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Social Case Work  Celebrating the dignity & worth of every individual                                                     ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work                                               Contents                            (Click on ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work                                                       Syllabus                              ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work                                         SOCIAL CASEWORK                                Mary ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work                                 Social Case Work:                                 Social Cas...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Workdeveloped gradually to a professional method in subsequent years. Their collectiveexperience ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Workfocus from the self of the individual to his continuous interactions with his significant oth...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkPhysical and mental illness and health related handicaps of various types make peoplehelpless...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkQueen (1932)Social case work is the art “of adjusting personal relationship”.Lee (1923)Social...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work       Safrad       “Social Case Work is a method employed by a social worker to help individ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work      be a person of genuineness being real, honest in their approach and never go beyond    ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Workupon her/his intelligence, so the mode of helping (Technique) must be according to theIntelle...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work    towards him and sensitive to the clients‟ feelings and problems.Stages in Case WorkDiffer...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkSocial TreatmentSocial treatment in case work is the sum total of all activities and services...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Workspecialized service.  Case Work Process  Casework process has four different stages, namely, ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work     Process of Social Case Work                                                             ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work                                           III. Psycho - Social diagnosis (Assessment):      ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work         IV. Intervention / Treatment (Problem-solving process):         * Hamilton, “Treatme...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work                              VI. Follow-up and Termination:VI                              ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work                             Components of Case Work                    Person               ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work II. Problem:  The problems within the purview of social casework are those which vitally af...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkIV. Process:* In order to understand what the case work process must include in its problem-s...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work       Transference & Counter Transference in case work Relationship                         ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work                                    Relationship in Case Work                                ...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work              Similarities and differences between case work and counselingSimilarities1. Bot...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkProblem & Strength PerspectiveProblem/Deficit Perspective                      Strengths Pers...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkCommunication theory,Crisis theory,Family theory, andLearning theory.These are not theories i...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkKnowledge base of Social Case WorkBesides the values and principles, the body of knowledge in...
S.Rengasamy. Social Case Worklarger community, is often able to locate the resources and services available outside theage...
Social Case Work
Social Case Work
Social Case Work
Social Case Work
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Learning resources compiled by S.Rengasamy on Social Case Work for the students doing their Master of Social Work Course in Madurai Kamaraj University

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Social Case Work

  1. 1. Social Case Work Celebrating the dignity & worth of every individual Compiled by S.Rengasamy Madurai Institute of Social Sciences Acknowledgements http://christcollegemsw.blogspot.com/ http://Indian Social Study.com http://www.scribd.com/vinitha_sukumar Grace Mathew‟s “Case Work” form Encyclopedia of Social Work in India
  2. 2. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work Contents (Click on each content to go to the relevant page)Social Case Work –Syllabus #UGC / NET /JRF SyllabusSocial case work Richmond & Pearlman(Box)Social Case work # Origin of Case work #Mary Richmonds Contribution to Social Case Work #What SocialWorkers learned from Freudian psychology & Economic depression # Broadening the understanding–Fromself to interaction with othersCauses of Human Problems as conceived by Social Case Workers # Lack of material resources #Misconceptions about situations and relationships and lack of appropriate # Illness or health relatedhandicaps # Emotional distress resulting from stressful situations # Personality features or deficienciesDefinitions of Social Case WorkObjectives of Social Case WorkNature & Characteristics of Case WorkComponents/elements of case work:Purpose & concern for the Client system # Expectation at three level # Accuracy of Empathy and clearcommunication # Non Possessive warmth # Genuineness and acceptance #AuthorityPrinciples and Techniques of case work (Box) Principles of Case work # I. Individualization # II. Purposefulexpression of feelings #III. Control emotional involvement #IV. Self determination # V. Acceptance #VI.Non-Judgmental attitude #VII. Principle of Confidentiality # More Explanations on the Principles of SocialCaseworkStagesComponents of Social Case Work # Social Case History (Box) #Social Diagnosis # Types of diagnosis(Table) # Social Treatment # Objectives of social case work treatment (Box) #Methods of case worktreatmentInterviewing in CaseworkCase Work process (Box) # Process of Social Case Work # Intake (First Interview) Rapport Building #Psycho-Social study (Exploration / Investigation) # Psycho - Social diagnosis (Assessment) #Intervention /Treatment (Problem-solving process) # Monitoring and Evaluation # Follow-up and Termination # SocialCase Work Process (Box)Components of Case Work #Person # The problem # The place # The process #Transference #Transference and counter transference (Diagram) # Relationship in Social Case WorkSimilarities and differences between case work and counseling # Similarities between case work andpsychotherapyProblem & Strength PerspectiveTheories of Social Case Work #Psychodynamic theory # Ego psychology # Functional casework # Cognitivetheory #Social role theory # Behaviour modification theory # Communication theory# Crisis theory #Family theory and Learning theory.Qualities of Social Case Worker # Knowledge base of Social Case WorkThree Roles of the Case Worker # Clinical/behavioural change roleRole of the consultant/educator #The advocate/broker roleRecording in Social Work # Principles of Case RecordsCasework Practice in India #Theory Building in CaseworkPsychosocial Theory and Social Work PracticeImran Ahmad Sajid # Peshawar University # Introduction # Meaning of Psychosocial # Psychosocialtheory # Client‟s context # Problem # Aim of Treatment # The Goal of Psychosocial Workers # HistoricalOrigin and Development #Mary Richmond # Knowledge from Psychology and Psychiatry # Ego Psychology#Principles and Assumptions # Assumptions from Ego psychology # The Worker Client Relationship#Obstacles in effective worker-client relationship # Approaches to Intervention # Psycho-social Study #Initial Interviews # Additional Source of Information # Approaches to Intervention # Early Life History #Psychosocial Assessment # Psychosocial Intervention # RecapBehaviour & Behaviour ModificationReferences 2
  3. 3. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work Syllabus Social Case Work –Syllabus1. Social Case Work- Definition, Meaning, Concept, Objectives, Principles and history of SocialCase work in India and abroad2. Basic components of social casework. – Problem, Person, Place, Process. Relationship in casework –nature, establishment, maintenance, termination, transference and counter transference3. Case Work process – Study (Case recording, Interview, Collateral contact etc), Diagnosis,Treatment, (methods & techniques), Follow –up and Termination4. Approaches in social case work –Functional, Diagnostic, Directive, Non-directive and Eclectic.Recording in case work –Importance and Methods5. Application of social case work in family, educational institutions, community, industries and inhospitals UGC / NET /JRF SyllabusCase work - Concept, Objectives and Principles. Social Case Work Process - Intake, Study, SocialDiagnosis, Treatment, Termination and Evaluation. Approaches in Case Work - Psychoanalytical,Psycho-social, Problem Solving, Behaviour Modification, Crisis Intervention and Eclectic Approach.Techniques and skills in Social Case Work - Interviews, Home visit, Resource Mobilization, Referral,Environmental Modification, Case Work Relationship, Communication - Types of Recording in CaseWork. Role of Social Case Worker in Various Settings Hope Hope Opportunity Opportunity Choice Choice Social Case Work 3
  4. 4. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work SOCIAL CASEWORK Mary RichmondSocial casework, representing that part of social work which focused more on the individual, had avital non-poverty populations. Social works prestige was raised through work in war-related activitiessuch as the Red Crosss Home Service. Caseworkers with the home service, led by Mary Richmond,applied their skills to problems faced by service men and their families. Physicians, psychiatrists andpsychologists working with emotionally disturbed soldiers saw the social worker as a natural ally.They began using caseworkers as specialists in social adjustment. Such vital activities were outsidethe professions traditional constituency of the poor and indigent and opened up new opportunitiesfor social work. PearlmanThe second major event that marked social casework‟s ascendancy within social work was thepublication of Mary Richmonds Social Diagnosis. For several decades, Ms. Richmond had beenattempting to turn the practical but rough-hewn techniques and skills commonly known as caseworkinto a more systematic approach. After honing her ideas through workshops, lectures and articles,Ms. Richmond put her ideas into a book which was the first definitive text on casework.Much more than just another book, Social Diagnosis, gave to the new field of social work an anchorin its quest for professionalism. In 1915, noted authority of professional education, Abraham Flexner,had delivered a paper at the National Conference on Charities and Corrections declaring that socialwork was not yet a profession. In his paper, Dr. Flexner was particularly critical of the new fields lackof a technique which was "communicable through the educational process". Mary Richmond, throughSocial Diagnosis, gave social work what Dr. Flexner said it was lacking and propelled caseworkfrom one of a number of approaches used by charity workers into a major form of practice. Definition “Social Case work may be defined as the art of doing different things for and withObjectives of Social Case Work: different people by cooperating with them to achieve at one and the same time their own and society‟s betterment.” Mary Richmond (1915) 4
  5. 5. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work Social Case Work: Social Case Work, a primary method of social work, is concerned with the adjustment and development of individual towards more satisfying human relations. Better family life, improved schools, better housing, more hospitals and medical care facilities, protected economic conditions and better relations between religious groups help the individual in his adjustment and development. But his adjustment and development depend on the use of these resources by him. Sometimes due to certain factors, internal or external, he fails to avail existing facilities. In such situations, social caseworker helps him. Thus, social casework is one to one relationship, which works in helping the individual for his adjustment and development. Every individual reacts differently to his social, economic and physical environments and as such problems of one individual are different from those of another. The practice of casework is a humanistic attempt for helping people who Case Work have difficulty in coping with the problems of daily living. It Making Adjustment Meaningful is one of the direct methods of social workwhich uses the case-by-case approach for dealing withindividuals or families as regards their problems of socialfunctioning. Case work, aims at individualized servicesin the field of social work in order to help the client toadjust with the environments.Origin of Case workBy working with the poor Social Workers radically realized that forces within theindividual and forces external to him contributed for human suffering.Though casework as a mode of helping people on the basis of a person-to-person relationship was present in every society from ancient times, the professional method of casework originated in U.S.A. in the second decade of this century. One of the earliest organised efforts in U.S.A. to help the poor was the establishment of the American Charity Organization Society (1) in 1877 on the pattern of the Charity Organization of London, which was started seven years earlier. One of the aims of the society was to find out ways and means of helping the poor and needy and thus to organise individualised services geared to this purpose. The society used volunteers, who Josephine Shaw Lowell Founder of were called friendly visitors, to visit the homes of the poor for New Yorks Charity organization purposes of assessing their need, for rendering material assistance and for giving them guidance and advice. The friendlyvisitors were subsequently supplemented by paid agents. These paid helpers graduallydeveloped, systematic procedures in performing their tasks. They collected data about theneedy individuals and families, and helped them after assessing their need. They alsomaintained records in which they kept all the information including personal data, as well asthe type of help rendered. It was out of the practice of these early workers that casework 5
  6. 6. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Workdeveloped gradually to a professional method in subsequent years. Their collectiveexperience of knowing the poor families and their problems and the concurrent studies ofpoverty by social scientists broadened the understanding of human behaviour. There was thegrowing recognition that there were forces within the individual and forces external to himwhich influenced his behaviour and the nature of his existence in society. In course of timethe terms paid agents and the poor were supplanted by caseworkers and clients respectivelyin the terminology of the help giving organisation and the office of the organisation came tobe known as the agency.Mary Richmonds Contribution to Social Case WorkMary Richmonds book, Social Diagnosis, which was published in 1917 may be considered Century before, even before the declaration of human rights Mary Richmond asserted that poor have their own individuality and they have a right for self determination as the first book in casework. It set forth a methodology of helping clients through systematic ways of assessing their problems and handling them. Besides, the book introduced the principle of individualization and also acknowledged the clients right of self-determination. The first training programme for caseworkers was in the form of summer courses. Then the need for more substantial training was found necessary and schools of social work, attached to agencies, came into existence. When these schools attaineda certain standing in the community, they were recognized as professional schools under theadministrative authority of universities.What Social Workers learned from Freudian psychology & Economic depressionFreudian psychology which emerged in the 1920s had a strong impacton casework. The new psychoanalytical knowledge pertaining tohuman behaviour was eagerly absorbed by caseworkers which wasfound useful in understanding clients and their problems. During thisperiod of development, caseworkers focused their attention onpsychic forces within the individual. During the economic depressionof the 1930s casework had to consider the economic factors whichwere causing distress to clients. There was also the realization thateconomic distress could lead to emotional distress and breakdown.One major outcome of the depression was the establishment ofgovernmental public assistance programs. It relieved the voluntary agencies from the tasks of providing economic help which enabled the caseworkers to devote more time in dealing with clients interpersonal problems. Broadening the understanding–From self to interaction with others During the 1940s, caseworkers were exposed to the formulations on ego psychology based on the observations of human beings as regards their differential coping and adapting abilities in times of stress. The new studies on human behaviour brought to light the potentialities of the human personality for healthy adaptation to lifes stresses. During the next two decades, some casework theoreticians began to examine sociological concepts like social role, social system, social class, etc.,with reference to their applicability to casework situations. The result was the shifting of the 6
  7. 7. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Workfocus from the self of the individual to his continuous interactions with his significant othersin social settings.American casework did influence the use of casework in India as the first professional socialworkers who did casework in the Indian setting were trained in the American schools of social work. Casework was one of the courses taught when the Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work, currently known as the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, was started in Bombay in 1936, and it became a method of practice in helping people with their problems of social functioning. Some social welfare agencies employed Tata Trust caseworkers particularly with the purpose of helping their clients in a one-to-one relationship. Currently, the so-calledcaseworkers attached to some welfare services are not trained social workers, and thoseprofessionally trained social workers who use the method of casework considerably in theirwork are not given the designation of caseworkers as they are likely to use other methods aswell.Causes of Human Problems as conceived by Social Case WorkersProblems of social functioning cause distress to the individuals who come voluntarily orinvoluntarily to a social work agency for help. What is important to note here is that theseindividuals are not to be considered as one of a mass of people or a unit of a category, but asunique persons. Casework method in social work is an indication of the high value placed onthe individual by the profession.Those people who seek social work help for their problems of living do so because theirnormal coping methods are not effective in dealing with the particular problems. There arereasons why individuals find their normal coping patterns ineffective in the face of someproblems. These reasons may be broadly divided into five categories.1. Lack of material resources: Social work agencies do not have financial resources to giveassistance to people who seek material help. But, when, lack of money makes it difficult foran individual to deal with a particular situation effectively, it is likely that he can obtainfinancial help through the services of a caseworker, depending upon the nature of thesituation and the policy of the agency. For example, it is possible for an amputee who is poorand who is a patient in a general hospital to get monetary help through the social workdepartment of the hospital for buying artificial limbs.2. Misconceptions about situations and relationships and lack of appropriateinformation: Wrong notions about things prevent people from handling difficult situationseffectively. Many people have superstitious beliefs about diseases which prevent them fromtaking prompt medical treatment which can cure the disease. For example, if a man believesthat his childs epileptic fits are caused by the possession of a devil, he is likely to tryremedies which will worsen the condition. Sometimes it is ignorance of existing services andresources which delays action. Help is required to correct distorted perceptions and forobtaining essential information.3. Illness or health related handicaps: 7
  8. 8. S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkPhysical and mental illness and health related handicaps of various types make peoplehelpless or irrational in the face of difficulties. For instance, when in a family the father is ill,the mother will have to bear extra burden and face problems alone for which she may requireoutside help. The patient and his family may need help to accept the illness of the former andto make realistic plans for the present and future.4. Emotional distress resulting from stressful situations: In certain situations strongfeelings are aroused which make a person incapable of acting sensibly. For instance, when afather comes to know of his adolescent sons delinquent activities he may feel so upset andashamed that he may want to throw the boy out of the house and to sever all his connectionswith him. In such situations the emotionally upset person needs someone to whom he canverbalize his feelings freely. Verbalization will reduce the need to act out irrationally and setthe mind clear for objective thinking.5. Personality features or deficiencies:Defective features of ones personality not only create problematic situations for oneself andothers but also make one incapable of solving problems of life. If a little girl is brought up byher mother in the strong belief that her father who deserted the family was a bad man and thatall men are likewise bad, it is probable that the girl will have a difficult relationship with herhusband when she later marries. The generalized wrong idea may get deeply implanted in thedaughters personality during childhood and she may not be even aware of it as she growsinto adulthood. There are innumerable problems of this type effecting human relationships,caused by unhealthy attitudes and reactions which are deeply embedded in the personality.Here, the remedy lies in helping the persons concerned to develop insight about their ownreactions and learn to act consciously and appropriately rather than react automatically tosituations.Definitions of Social Case Work Mary Richmond (1915) “Social Case Work may be defined as the Art of doing different things with different people, co-operating with them to achieve some of their own & society‟s betterment.” Mary Richmond (1917) Social case work is the art of bringing about better adjustments in the social relationship of individual men or women or children Mary Richmond (1922) Social case work means, „those processes which develop personality through adjustment consciously affected, individual by individual, between men and their social environment‟ Jarrett (1919) Social case work is “the art of bringing an individual who is in a condition of social disorder into the best possible relation with all parts of his environment‟. Taft (1920) Social case work means “social treatment of a maladjusted individual involving an attempt to understand his personality, behaviour and social relationships and to assist him in working out better social and personal adjustment”. Watson (1922) Social Case Work is the art of untangling and restructuring the twisted personality in such a manner that the individual can adjust himself to his environment 8
  9. 9. S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkQueen (1932)Social case work is the art “of adjusting personal relationship”.Lee (1923)Social case work is the art of changing human attitudes”Taylor (1926)Social case work is a process concerned with the understanding of individuals aswhole personalities and with the adjustments of these to socially healthy livesRaynolds (1935)Social case work is the processes of counseling with a client on a problemwhich areessentially his own, involving some difficulty in his social relationship.Raynods (1935)Social case work is that form of social work which assists the individual which hesuggests to relate himself to his family, his natural group , his communityKlein (1938)Social case work is a technical method in social work…. A way of adjusting to theclient to his personal problems.Swift (1939)Social case work is the art of assisting the individual in developing and making use ofhis personal capacity to deal with problems which he faces in his life.DeSchweiinitz (1939)Case work means those processes involved in giving service, financial assistance, orpersonal counsel to individuals by the representatives of social agencies, according topolices established and with consideration of individual need.Strode (1948)Social case work is the process of assisting the individual to best possible socialadjustment through the use of social case study, social resources and knowledge fromrelative fields of learning.Towle (1947)Social case work is one method ….by which certain social services are made availablein areas of unmet needs.Bowers (1949)Social case work is an art in which knowledge of the sciences of human relations andskill in relationship are used to mobilize capacities in the individual and resources inthe community appropriate for better adjustment between the client and all or any partof his total environment.Hollis (1954)“Social Case work is a method employed by social worker to help individuals findsolution to problems of social adjustment which they are unable to handle insatisfactory way by their own efforts.”Gordon Hamilton (1956)“Social case work (which is both a tool and area of work) consists of those processeswhich develop personality through adjustment consciously affected, individual byindividual between man and his social environment.”Gordon HamiltonIn social case work the client is stimulated to participate in the study of his situation, toshare plans, to make an effective effort to solve his problems, using his own resourcesand whatever community resources are available and appropriate.Perlman (1957)“Social Case work is a process used by certain human welfare agencies to helpindividuals to cope more effectively with their problems in social functioning.” 9
  10. 10. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work Safrad “Social Case Work is a method employed by a social worker to help individual, find a solution of their problem of social adjustment which they are unable to handle in a satisfactory way by their own effort.”Objectives of Social Case Work To make good rapport with the common people To find-out, understand & solve the internal problems of an individual To strengthen ones ego power To prevent problem To develop internal resourcesNature & Characteristics of Case Work Relationship arise out of shared & emotionally charged situation Relationship contains elements of acceptance, expectation, support & stimulation Client & case worker are interdependent Case work relationship may have several therapeutic values Improvement of condition More adjustment within the society Development of personality Capacity building Relationship needs outside help Case worker too has relationship reactions and part of and part of one‟s professional skills in their managementComponents/elements of case work: Purpose & concern for the client system A purpose to find-out internal problems & try to solve it and a concern to make good rapport, feel ones feelings and aims at individualized service Expectation at three level -Expectation of the case worker from the client, how the case worker feels about the clients ability & what extend client support anybody -Expectation of the client from the Case worker -Positive result in the period of interaction Accuracy of Empathy and clear communication - Think positively in others point of view - What extent you are sympathetic - Ability to perceive & communicate accurately & feel - Case worker should be sensitive to express feelings towards client by voice, posture and good communication Non Possessive warmth Give respect, acceptance, liking, caring and concern for the client in a non- dominating way. Genuineness and acceptance Case worker mist be Going Beyond Prejudice and Fear to practical in nature. He must Understanding 10
  11. 11. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work be a person of genuineness being real, honest in their approach and never go beyond her/his limit. Authority Case worker must have a capacity to handle any situation, being resourceful and helpful Having knowledge, attitude, experience and a position to identify and solve internal problem of client Principles and Techniques of Casework The foundation of the practice of casework is a conceptual framework consisting of certain values or philosophical assumptions. The most basic value is that of the worth and dignity of every human being. The next is the commitment to the goal of human betterment, in terms of both material and emotional wellbeing. Then, there is the Human dignity value related to the development of human potential to the Human Potential highest level possible. Since each individual is considered Human participation to be important, there is the corollary of the need for every Acceptance person to participate fully in the direction of his own life. Non condemning attitude Confidentiality These value orientations are the result of philosophic Controlled emotions thought over years of human existence and are to be Human Behaviour can change differentiated from scientific theories which can be tested and proved. Nevertheless, belief in these values is a necessary pre-requisite in order that casework may be effective. There is another set of commitments emerging from these philosophical assumptions and the idea of individualised help. They are concepts of acceptance, non-condemning attitudes, confidentiality and controlled emotional involvement. Though these concepts originally developed from the values mentioned earlier, they were reinforced later by the experience of social workers with the result that they subsequently became casework principles or rules of action. Closely linked with these values and principles is the postulate that human behaviour can change. Human history indicates that sages, philosophers, priests and teachers, since times immemorial, had tried to explain human behaviour and to change it. They were only partially successful. It will be presumptuous to think that by application of behavioural sciences one can change human behaviour easily. One has to be rather modest as regards ones expectationsPrinciples of Case workIndividualization Case WorkPurposeful expression of feelingsControl of EmotionSelf determinationAcceptancePrinciple of non-judgmental attitudePrinciple of ConfidentialityI. Individualization Solving problems by Drawing inner strengthIndividualization means analyze an individual not from a singleaspect but from various aspects. Every Individual is different fromothers & unique in itself. Problem of every individual is different from another & depend 11
  12. 12. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Workupon her/his intelligence, so the mode of helping (Technique) must be according to theIntellectual level, socio-economic situation and ego strength, ones capacity and resource.II. Purposeful expression of feelingsCase worker must give the chance to the client to express her/his feelings freely, especiallyher/his negative feelings because maximum time feelings are negative in nature. The caseworker listen purposefully clients feelings neither praising nor condemning. Don‟t point outany one as good or bad because of one‟s psycho-social problems.III. Control emotional involvementWithout feeling any one‟s emotion with sensitivity, it‟s impossible to find-out her/hisproblem & get a solution of that problem.Emotion comes from 3 ways as- Sensitivity-Understanding-ResponseIV. Self determinationSelf determination we means let the client to take her/his own decision in own way, givechance her/him to decide, what is right or wrong for them.V. AcceptanceA case worker must be accept an individual as a person of “worth & dignity”, not treat as aproblem and always accept ones positive feelings and negative feelingsVI. Non-Judgmental attitudeA case worker mustn‟t have the right to judge any one as guilty or innocent.VII. Principle of ConfidentialityCase work relationship has a principle to take the problems of the client in confidence andkeep it as secret.More Explanations on the Principles of Social Casework1. A worker should believe in social reality. Every individual has his own different problems because every personality is unique Problems do exit and there is no stigma attached to a problem and or any maladjusted person and a social worker does not believe in social isolation for the physically, mentally, emotionally and socially sick person. Every problem can, therefore, be solved provided we create conditions for an individual who help to make an adjustment with his social environment.2. The personality of the client is to be respected.3. Worker should build up purposeful relationship with the client.4. Worker should always have belief in the ability of the human beings to change and grow.5. Worker should not involve himself emotionally with the client. There should not be any over-identification with the client.6. Worker has to accept and appreciate the individual differences and prejudices of the client.7. In the process of helping, it should be observed that the client is as active as the worker, since the formers‟ participation in the treatment is very necessary. The client should be helped to help himself.8. Worker has also to look to the interest of the family, community and the agency and as such he has to help the client to adjust with the family and the community by releasing the immediate resources available in the community, taking family as a primary institution. The worker has to consider the client as part of the family, community and society with mutual responsibility.9. In order to establish rapport with the client, worker should be sincere and sympathetic 12
  13. 13. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work towards him and sensitive to the clients‟ feelings and problems.Stages in Case WorkDifferent stages in case work process are:Case study /Social Investigation / Psycho Social StudySocial Diagnosis and.Social TreatmentSocial Case History:The first step in the case work is to collect the social history of the client. This could be donein various ways. These are: Case Study … All the relevant information1. Interview with the client or material gathered about an individual,2. Interview with the relatives, employer, teacher family, group, etc., and arranged so as to and friends of the client. serve as an organized record and have analytic value for a social worker, student, or3. Visiting the neighborhood and environment in the like: used especially in social work, which the client lives. sociology, psychiatry, and medicine. Case Study … A record that shows aAll these visits will help the worker to know the persons past illnesses, treatments, andclient in his environment and collect all the data in other information for use by doctors, socialrespect of the client and his environment i.e. his workers, etcfamily, neighborhood, friendship circle, employer, Content of the Case History 1. The picture of the problemteacher, etc. as a matter of fact it is not possible to 2. Client‟s feelings & Reactionsseparate the three stages of case work service i.e. 3. Client‟s efforts to solve problemssocial history, diagnosis and treatment. During the 4. Social conditionscourse of interview, the worker may be able to 5. Psycho-social development of thediagnose and even suggest treatment to the client clientbut where the problem is very acute; it is Tools /Techniques of case study Interview and observationnecessary to consider the diagnosis in relation to Interview means face to face conservation,his own history. or questioning, for the purpose of eliciting information to understand and analyze issuesSocial Diagnosis /problems in question Format of interview schedule Diagnosis is an explanation 1.Based on the facts 1. History of the problem (case study) collected, 2. Based on the theoretical 2. Personal history knowledge base, 3. It is subject to change if new 3. Habits facts are collected 4. Occupational history 5. IncomeSocial diagnosis is an attempt to arrive at an exact 6. Sex experience (if it is needed) 5. Incomedefinition as possible of the social situation and 6. Sex experience (if it is needed)personality of a given client. It is a search for the 7. Family detailscauses of the problem which brings the client tothe worker for help. Diagnosis, is therefore, is concerned with understanding both thepsychological or personality factors which bear a casual relationship to the client‟s difficultyand the social or environmental factors which tend to sustain it. Types of diagnosis Dynamic Diagnosis Clinical Diagnosis Etiological Diagnosis Dynamic diagnosis gives an Clinical diagnosis is an attempt This diagnosis is concerned understanding of the current to classify the client by the with the explanation of the life problem of the client and the nature of his/her sickness / history of the client‟s problem. forces currently operating problem. It identifies the client‟s When the client‟s responses within the client, within social personality maladaptation & are not in accordance with the environment and between malfunctioning. It is useful only problem, the past history and him/his environment. The when it becomes apparent that its appraisal helps to nature of such diagnosis is a disorder of personality understand the rigid reactions changeable because it is the accompanies the social disorder, of the client and make beginning phase of the social creating & complicating it appropriate treatment plan 13 case work practice
  14. 14. S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkSocial TreatmentSocial treatment in case work is the sum total of all activities and services directed towardshelping the client with a problem. The focus isto relieve the immediate problem and if feasible Objectives of Case Work Treatmentmodify any basic difficulties which precipitated 1. To prevent social breakdown 2. To conserve client‟s strengthit. Strictly speaking, everything that has been 3. To restore social functioningdiscussed so far is part of treatment. 4. To provide positive reinforcements 5. To create opportunities for growth andGenerally, two types of efforts are required for developmentsocial adjustment – environmental modification 6. To compensate psychological damageand or change in behaviour modification. Early 7. To increase capacity of self directioncase work treatment was placed on modification 8. To increase his social contributionthrough the environment. Later on thedevelopment of ego psychology helped social case workers to use intensive and directtreatment techniques. Methods of social case work treatment Administration of Indirect Treatment (Environmental Direct Treatment Practical Services Manipulation) Providing help to the Environmental manipulation means In this the case worker client to choose and use changing the social conditions of the exerts influence directly the social resources client so that he/she may be relieved on the client. It is used afforded by the from excessive stresses and strains. when the client needs community. Money, For example attempts to change the direction because of his medical care, legal aid, attitude of the parents, teachers, ignorance, anxiety and helping to get job or spouse, employer, friends and relatives, weakness of his ego admission in educational training and employment for livelihood, strength. institutions, aged homes, group experience in accordance with the Direct treatment is given foster homes, needs of the client. through counseling, recreational facilities are Environmental modification is therapeutic interviewing, such type of services that undertaken by the case worker only clarification and any person in problem when environmental pressures upon the interpretation leading to may need in order to client are beyond the client‟s control but an insight. resolve a given problem can be modified by the case worker in his daily livingThe interviews in all these process are every important and unless the interviews areconducted properly, it is not possible to expect results. The case worker has, therefore, notonly to understand the theory of interview but also have sufficient training and experience ininterviewing, if he/she wants to be successful in providing service to the client.Interviewing in CaseworkBy interviewing, we mean a meeting or conference (may be formal or informal) between twoor more persons for specific purpose. It is an art which is used in every situation for betterunderstanding and better relationships between the interviewer and the interview.Interviewing is the foundation on which theory and practice of social case work is basedbecause without interview, the worker cannot get all the possible information about the clientnor can the client gain any confidence in the worker. The purpose of an interview is,therefore, three-fold1. To obtain knowledge of the situation.2. To understand another person.3. To make the person understand you.Note: the word client used here means any person who is seeking help or is being offered 14
  15. 15. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Workspecialized service. Case Work Process Casework process has four different stages, namely,  Social study,  Social diagnosis,  Casework treatment, and  Evaluation. Conceptually, they are different and separate stages but they do not make a neat progression always with one stage following the other in sequence. Sometimes, two or more stages proceed simultaneously. Diagnosis may also change with the gathering of more data about the situation or with changes taking place in the situation itself. Casework help cannot be postponed till the completion of the social study or of the formulation of a social diagnosis. Some kind of help may have to be rendered even at the first worker -client contact. The skilful way the caseworker conducts the interview may be of help to the client in terms of the concern, hope, warmth and interest conveyed to the client, which in turn start a process, sooner or later, within him activating him to mobilise his inner resources for problem solving. In casework intervention the individual client is not considered in isolation from the family, but as a part of the family, since the family forms the most important human environment for the client with its network of emotional relationships. Therefore, other members of the family are also involved in the casework process. Also, home visits are made by the caseworker to get an understanding of the environment as for other reasons. 15
  16. 16. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work Process of Social Case Work Process of Social Case Work I. Intake (First Interview) Rapport Building II. Psycho-Social study exploration/Investigation) III. Psycho - Social diagnosis (Assessment) IV. Intervention / Treatment (Problem-solving process) V. Monitoring and Evaluation: VI. Follow-up and Termination I. Intake (First Interview) Rapport Building  Client comes to an agency for professional help through a Case worker.  Relationship between two persons of unequal positions and power is developed. Intake (First Interview) Rapport Building  Accept client as a person in a stressful situation  Respect the client‟s personality and help him resolve. The areas for probing are The areas for probing are 1. The stage of the problem at which the person, through whom, and the reasons because of which, comes to this agency. 2. The nature of request and its relation to his problem, and the cause of his problem, as I the client see. 3. Does the request relate directly to his needs/ problems? 4. His adjustment to his social functions in job, family, etc. 5. The state of his physical and mental health. 6. His appearance including dress, etc. in his first meeting. 7. His personal and social resources including material and financial position. 8. Appropriateness and intensity of feelings. 9. Nature of defense mechanisms he frequently uses. 10. Level of motivation, how quickly he wants to get rid of his problems. 11. Nature of family, its status, values, relationship pattern within the family, etc. 12. Reactions to the worker and seeking help from the agency and sex of caseworker who will be suitable to help the person. II. Psycho-Social study (Exploration / Investigation): Psycho-Social study (Exploration / Investigation) * “Psycho – Social study is the initial assessment of client‟s current, relevant past and possible future modes of adaptation to stressful situations and normal living situations.” Perlman has given the following contents of the case work study 1. The nature of the presenting problem 2. The significance of the problem. 3. The cause(s), onset and precipitants of the problem.II 4. The efforts made to cope with problem-solving. 5. The nature of the solution or ends sought from the case work agency. 6. The actual nature of the agency and its problem solving means in relation to the client and his problem. Tools of study The tools used by the case worker for collecting the relevant information are: 1. Interview guide and schedule. 2. Life chart. 3. Video recording of family interaction. 4. Tape recorded interview. The Format of Interview Schedule 1. History of the problem.2.Personal history. 3. Family history. 4. Problematic areas. 5. Treatment Plan 16
  17. 17. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work III. Psycho - Social diagnosis (Assessment):  Perlman (1957) – “Diagnosis helps in determining the focus of treatment, further collection of facts and deciding the best course of action to solve the problem.”  “Social diagnosis is the attempt to arrive at an exact definition as possible of the social situation and personality of a given client.”  “Diagnosis is concerned with understanding both the psychological or personality factors which bear a causal relation to the client‟s difficulty and the social or environmental factors which tend to sustain it.”  “Diagnosis may be viewed as the fluid, constantly changing assessment of the client, their problems, life situations and important relationships.” Content of the Social Diagnosis 1. The nature of the problem brought and the goals sought by the client, in their relationshipIII to. 2. The nature of the person who bears the problem and who seeks or needs help with the problem, in relation to. 3. The nature and purpose of the agency and the kind of help it can offer and/ or make Psycho - Social diagnosis (Assessment) available. Process of making diagnosis  Shifting the relevant from irrelevant data  Organizing the facts and getting them into relatedness  Grasping the way in which the factors fit together  Preparing the meaning as a whole. Types of diagnosis 1. Clinical 2. Etiological 3. Dynamic  The person is described by  Tries to  Proper evaluation of the client‟s current the nature of the illness. delineate the problem as he is experiencing it now. E.g. schizophrenia, causes and  Role of psychological, biological, social psychopath, typhoid, etc. development of and environmental factors in the causation  Used in medical practice. presenting of the problem.  Use is minimum in case difficulty.  No attempt to dig life history. work practice. - Importance  History of the  Case worker and client engage in in medical and psychiatry. person. appropriate corrective action or treatment.  Limitation  These developments may lead to doesn‟t look into modifications in the goals for treatment present. Data for Diagnosis 1. Interviews 2. Checklist and Inventories 3. Direct Observation Steps in Diagnosis 1. The worker begins to focus on problematic behaviors. Both functional and dysfunctional behaviors in the client‟s environment are surveyed. The client‟s personal strength as well as of his environment are evaluated. 2. He specifies the target behaviors. Break down complex behaviors into clear and precise component parts. 3. Baseline data are collected to specify those events that appear to be currently controlling the problematic behaviors. 4. The collected information is summarized in an attempt to anticipate any major problem in treatment and as a way of beginning to establish objectives for treatment. 5. Selecting priorities for treatment is the final step of the diagnosis 17
  18. 18. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work IV. Intervention / Treatment (Problem-solving process): * Hamilton, “Treatment is the sum total of all activities and service directed Intervention / Treatment (Problem-solving process) towards helping an individual with a problem. The focus is relieving of the immediate problem and, if feasible, modifies any basic difficulties which precipitated it.” The objectives of Social case work treatment 1. To prevent social breakdown. 2. To conserve client‟s strength. 3. To restore social functioning. 4. To provide happy experiences to the client. 5. To create opportunities for growth and development. 6. To compensate psychological damage. 7. To increase capacity for self-direction. 8. To increase his social contribution.IV Methods of Social treatment 1. Administration of concrete and practical services. E.g. money, medical care, scholarships, legal aid, etc. 2. Indirect treatment (modification of environment, both physical and social). E.g. camps, group experience activities, training programmes, etc. 3. Direct treatment: A. Counselling – marriage, occupational, family, school, etc. B. Therapeutic Interviewing – family and marital therapy. C. Clarification D. Interpretation and Insight E. Psychological support. F. Resource utilization G. Environment modification. V V. Monitoring and Evaluation: * Monitoring provides crucial feedback to case worker and the client regarding 1. Whether the treatment program is succeeding as desired, Importance of Monitoring and Evaluation in Case Work 2. Whether established goals have been achieved, 3. Whether modifications in the program are necessary and 4. Whether the client is being helped in real sense. Importance of Monitoring and Evaluation  The purpose of Evaluation is to see if the efforts of the case worker are yielding any result or not, if the techniques used are serving the purpose, and if the goals are being achieved.  Evaluation is the process of attaching a value to the social work practice. It is the method of knowing what the outcomes are.  It is a continuous process.  Evaluation of the approach used and result should be taken up with the client so that the efforts are meaningfully utilized.  Evaluation will further strengthen the relationship between the caseworker and client and motivate the client to work towards his goal.  Casework practices need to be evaluated from time to time. The subject needs to be tested and researched and most importantly needs ongoing validation. They need to be proved to the public that they are effective and beneficial to the clients.  Casework practice should be subjected to critical review. Workers need to be held accountable for what they do and for their social work competence. Workers need to win approval for their programs.  They may sometimes have to be told that their services are overlapping and ineffective.  Workers have to enhance their own image and also of the agency to develop public relations. The clients need to give a feedback on the effectiveness of the services. 18
  19. 19. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work VI. Follow-up and Termination:VI  At the end, i.e. termination, the worker should discuss the original as well as revised goals and objectives, achievements during the helping period, factors helpful or obstructive in achieving the objectives, and the efforts needed to maintain the level of achievement and the feelings aroused by disengagement.  It is neither wise nor necessary for the termination to be an abrupt one.Follow – up & Termination  It is best to discuss termination and its ramifications (implications) several times before the final interview.  The frequency and amount of contacts should be gradually decreased.  Termination of the helping process brings up in both the case worker and client(s) many feelings – both positive and negative – which must be verbalized and discussed.  Follow-up is done to help client maintain the improvement.  During follow-up, the client is helped to discuss the problems he faces in maintaining the improvement.  Work is done with the people significant for his improved social functioning.  If required, he is referred to the proper source for needed services and help.  The follow-up should be planned on a diminishing basis – after two weeks, then a month, then three months, six months and a year following the termination of the formal program. Social Case Work Process Intake (First Psycho-Social Psycho - Social Treatment M&E Follow-up Interview) study exploration/ diagnosis (Problem- and Termination Rapport Building Investigation) (Assessment) solving process) The components of social casework are -The Person -The Problem -The Place -The Process -The worker - client relationship -The Problem solving work 19
  20. 20. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work Components of Case Work Person Problem Place Process I. Person:  The person‟s behaviour has this purpose and meaning: to gain satisfactions, to avoid or dissolve frustration and to maintain his balance-in-movement.  Whether a person‟s behaviour is or is not effective in promoting his well-being depends in large part upon the functioning of his personality structure.  The structure and functioning of personality are the products of inherited and constitutional equipment in continuous interaction with the physical, psychological and social environment the person experiences.  A person at any stage of his life – not only is a product of nature and nurture but is also and always in process of being in the present and becoming in the future.  The person‟s „being and becoming‟ behaviour is both shaped and judged by thePERSON expectations he and his culture have invested in the social role he carries and the major  The person who comes as a client to a social agency is always under stress. To understand human behavior and individual difference, Grace Mathew has given the following propositions: 1. An individual‟s behaviour is conditioned by his/her environment and his/her experiences. Behaviour refers to reacting, feeling, thinking, etc. the conditions and influences surrounding the person constitutes the environment. 2. For human growth and development it is essential that certain basic needs should be met. (Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs) 3. Emotional needs are real and they cannot be met or removed through intellectual reasoning. 4. Behaviour is purposeful and is in response to the individual‟s physical and emotional needs. 5. Other people‟s behaviour can be understood only in terms of ones own emotional and intellectual comprehension. 20
  21. 21. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work II. Problem:  The problems within the purview of social casework are those which vitally affect or are affected by a person‟s social functioning.  The multifaceted and dynamic nature of the client‟s problem makes necessary the selection by caseworker and client some part of it as the unit for work. The choice of problem depends on (1) whether the problem is the client‟s problem (2) leadership given by case worker depends upon the professional knowledge and judgment and (3) agency‟s function e.g. hospital, etc.  Problems in any part of a human being‟s living tend to have chain reactions. …..> cause > effect > cause..  Any problem which a person encounters has both an objective and subjective Problem significance – quality and intensity of our feelings.  Not only do the external (objective) and internal (subjective) aspects of the problem co-exist, but either may be the cause of the other.  Whatever the nature of the problem the person brings to social agency; it is always accompanied and often complicated by the problem of being a client. Problems can be categorized as follows (Grace Mathew): 1. Problems related to illness and disabilities 2. Problems due to lack of material resources. 3. School related problems. 4. Problems related to institutionalization. 5. Behaviour problems. 6. Problems of marital discord. 7. Problem situations needing a follow-up service. 8. Needs related to rehabilitation of people. 9. Clients caught up in social problems like gambling, prostitution, alcoholism, drug addiction and unmarried motherhood. III. Place:  The social agency is an organization fashioned to express the will of a society or of some group in that society as to social welfare – community decides the need of the agency.  Each social agency develops a program by which to meet the particular areas of need with which it sets out to deal. It depends on factors like money, knowledge and competence of the agency staff, the interest, resources available and support of the community.  The social agency has a structure by which it organizes and delegates its responsibilities and tasks, and governing policies and procedures Hierarchy – roles and responsibilities clear, designated and delegated – collaboration procedures and policies, understand the usefulness. by which it stabilizes and systematizes its operations. – among workers –  The social agency is a living, adaptable organism susceptible to being understood andPlace changed, much as other living organisms. – Past, present and future – not static and fixed.  Every staff member in an agency speaks and acts for some part of the agency‟s function, and the case worker represents the agency in its individualized problem solving help. – Case worker not an independent professional practitioner – case worker speaks and acts for the agency – psychologically identified with its purpose and policies  The case worker while representing his agency is first and foremost a representative of his profession. – must know and be committed with feeling to the philosophy that guides the practice of the social work profession.  Agency – Private e.g. funding agencies and Public e.g. family welfare orgs.  Primary e.g. NGO and Secondary e.g. Hospitals, schools, etc.  Based on functions – child welfare, family welfare, education, specialization based.  Also differs based on Source of support, Professional authority, Clientele they serve, Services they offer, Goals of the agency, etc. 21
  22. 22. S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkIV. Process:* In order to understand what the case work process must include in its problem-solvinghelp, it is necessary to take stock first of the kinds of blockings which occur in people‟snormal problem-solving efforts. The six are:1. If necessary tangible means and resources are not available to the person.2. Out of ignorance or misapprehension about the facts of the problem or the facts ofexisting ways of meeting it.3. If the person is depleted or drained of emotional or physical energy.4. Some problems arouse high feelings in a person – emotions so strong that theyoverpower his reason and defy his conscious controls.5. Problem may lie within the person; he may have become subject to, or victim of,emotions that chronically, over a long time, have governed his thinking and action.6. Haven‟t developed systematic habits or orderly method of things and planning. The intent of the case work process is to engage the person himself both in working on and coping with the one or several problems that confront him and to do so by Process such means as may stand him in good stead as he goes forward in living The means are1. The provision of a therapeutic relationship2. The provision of a systematic and flexible way and3. Provision of such opportunities and aids. All competent problem-solving, as contrasted with trail-and-error method, contains three essential operations. Urgent pressures will often dislodge their sequence, but any conscious effort to move from quandary (difficulty) to solution must involve these modes of action:1. Study (fact-finding)2. Diagnosis (thinking about and organizing facts into a meaningful goal-pointedexplanation) and3. Treatment (implementation of conclusions as to what and how of action upon theproblem). Finally, for the solution or mitigation of many problems there must exist certain material means or accessible opportunities which are available to the needful person and which he can be helped to use. Kinds of resources that a person may need are money, medical care, nursery schools, scholarships, foster homes, recreation facilities, etc.  Transference: “Transference is a form of displacement in which the individual Unconsciously displaces onto a current object those drives defenses, attitudes, feelingsTransference & Counter Transference and responses which were experienced or developed in relationship with earlier objects (mainly persons) in the individual‟s life.” Unconscious attitudes and associated feelings transferred from the past onto the present relationship, usually irrational. For instance, one could mistrust somebody who resembles an ex-spouse in manners, voice, or external appearance; or be overly compliant to someone who resembles a childhood friend. Transference may be positive (love, liking, etc) or negative (irrational, hostile feelings. Can be tackled by clarification (clarifying reality), interpretation, spacing the interview, etc.  Counter – transference: - Social worker also has unconscious tendency to transfer on the client. - The job of the case worker to recognize his feelings and must control them.  Types of Transference: Positive: E.g. Parents have shown to be friendly and helpful, the client will transfer a desire to help, friendship, guidance, emotional support and interest. Negative: E.g. Parents not shown interest and indifferent, the client will have feelings of unfriendliness, suspicion and distrust.  Uses of Transference (3 stages): 1. Understanding the transference – his behaviour, unconscious need of the client. 2. Utilizing the transference – integrate past and present experiences and earlier relationships. 3. Interpreting the transference – careful analysis of his unconscious defenses. 22
  23. 23. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work Transference & Counter Transference in case work Relationship The face to face, ego to ego relationship between case worker & clientThe relationship between the case worker’s ego & unconscious & The relationship between Transference: The relationship between the the clients ego and unconscious. clients unconscious and the case worker’s ego. . Counter-transference: The relationship Transference & Counter-transference. The relationship between the case workers unconscious and between the clients unconscious & the case workers the clients ego. unconscious. 23
  24. 24. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work Relationship in Case Work Client – Case Worker Relationship The term relationship in social case work was used for the first time by Miss. Virginia Robinson in her book “A changing psychology in Social Case Work” in 1939. Relationship is the channel through which the Conscious and mobilization of the capacities of the client is made disciplined use of possible. Relationship is the medium through which the client is Case Worker‟s Self enabled to state his problem and through which attention can be focused on reality problems, which may be as full is the means to of internal conflict with emotional problems. achieve the Relationship is the professional meeting of two persons purpose of for the purpose of assisting one of them, the client, to relationshipVirginia Robinson make a better, a more acceptable adjustment to a personal problem. Professional relationship involves a mutual process of shared responsibilities, recognition, of other‟s rights, acceptance of difference to stimulate growth through interaction by creating socialized attitudes and behaviour. Psycho Social 24
  25. 25. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Work Similarities and differences between case work and counselingSimilarities1. Both have the same objective: Both case work and counseling attempt to help those individuals who are in trouble, to solve their psycho-social problems in such a way so that they find themselves capable of dealing with their problem at present and also may solve in future if such problems arise.2. Both deals with the same type of clients: A client is a person (man, woman, child or anyone) who finds himself or is found to be in need of help in some aspect of his social – emotional living, whether the need be for tangible provisions or counsel.3. Both deals with the same type of problems: Both case work and counseling attempt to address problems client‟s inner problems that exert pressure over client‟s social functioning.4. The effectiveness of both depends on relationship: Relationship is the medium through which help is provided to the client5. Both believe in the worth and dignity of the client6. Both have common principles: Both accept client as he is and provide opportunities for self expression. Both believe that the client has every right to determine his own path for his own recovery from malfunctioningDifferences1. In counseling help is provided to the client without social services whereas in case work administration of services (concrete help) is a major treatment strategy to solve problems2. Agency is not essentially required in counseling but social case work is always practiced in agency settings3. Counseling is concerned most of the time with one type of problem but in case work the client is studied and understood as a whole.4. In counseling the emphasis is on the problem not on the person concerned, but in social case work the emphasis is basically on client and the type of service is provided5. Counselor is independent in the counseling practice but the case work services are provided through agency.Similarities between case work and psychotherapy1. Both social case work and psychotherapy help an individual who comes with emotionalproblems and painful situations2. Interview is the technique used by both methods3. Both attempt to put the client at ease and make it possible for him to express his feelings4. Both share the value of individuality, worth and respect for the client5. Both believe in the client‟s self determination6. Both recognize the role of emotional and unconscious processes in influencing the attitudes andbehaviour of the client7. Both provide emotional support to relieve immediate anxiety of the client8. Both give importance to the transference 25
  26. 26. S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkProblem & Strength PerspectiveProblem/Deficit Perspective Strengths PerspectivePerson is defined as a “case” where Person is defined as unique where traits, talents,symptoms add up to diagnosis resources add up to strengthsProblem-focused (history & symptoms) Possibility-focused (hopes & dreams)Personal account aids in diagnosis Personal account is essential means to knowing theof deficits, pathology, & problem whole person fullyKnowing the person from outside in Knowing the person from inside outBlames the “victim” for their problems Believes in the individual/familyChildhood trauma is a precursor/ Childhood trauma is not predictive; may weaken,predictor of psychopathology strengthen or typically do bothCentrepiece of therapeutic work is the Centrepiece of collaborative work: the goals andtreatment plan: goals set by practitioners aspirations set by individuals, families and communitiesPractitioner is the expert on clients‟ Individual is the expert on his/her own life (problems,problems, needs and lives goals, means to solution)Professional designs and carries out the The design and execution of the helping effort is“course of treatment” collaborative and mutualPossibilities for choice, control and personal Possibilities for choice, control, and commitment aredevelopment are limited by eficits/pathology always openResources for work are exclusively the Resources for work are the strengths, knowledge,knowledge and skills of professional skills, abilities and adaptive capacities of the individualHelp is centered on reducing the Help is centered on making one‟s life be the best it caneffects of symptoms or the negative personal be, affirming/developing values/ commitments, makingand social consequences of actions, and finding membership in communityemotions or thoughtsTheories of CaseworkApart from the basic values, principles and techniques of casework discussed earlier, thereare several theoretical formulations explaining human behaviour, specifying indicators forintervention and identifying helping procedures. Behavioral sciences have contributed a gooddeal of knowledge to casework but much of this is on causative factors. Strategies ofintervention are rather limited. Consequently, social diagnosis becomes more elaborate thantreatment. Since for every causative factor there is no corresponding remedial procedure,devoting undue amount of time for diagnosis does not serve any useful purpose. Besides, fora wide range of problems, help can be rendered without knowing the causes in depth. Someexperts in casework, therefore, recommend that instead of the traditional analysis ofdevelopmental features of the problem, an assessment of the conditions which currentlysustain the problem may be carried out.At present, there are about fifty or more theories in casework many of which arecharacterised by the limitation mentioned earlier, that they focus more on explanations ofbehaviour than on procedures of changing behaviour. A few of these theories can be listedhere:Psychodynamic theory,Ego psychology,Functional casework,Cognitive theory,Social role theory,Behaviour modification theory, 26
  27. 27. S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkCommunication theory,Crisis theory,Family theory, andLearning theory.These are not theories in the strict sense of the word; these are only conceptual frameworks orsystems of thought. The exponent of each theory puts forth arguments in favour of his or herparticular theory. But there is no evidence in practice that one is more effective than theother. At the same time, none has been proved useless at an empirical level. Thoughsupporters of particular theories are inclined to emphasize the divergence between theories,there are aspects common to many theories. There is no single personality theory whichexplains all types of human behaviour. Similarly, there is no unitary practice theory incasework, and therefore it is necessary to adopt an eclectic approach. Eclecticism means theuse of the best of knowledge gathered from a number of different theoretical orientations.Informed eclecticism entails in-depth knowledge of the theoretical approaches from whichone selects principles and procedures of action. Taking bits and pieces from many theoriesand using them casually without any definite purpose is not informed eclecticism. The utilityof a theory or theoretical prescription can be assessed in terms of the kind of problems it isconcerned with, the type of clients to whom it can be applied and, most pertinently, in term ofits effectiveness in producing results. Professional skill is required on the part of thecaseworker to assess every client and to select a suitable procedure based on empiricalevidence. The core of eclecticism is that it aims at choosing a procedure suitable for the clientrather than fitting the client to a procedure in hand. The choice of a particular conceptualstance is the end product of an intellectual and emotional process and it is likely to beinfluenced by the particular personality make up of the caseworker.An eclectic approach does make heavy demands on the caseworker in that he needs to havesubstantial knowledge and practical skills. He should analyze and evaluate. Most importantly,he should have the tolerance and flexibility to have his own attitudes altered to be willing totry new procedures. All these would imply that casework practitioners should involvethemselves in an ongoing process of education. Refresher courses, seminars, workshops andsuch other programs are methods for providing continuing education to social workers.teaching and writing. In her written work, she has tried to integrate relevant concepts fromIndian philosophy with casework.8 (iv) A fourth method has been to compile all theoriestogether and to make comparison between theories, (v) There are a few who have built uptheory based on research findings. Though this is an important and essential method, this hasbeen used infrequently. Therefore, this mode has to be developed and fostered to strengthenthe theoretical base of casework.Qualities of Social Case WorkerIn this context, it is pertinent to think of the qualities desirable in a caseworker who functionsas the change agent. The social worker must be a person who is capable of changing himselfand his attitudes to be in keeping with the values and principles of casework. He must beopen to new ideas and develop the capacity for self-awareness. Self-awareness is a neverending process, and the ability for self-awareness is an essential quality in order that thesocial worker may be able to perceive his own biases and shed them to be able to rendereffective casework service to clients. Related to the belief in the basic assumptions incasework is the necessity for the social caseworker to cultivate appropriate attitudes andqualities necessary for social work. 27
  28. 28. S.Rengasamy. Social Case WorkKnowledge base of Social Case WorkBesides the values and principles, the body of knowledge in casework consists of scientificconcepts, tools and techniques for action. Many of the concepts of casework have beenborrowed from the social and behavioural sciences. Some of these important concepts are theinfluence of environment on the individuals life experience, the importance of the basicphysical and emotional needs, consequences of the non-fulfilment of these needs, thepurposefulness of behaviour and the impact of social and cultural factors on human lives.The techniques and tools of casework have developed from practical experience and from theknowledge derived from behavioural sciences. Interviewing is an important tool in caseworkand in interviewing, effective listening becomes an essential component. Many proceduresare brought into play in the person-to-person contact between the caseworker and the client.Acceptance of feelings, empathy, encouragement for expression of feelings, assurance,clarification of ideas and situations, and giving of advice and information are some of thetechniques used in casework. These techniques of communication may sound to be rathercommonplace, but they are called techniques for the specific reason that they have to beapplied consciously and deliberately by the social worker for certain objectives. For example,empathising as a technique is to be differentiated from the quality of sympathy. A person‟sdistress may evoke feelings of sympathy in an observer without any mental effort on the partof the latter. On the other hand, an imaginative effort and an awareness of ones own feelingsare necessary for the exercise of empathy. A social worker cannot always rely on his ownfeelings of sympathy to be a competent professional helper. Even in situations wheresympathy is not evoked, the social worker has to use empathy to be of help to the client.Empathising and related techniques help towards developing a one-to-one relationship. In apositive relationship, marked by an emotionally non-threatening atmosphere, the client feelsaccepted despite his shortcomings and, as a result, the inner pressure to defend himself isconsiderably reduced In such an emotional atmosphere the client is inclined to look athimself, at others and at situations more objectively. An objective perception, separated fromsubjective feelings, is the first step towards change of behaviour.Besides these techniques of communication, there is another procedure, that of environmentalchange. The caseworker makes efforts to deal with the clients environmental difficulties bysecuring for him material resources. Social work agencies do not have the financial resourcesto provide economic assistance to clients; but the social worker, with his knowledge of the 28
  29. 29. S.Rengasamy. Social Case Worklarger community, is often able to locate the resources and services available outside theagency and thus put the client in touch with these.Three Roles of the Case WorkerThe caseworker has three major roles: Clinical/behavioural change role; Role of the consultant/educator; and The broker/ advocate role.Some aspects of these roles have already been referred to in the previous paragraphs.Clinical/behavioural change roleIn the clinical/behavioural change role, the caseworker focuses his attention on those aspectsof the clients behaviour which cause stress to himself or others. As an educator, thecaseworker may impart information, transmit knowledge, give advice, correct perception orexplain situational factors which are hidden from the clients view.Role of the consultant/educatorThe caseworker may be required to give consultation to other social workers andprofessionals from other disciplines and to provide social work practice instruction tostudents of social work.The advocate/broker roleThe advocate/broker role is of two types. The first aspect, that is, the caseworkerscommitment to the individual client or family as regards locating resources and services formeeting urgent material needs has been mentioned earlier. The second aspect of this role iswith reference to groups of clients who have the same kind of problem or handicap. Here the 29