairobi, 2012
  13. 13. Extending SRI to Western Kenya • SRI project launched in Ahero, Bunyala, West Kano and SW Kano • SRI Training of Trainers in MIAD for all schemes • Video conferencing for W. Kenya farmers linking with India, Philipines, Mali (WBI) • Exchange visits between farmers • Distribution of rotary weeders • National SRI Workshop held every year in Kisumu SRI training in South-West Kano (2012) SRI Exchange visit to Ahero in 2011
  14. 14. Up-scaling SRI in Ahero, Bunyala , West Kano & SW Kano SRI Training in Ahero Scheme SRI training in West Kano Scheme SRI Training in Bunyala Irrigation SchemeVideo Conference
  15. 15. Under SRI, Rice Yields have Increased
  16. 16. 16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Numberoftillersperhill Weeks after transplanting Growth pattern for the tillers under SRI and CF S…
  17. 17. Results show that SRI works! Key findings – based on farmer s’ data from Mwea, Kenya 11/27/2018 17 Conventional paddy 1. Basmati yields : 4 – 5 t/ha (Mwea) 2. BW rice yields : 7 - 10 t/ha 3. A bag of paddy weighs 80-90 kg 4. Water to grow 1 kg of rice: 3,000- 5,000 litres 5. Grain easily breaks during milling 6. Flooded paddies suffer lodging from windy storms 7. Weeding flooded paddies is done by women 8. Lower return on investment SRI Rice 1. Basmati yields : 7 – 10 t/ha 2. BW rice yields: 11 - 20 t/ha 3. Bag of paddy weighs 100-110 kg 4. Harder, not easily broken on milling 5. Uses 25-33% less water 6. SRI has strong stems that resist damage from windy storms 7. Wedding can be by men or women 8. Higher returns (30-50% increase in net income)
  18. 18. Water savings comparing SRI with Conventional flooded paddy in Mwea, Kenya Rainfall (m3/ha) Irrigation water (m3/ha) Water use (m3/ha)*** Water Productivity (kg/m3) Savings on irrigation water (%) Variety SRI CF SRI CF SRI CF SRI CF Basmati 370 613* 2,821** 8,422 11,610 9,035 14,431 0.7 0.4 27.5 BW 196 696* 3,464** 11,573 15,691 12,269 19,155 0.5 0.2 26.2 IR 2793-80-1 613* 2,644** 10,420 15,096 11,033 17,740 1.0 0.5 31.0 *Rainfall water was drained from SRI plots hence lower than that in the CF plots Source, Omwenga et al, 2014
  19. 19. Mosquito larvae survival comparing SRI Plots with flooded conditions MOSQUITO DATA FOR SRI CONDITIONS 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 DRYING DAYS %EMERGENCE % Emerged from depression % emerged from observation dish Source: Kepha Omwenga - MSC progress report
  20. 20. Costs of Inputs have Reduced under SRI 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 Costofinputs(KShs/ha) Cost component SRI FP Inputs costs comparing SRI with flooded paddy (FP) practices at Mwea (Source: Ndiiri et al 2014)
  21. 21. Benefits of SRI: Less Inputs, Less Water Utilized 1) SRI uses less seed & farmers saved up to 80% of the cost of seed 2) Use of organic manures saves on costs of fertilizers. 3) Fertilizers are applied to individual plants (not broadcasted) – less amounts used 4) Rotary weeding saves up to 75% on costs compared to manual weeding 5) In Mwea, SRI saved 25-33% of water used in irrigation 21
  22. 22. Kenyan SRI project won 1st Prize in Africa • In December 2012, a documentary video on SRI was filmed in Mwea, Ahero, Bunyala, West Kano & SW Kano. • SRI documentary film entitled “System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Producing More Rice with Less Water! The Kenyan Experience” won 1st prize at FARA’s “6th African Agricultural Science Week” awarded on 20th July 2013 in Accra, Ghana. • This film has been used for training and awareness creation on SRI.
  23. 23. SRI work was recognized by SEED Awards (9 Sept 2015) The JKUAT SRI Stand at the SEED Awards, at Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi Prof. Mati addressed the SEED Awards on behalf of past winners (SRI is a past winner of SEED Awards)
  24. 24. Quality of SRI Rice is Superior 6) SRI rice has a harder grain, thus less breakage during milling, 7) This results in better grain quality making it sell faster at slightly higher price. 8) Millers prefer SRI due to higher recovery of whole grains. 9) SRI rice weight heavier than conventional paddy.
  25. 25. Note: SRI has superior milling qualities in all the categories SRI Efforts to develop SRI Value Chain Registration, Vetting, Branding & Marketing Findings of paddy milling test – SRI rice is Super Grade!! Properties SRI Conve ntional SRI Advantage Head rice (%) 90 81 +9 White rice (Kgs) 631 594 +37 Recovery (%) 63 59 +4 Broken (Kgs) 37 56 -19 Chicken feed (Kgs) 4.4 5.5 -1.1 Bran/dust (Kgs) 79 101 -22 Colour sorter (Kgs) 1.5 1.9 -0.4
  26. 26. Some of the Research Publications on SRI • Ndiiri, J.A., Uphoff, N., Mati, B.M., Home, P.G. and Odongo, B. (2017). Comparison of Yields of Paddy Rice under System of Rice Intensification in Mwea, Kenya. American Journal of Plant Biology. 2017; 2(2): 49-60. http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajpb doi: 10.11648/j.ajpb.20170202.12 • Omwenga, K.G., Mati, B.M., and Home, P.G. 2014. Determination of the Effect of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) on Rice Yields and Water Saving in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kenya. Journal of Water Resource and Protection. http://www.scirp.org/journal/jwarphttp://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2014.610084 • Nyang’au, W.O. Mati, B.M. Kulecho, K., Wanjogu R.K. and Kiplagat, L. 2013. Assessment of the adaptability of management practices to system for rice intensification in Kenya, using v 4.5 CERES Rice Model. In: Proceedings of 2013 Mechanical Engineering Conference on Sustainable research and Innovations African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD) –JUJA. 24 -26 April 2013. Volume 5; p 379 -387. • Ndiiri, J.A. Mati, B.M. Home, P.G., Odongo, B. and Uphoff, N. (2013). Adoption, constraints and economic returns of paddy rice under the system of rice intensification in Mwea, Kenya. Agricultural Water Management, 129 (2013) 44–55. • Mati, B. M. 2012. Promoting the Adoption of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) through Participatory Research and Outreach in Kenya. Paper Presented at NIB/MIAD and collaborators research workshop, Kenya School of Monetary Studies, Nairobi, 30-31st May 2012. • Ndiiri, J.A., Mati, B.M., Home, P.G., Odongo, B. and Uphoff, N. 2012. Comparison of water savings of paddy rice under system of rice intensification (SRI) growing rice in Mwea, Kenya. Vol 04 / Issue 6.International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR); 63-73. • Nyamai, M., Mati, B.M., Home P.G., Odongo, B., Wanjogu, R.andThuranira E.G. 2012. Improving land and water productivity in basin rice cultivation in Kenya through System of Rice Intensification (SRI). Agric Eng Int: CIGR Journal, 2012, 14, 2, 1-9. • Omwenga, K.G., Mwangangi, J., Home, P.G. and Mati, B.M. 2012. Assessment of the Impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) on Mosquito Survival at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kenya. Environment and Natural Resources Research. (Forthcoming) • Ndiiri, J.A., Mati, B.M., Home, P.G., Odongo, B. and Uphoff, N. 2012. Benefit-cost analysis of paddy rice under the System of Rice Intensification in Mwea, Kenya.(Forth-coming)”. • Mati, B. M., Wanjogu, R., Odongo, B., and Home, P.G. 2011. Introduction of the System of Rice Intensification in Kenya: experiences from Mwea Irrigation Scheme. Paddy and Water Environment. Volume 9, Number 1, 145-154. • Mati, B. M. 2011. System of Rice Intensification (SRI). Growing more rice with less water. Practical Notes for SRI Farmers. JKUAT and NIB, Kenya. • Nyamai, M., Mati, B.M. and Gidamis, A. 2010. Mfumo wa Kilimo Shadidi cha Mpunga (MKiShaMpunga). Kielelezo cha mfumo wa kilimo shadidi cha mpunga kwa wakulima wa mpunga katika Afrika Mashariki. JKUAT & SRI Resource Center, Mwea, Kenya.
  27. 27. Major Challenges Faced • Farmers’ traditional mindset, skepticism and thus, resistance • A higher incidence of weeds under SRI • Availability (lack) of rotary weeders & equipment • Lack of funding to maintain momentum of projects • Shortage of SRI trained personnel/ extension workers • Lack of SRI value chain for the system to be self-propagating.
  28. 28. Developing SRI-Africa Network • The scientific basis for adoption of SRI has been proven in many countries in Africa, • The main gap is knowledge flows- upwards to reach policy makers, laterally to reach many farmers and extension workers • Because… Africa is a continent fragmented by national boundaries, languages, geographic zones and cultural barriers • Technological divides between scientists and farmers, hence missed opportunities • There has been no one-stop shop knowledge management platform bringing together SRI fraternity in Africa • Networks break these barriers and help establish human resource pools, their contacts and specific needs/facilities
  29. 29. Countries which have adopted SRI in Africa Some 21 countries have adopted SRI in Africa. They include: SNo. Country SNo. Country 1. Madagascar – Where SRI was invented 12. Mali 2. Benin 13. Mozambique 3. Burkina Faso 14. Niger 4. Burundi 15. Nigeria 5. Cameroon 16. Rwanda 6. Cote d’Ivore 17. Senegal 7. Democratic Republic of Congo 18. Sierra Leone 8. Ethiopia 19. Tanzania 9. Guinea 20. The Gambia 10. Kenya 21 Togo 11. Liberia
  30. 30. Towards an SRI-AFRICA Network Main Objective: To build a vibrant Africa-wide Community of Practice on SRI, for knowledge sharing, advocacy and action (An African voice for SRI) More specifically: a) Build SRI-Africa network for peer support and as a learning and knowledge sharing platform on SRI b) Gather, contribute to, share and utilize knowledge and best practices on SRI to facilitate informed choices c) Resource mobilization to support SRI actions d) Implement programmes/projects & activities that lead to upscaling of SRI – including meetings, exchange visits, etc. e) Work towards establishing national SRI networks which can implement projects – first develop national workshops which culminate in an Africa-wide SRI network Currently, we have developed a web portal for knowledge sharing – Credit to Cornell University (SRI-RICE) baseline database Website for knowldge sharing: www.sri-africa.net
  31. 31. Acknowledgements • Dr. Raphael Wanjogu • Eng. Hosea Wendot • Mr. Laban Kiplagat • Mr. Joel Tanui • Eng. Daniel Barasa • Mr. Richard Githaiga • Mr. Moses Kareithi • Mr. Kennedy Ouma • Dr. Jackline Ndiiri • Prof. Patrick Home • Mr. Wycliffe Nyangau • Edith Obunge • Boaz Ochieng Omondi • Saverio Ireri • Innocent Ariemba • Mercy Kithia • Moses Kareithi • Mathew Kamanu • NIB General Manager • MIAD • Staff & SRI farmers in Mwea, Ahero, Bunyala, West Kano • JKUAT • AICAD • WB • WBI • Ministry of Water & Irrigation • Ministry of Agriculture • Cornell University (USA) • Media(KBC, Nation, Standard, People, Citizen) • Friends and well-wishers • Cornell University, USA
  32. 32. 11/27/2018 32 THANK YOU www.sri-africa.net