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Supervision and evaluation

  1. Supervision and Evaluation
  2. The PowerPoint presentation satisfies the following Part II components: *Reflection on how the supervision and evaluation process can improve student learning. *Reflection on how the supervision and evaluation process can build professional learning communities. What is the professional development plan for your school? *Reflection on the texts and articles used with this project and how they informed you work. What systems thinking could you apply to the evaluation and supervision process. I have built this presentation around this portion of the assignment, so that it might become something I could use in the future to define my vision for the supervision/evaluation process at my future school. Too often, I think teachers are unclear about what a principal hopes to achieve through this process other than the simple rating/identification of a teacher eligible for retention or monitoring. Through the use of this PowerPoint (which will undoubtedly be updated throughout my career), my hope is that teachers will gain a clear understanding of what I hope to accomplish through the supervision/evaluation process. This PowerPoint includes slides that contain paragraphs summarizing what I would say to my staff. During an actual presentation, those slides would be removed. Purpose of this Slideshow
  3. How does the supervision and evaluation process benefit students and the teachers? *guides professional development *builds professional learning communities around professional development objectives *improves instructional practices *improves student learning Supervision and Evaluation
  4. Guides Professional Development “Education is a human enterprise. The essence of successful instruction and good schools comes from the thoughts and actions of the professionals in the schools. So, if one is to look for a place to improve the quality of education in a school, a sensible place to look is the continuous education of educators—that is, professional development.” (Glickman, 2012) Supervision and Evaluation
  5. How does Supervision and Evaluation Impact/Guide Professional Development? *Adults need to receive feedback on how they are doing and the results of their efforts. Opportunities must be built into professional development activities that allow the learner to practice the learning and receive structured, helpful feedback. (Speck, 1996) * Transfer of learning for adults is not automatic and must be facilitated. Coaching and other kinds of follow-up support are needed to help adult learners transfer learning into daily practice so that it is sustained. (Speck, 1996) Supervision and Evaluation
  6. What will the Supervision/Evaluation/Professional Development dynamic look like? *A Safe Environment *Interactive Conversations About Learning *High Level of Reflection *Goal Setting Supervision and Evaluation
  7. Developing a Safe Environment * Open Door Policy for Ongoing Conversations * Suggestions and New Information Welcome * Teachers as Experts * Teachers as Leaders * A Place for Reflection * Democratic Community Supervision and Evaluation
  8. The Importance of a Safe Environment to Professional Development Just as teachers strive to create safe and welcoming environments in their classrooms, so must supervisors strive to create the same environment for teachers. We teach our students to be comfortable taking risks, to be themselves, and to make mistakes in an environment that encourages learning from those mistakes. Teachers deserve the same level of encouragement and understanding. It is important for supervisors to begin the process of developing a safe environment by extending themselves to their teachers in an open way. An open door policy allows teachers the luxury of feeling as though they are working with a leader who is open to discussion, new ideas, and help when needed. That feeling can then carry over into staff meetings, professional development, and PLCs if it is discussed openly as an accepted practice. Important to this mission of developing a safe environment for open dialogue will be the development of norms for all conversations early on in the year. Once these are agreed upon, successful conversations can occur that allow for risk taking, acceptance of others’ ideas that may be different from our own, and respect for each other as professionals. We are now working at the highest level of collegiality, working towards common goals and reinventing who we are and what we do. A safe work environment then moves to the next phase of development as a supervisor or leader is not viewed as a “power” with all the influence and decision-making ability. According to Glickman, “Teachers participate in leadership preparation programs and assist other teachers by assuming one or more leadership roles (workshop presenter, cooperating teacher, mentor, expert coach, instructional team leader, curriculum developer). The teacher–leader not only assists other teachers but also experiences professional growth as a result of being involved in leadership activities.” When teachers are dealt with as experts and as leaders in their building, they feel more empowered. Supervision and Evaluation
  9. (continued) In a “safe” school, teachers are seen as professional experts, not only to the parents and students, but to one another. The skill sets are tracked and their leadership training documented, so that a supervisor knows who to turn to for assistance with certain initiatives. When the supervisor gives value to these individuals in the building and turns teachers toward those experts, teachers feel their value to the community and are not quick to depart from it. Also, it is important to develop a professional community of reflective teachers. Again, this reflection may need to be modeled and specifically taught to staff members. If the supervisor has already demonstrated open conversations with established norms and risk-taking endeavors, hopefully, staff members will have begun to feel safe enough to reflect on their teaching practices and how they can strengthen themselves as professionals. “Self-evaluation can be an important part of the formative evaluation process for teachers functioning at moderate or high levels of development, expertise, and commitment.” (Glickman, 2012) Only through the practice of self-evaluation and reflection can teachers experience the highest levels of success in their professional careers. Once all teachers feel as though they have leadership that they can turn to, an environment where they feel as though they are accepted as themselves as developing professionals, and a place where teachers are viewed as experts with skill sets to share, a democracy is established that affords them a clear voice in all decision- making that affects the school, their career, and their students. This decision-making power is no more apparent than how it exists in professional development decisions. What teachers will choose to work on, improve upon, and receive training for will now by decided by the democratic whole. Teachers will know that professional development and PLCs are areas where risks can be made, new ideas can emerge, and genuine reflection and learning can take place. The added benefit is that in a culture of leadership, educational growth, and respect, teachers now have a model to operate from that helps them teach leadership, reflection, and risk- taking in their own classrooms. Supervision and Evaluation
  10. Interactive Conversations * Established norms * Difficult conversations * Conversations around Student Success/Struggle * Inquiry Supervision and Evaluation
  11. The Importance of Interactive Conversations to Professional Development “But although thinking is, by definition, an individual activity, it is stimulated by conversation.” – Danielson, 2011 As supervisors, our teachers will be looking to us as examples for how conversations in our building should transpire. It is important that we instruct our teachers in acceptable conversational norms and respectful collaboration. It is imperative that I begin to have multiple conversations with my staff members early on in the year, modeling these expectations. Once the expectations are laid out, mutual trust and understanding can begin to develop. Once that culture is set, teachers can begin to transfer the same skills to professional development activities. For trust to develop, authenticity is paramount in these meetings. Being “real” with one another will allow teachers to be honest and reflective about their practices with themselves and one another. As a supervisor, it will be important for me to model this and to acknowledge any shortcomings in my efforts as their administrator, so that they see me as never accepting the “Everything went fine.” stance. If they hear me verbalizing things that didn’t go well in my decisions in leading, seeking out options, redefining my goals and objectives, and instituting new approaches, they will in turn mimic those behaviors. The hopeful result will be a working environment where teachers are comfortable peer observing/evaluating, volunteering for assignments they know nothing about, but are willing to seek answers to, and creating mentorship programs that will foster growth in our new teachers. We will also see teachers having rich discussions in smaller groups about how students are developing or lagging in their skills, and accepting new ideas for how to better serve. It will also be important as a supervisor to teach my staff to be curious rather than certain or filled with conflict, in dealing with one another. According to Douglas Stone’s Difficult Conversations (2010) “There’s only one way to come to understand the other person’s story, and that’s by being curious. Instead of asking yourself, “How can they think that?!” ask yourself, “I wonder what information they have that I don’t?”” As I model “real” conversations with my staff, they will be encouraged to have real conversations with each other, seeking out the why’s of the ideas and strategies that they offer to students and to each other. Supervision and Evaluation
  12. Expecting a High Level of Reflection * Take the time to question yourself * Accept the good, the bad, and the ugly * Encourage each other * Reflection makes the difference Supervision and Evaluation
  13. The Importance of Reflection to Professional Development During the supervision/evaluation process, it is important for the supervisor to encourage teachers to be reflective in their practices, so that areas for improvement for both the teacher and the school can be determined. It is a teacher standard required by the state that encourages teachers to use reflection of their practice to determine new goals and expectations. It is important for a supervisor to reflect on the conversations he/she has with teachers to determine whether or not those conversations are truly informational in nature or if they are controlling (Glickman), such that a truly informational and reflective conversation will guide professional development choices and drive professional learning community objectives. Ongoing professional development is inconceivable without continuous analysis and reflection. How will staff members know what it is they would like to learn without understanding and accepting their common areas of weakness or struggle. In this way, teachers can develop professional development opportunities based on grade-level needs, school-wide needs, or individual needs (ie new teachers who may need more support in classroom management strategies, or veteran teachers who may need more support with integrated use of technologies). This will again require open conversations that are modeled by a supervisor who is secure in their own reflective practices. Reflective practices also help teachers become stronger models for their students and the families that they work with. If our goal is to develop a democracy of thinking individuals who believe in the sovereign truths of the human pursuits of happiness, life, and liberty, then it is important for individuals to be able to analyze and identify worst and best decisions and practices, as well as why and how they came about, so that they will or will not bear repeating. When teachers are reflective and can overcome their own fears or uncomfortabilities with a skill, then they will be stronger at eliciting the same from their students, making all students more successful in what it is they are learning. Students will be stronger at applying learned skills to new situations and advocatingfor their own learning objectives. Supervision and Evaluation
  14. Setting Goals * Missions statements alignment * District initiatives * Unified Improvement Plans * Teacher goals Supervision and Evaluation
  15. Builds Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) “It's up to the school leader to establish trust. "The formal and informal leaders have to be clear that the goal is collaboration and not competition," says the Mattituck-Cutchogue School District's Anne Smith. "You can't clobber people about test scores and then say, 'Let's collaborate.' What are you doing to support the teacher?" (Ullman, 2009) Supervision and Evaluation
  16. How does the Supervision/Evaluation process impact/guide PLCs? Supervision/Evaluation impacts/guides PLCs in the same way as it does Professional Development. The goal of supervision and evaluation is to provide objective observation and insight, leadership, assurance to all stakeholders that standards of education are being met, professional development opportunities, and support for the objectives of learning as defined by teachers, students, parents, and the district. Supervision and Evaluation
  17. PLC Opportunities *Grade level team meetings *Vertical articulation meetings *Dedicated spaces for PLCs *Committee meetings Supervision and Evaluation
  18. Grade Level Team Meetings * Safe, collegial conversations (norms) * Curriculum mapping/planning * Lesson development * Differentiated instruction * Collaboration * Common practices Supervision and Evaluation
  19. Vertical Articulation Meetings * Teacher leadership * Scope and sequence of instruction * Age/grade awareness/enlightment * Meeting goals and objectives Supervision and Evaluation
  20. Dedicated Spaces for PLCs * Two-three rooms/offices in the school * “Sacred” spaces * Resources housed here Supervision and Evaluation
  21. Committees * Student-centered * Agreements * Talents and skills of individuals * Teacher leadership Supervision and Evaluation
  22. How supervision and evaluation impacts student learning? By undergoing the evaluation process and through the development of strong relationships between the administration and staff, stronger instructional strategies are developed that create stronger learning environments for students. Only through self-reflection, analysis, and inquiry can we make ourselves a strong school, and only through those means can we hope to effectively teach our students the same skills. Supervision and Evaluation
  23. Reflection on Professional Development Plan Our school’s professional development decisions are based on the school’s unified improvement plan (UIP), our school’s mission/objectives (which align with the UIP), and the trends of the district; however, a professional development plan does not exist. Professional development is determined by the principal every year, and usually only a few months/weeks in advance of the actual professional development days. In talking with my principal about the matter, he stated that he has some ideas in his head about what needs to be done, but leaves it open due to the last minute decisions and changes that come from the district. He was happy to see that I was doing some work on culture, as that was one of his areas of focus, so this year, that became our first professional development. Our last professional development was based on developing a common understanding of writing instruction practices and assessments, which was predicated by the UIP. About 2-3 weeks prior to this last professional development day, my principal developed a power point with some focus questions and a format for vertical articulation among the staff. Then he spent time booking a comedian from Kaiser Permanente to come in and present about the importance of laughter to good health, downloaded some 80’s music to play for breaks, solicited our school secretary to come in wearing multi-colored spandex to demo the exercise bands the district was giving us, coordinated a soup lunch, and purchased fun snacks and decorations. Last, he made copies of common writing assessment prompts that could be used school-wide for teachers to vote on.
  24. “Postmodern theory warns us that the rational analyses, predictions, controls, and measurements that make up conventional planning often are inconsistent with the multiplicity of realities and competing interests that make up the real world. Chaos theory reminds us that, unlike traditional plans, complex systems such as schools do not consist of simple cause-and-effect relationships, are affected by seemingly unrelated variables inside and outside the system, and are subject to unpredictable events and changes.” (Glickman, 2012) If I were planning professional development, I think I would probably choose 2-3 different professional development options for the year. These focus points will be based on community and staff feedback, district initiatives, and the all-encompassing UIP. During the summer, I will get resource contacts, do research, and develop a list of strengths that my staff members may possess that could help us with developing these content areas, and leading/teaching the professional development components. As the end of summer approaches and fall begins, I will probably choose the area that I feel we have the most resources for, and which area incorporates student impact, teacher desire, and district/state initiative building the best. Of course, just as we do in classrooms, the professional development itself will need to have elements of “new and exciting”, collaboration, “quality” professional training, team-building, direct classroom application, teacher-led inquiry, and light-hearted fun to keep my staff’s interest. Once our first professional development is complete, the staff will need to determine action steps for implementation of skills attained (and how they can take ownership of that), as well as action steps for future professional development and staff meetings. I believe it’s important to maintain no more than one or two focus points for professional development in a year, allowing your staff to cultivate creativity and depth of understanding, so that they can feel competent in these areas by the time the year is through. This also allows them to build in their own components for leadership, as they will continue to be instructors and facilitators for implementation steps and connected, future professional development opportunities. Reflection on PD (cont’d)
  25. Some of the texts and articles that informed my work throughout the project are stated in this PowerPoint. To further elaborate on that point, Glickman’s Basic Guide to SuperVision and Instructional Leadership was probably the most useful throughout the quarter. The guidelines were specific to the many facets of evaluation, mapping out strategies for supervisors in the various components of leadership to include cultural and diversity awareness, building leadership in the school, professional development, becoming a culture of inquiry, observing and evaluating, collaboration, developing communication styles, classifying communication strategies according to need (ie directive, non0directive, etc.), and how to overcome the staid stereotypes and practices associated with schools and education. Another important text that influenced this work was Danielson’s Enhancing Professional Practice. Danielson’s work chunked the evaluation process in such as way, that a supervisor would know exactly what it is he/she is looking for when rating teachers according to their practices. The specifics as they related to what a developing teacher looks like in comparison to a what proficient teacher looks like, made the identification of each strand, palatable. A third important work from the quarter was Stone’s Difficult Conversations. In this book, I learned how to identify some of the characteristics of a conversation that is going nowhere fast, and how to incorporate some listening and speaking skills that address the “why’s” of such conversations. This work was a perfect touchpoint to the reflections pieces in both Danielson’s and Glickman’s books. Going into the quarter, I made the assumption that teachers would easily reflect on their teaching practices, but quickly realized that I was wrong. Difficult Conversations helped me to understand why reflection does not always come easy to people, and how to overcome these obstacles. The fourth book of the quarter, Pollock’s Improving Student Learning One Teacher at a Time, did not provide much insight as it relates to the supervision/evaluation process, but was rather an overarching umbrella that nicely summarized the positive effects of the very specific strategies listed in the other texts and articles. Her work focused on the results that teachers achieved when they used her Big Four approach. It was a reminder for me, as a supervisor, to keep my staff focused on curriculum targets, effective instructional strategies, multiple assessment formats, criterion-based feedback, and growth-related grading practices. As I evaluate teachers and engage in meaningful, reflective conversations, these points will be driving forces throughout. Reflection on the texts and articles used with this project and how they informed you work.
  26. When I think about the supervision and evaluation process, I think about the issue of balancing inquiry and advocacy. As a supervisor working with teachers through the evaluation process, I will be asking questions about the learning that is happening– what instructional practices are you using?, why have you chosen that instructional strategy?, how are you meeting diverse learners?, etc. While I am asking those questions and listening to the responses, I am simultaneously adding to their repetoire of instructional choices by providing directive support through suggestions for improvement based upon my observations (advocacy), and encouraging the teacher to be reflective on their own practices in an effort to identify their own areas of weakness (inquiry), which will subsequently lead to discussions about personal goals, PLCs, or professional development and what they need from those entities in order to ensure their own growth as professionals (advocacy). The hope would be, that at the end of the process, common goals would arise that align with the school and district missions and objectives, but the dance can sometimes be a complex one when the identities of the supervisor and the teachers are at risk. It is important to keep “curiousity” at the forefront of all difficult discussions, particularly if you are striving to balance advocacy with inquiry, and to not get caught up in “politicking” (Senge, 1994), where there is “no overt argument—just a relentless refusal to learn while giving the impression of balancing advocacy and inquiry.” Rather, balancing inquiry and advocacy requires the players to see their conversations, or in the case of supervisory evaluation conferences, as receptacles of questions, responses, reasons, explanations, clarifications, and observations that culminate into a blended understanding that evolves in a way that would make it difficult for an outsider looking in, to determine who is the supervisor and who is the instructor. What systems thinking could you apply to the supervision and evaluation process.
  27. Glickman, Carl D.; Gordon, Stephen P.; Ross-Gordon, Jovita M. (2012-02-08). Basic Guide to SuperVision and Instructional Leadership, The (3rd Edition) (Page 197,234, 237). Prentice Hall. Kindle Edition. Speck, M. (1996, Spring). Best practice in professional development for sustained educational change (p 33-41). ERS Spectrum. Ullman, Ellen (2009). How to Create a Professional Learning Community. Edutopia, http:// Danielson, Charlotte (2011-08-22). Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching 2nd edition (Kindle Location 3678). Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Kindle Edition. Stone, Douglas; Patton, Bruce (2010-11-02). Difficult Conversations: How to Discuss What Matters Most (Kindle Locations 808-809). Penguin Group. Kindle Edition. Senge, Peter; Ross, Richard; Smith,Bryan; Roberts, Charlotte; Kleiner, Art (1994). The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook (p 253-255). Doubleday, Random House. New York. References

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. This slide would not be present in an actual presentation, but would help guide my spoken part of the presentation.
  2. Again, this slide would not be present, but would guide spoken portion of the presentation.
  3. Again, this slide guides the spoken part of the presentation.