The Female Reproductive System
• The major function of the reproductive system is to make a
new life and ensure that the human species survives.
• The functions of the female reproductive system is:
1- Producing female egg cell (ovum), and hormones,
The fallopian tubes
The mammary glands
Opening of the vagina
The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The
ovaries functions is to produce eggs (ovum) and hormones (oestrogens and progesterone ).
The fallopian tubes ((Uterine tubes))
These are narrow tubes approximately 8–14cm long, attached to the upper part of the
uterus and serve as pathways for the ovum to travel from the ovaries to the uterus.
Fertilization of the ovum by a sperm cell occurs in the third of the Fallopian tube nearest
A fibromuscular structure approximately 8 to 10 cm in length. It also is known as the birth
Usually the vaginal walls are moist with a pH ranging from 3.8 to 4.2.
Called also (the womb). It is the major female reproductive organ, it is a hollow, pear-shaped
organ that is the home to a developing fetus with an approximately 7.5 cm long and 5 cm
The wall of the uterus has three layers of tissue:
-The perimetrium: the outermost thin membrane layer
covering the uterus and protect it.
-The myometrium: the thick, muscular, middle layer.
-The endometrium: the thin, mucous inner layer of the
uterus. The uterus sloughs off this layer every month
if the fertilization not happen.
The functions of uterus are; menstruation, pregnancy,
Is the lower, narrow part of the uterus which attaches
the vagina to the uterus. It is about 4 cm length.
The breast and mammary gland
The function of the breast is to produce,
store and release milk to feed a baby.
Milk is produced in lobules after they have
been stimulated by hormones produced
in the woman’s body after she has
The labia majora :
Called large lips, protect the other external reproductive organs. They are skin contain hair,
sweat and oil glands.
The labia minora
The small lips can have a variety of sizes and shapes. They lie just inside the labia majora,
and surround the openings to the vagina.
A very sensitive small spongy tissue located at the top of the labia minora.
Is a pinkish membrane, often shaped like a crescent. This thin membrane with an opening
found at the lower end of the vagina to allow the menstrual blood to come through.
The female pelvis differs from the male pelvis, it is wider and acts as protective structure
for the reproductive organs as well as the bladder and rectum.
Pelvis consists of four bones; two innominate (or ‘hip’) bones, the sacrum and the coccyx.
There are four main types of female pelvis:
1- The gynecoid: it is the classic female pelvis and is
seen in about 50% of all the women and characterized
rounded bean shape, well
curved sacrum and wide
It is the best shape suitable for
normal vaginal delivery.
2- Android pelvis: which is the
typical male pelvis and found in
< than 30% of women and
characterized by heart shape
and narrow subpubic arch.
This type is not suitable for vaginal delivery.
3- Anthropoid pelvis: is found in 20% of women and
characterized by a long and narrow oval shaped, and
narrow subpubic arch.
The fetal head can engages in
4- Platypelloid pelvis: which is a
flattened gynecoid pelvis and seen
in 3% of women and characterized
by oval shaped inlet which has
wider transverse diameter wide
diameter and subpubic arch.
The fetal head has to engage in the
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