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The female reproductive system

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Female reproductive organ
Female reproductive organ
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The female reproductive system

  1. 1. The Female Reproductive System • The major function of the reproductive system is to make a new life and ensure that the human species survives. • The functions of the female reproductive system is: 1- Producing female egg cell (ovum), and hormones, 2- Pregnancy.
  2. 2. The ovaries The uterus The fallopian tubes The vagina The mammary glands Labia majora Labia minora Clitoris Opening of the vagina The urethra Hymen
  3. 3. The ovaries: The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries functions is to produce eggs (ovum) and hormones (oestrogens and progesterone ). The fallopian tubes ((Uterine tubes)) These are narrow tubes approximately 8–14cm long, attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as pathways for the ovum to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Fertilization of the ovum by a sperm cell occurs in the third of the Fallopian tube nearest each ovary. The vagina A fibromuscular structure approximately 8 to 10 cm in length. It also is known as the birth canal. Usually the vaginal walls are moist with a pH ranging from 3.8 to 4.2.
  4. 4. The uterus Called also (the womb). It is the major female reproductive organ, it is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus with an approximately 7.5 cm long and 5 cm wide. The wall of the uterus has three layers of tissue: -The perimetrium: the outermost thin membrane layer covering the uterus and protect it. -The myometrium: the thick, muscular, middle layer. -The endometrium: the thin, mucous inner layer of the uterus. The uterus sloughs off this layer every month if the fertilization not happen. The functions of uterus are; menstruation, pregnancy, and labor. The cervix Is the lower, narrow part of the uterus which attaches the vagina to the uterus. It is about 4 cm length.
  5. 5. Mammary gland (lobules) The breast The nipple Milk duct The skin Fat layer The breast and mammary gland The function of the breast is to produce, store and release milk to feed a baby. Milk is produced in lobules after they have been stimulated by hormones produced in the woman’s body after she has given birth.
  6. 6. Labia majora & minora
  7. 7. The labia majora : Called large lips, protect the other external reproductive organs. They are skin contain hair, sweat and oil glands. The labia minora The small lips can have a variety of sizes and shapes. They lie just inside the labia majora, and surround the openings to the vagina. The clitoris A very sensitive small spongy tissue located at the top of the labia minora. The hymen Is a pinkish membrane, often shaped like a crescent. This thin membrane with an opening found at the lower end of the vagina to allow the menstrual blood to come through.
  8. 8. The pelvis The female pelvis differs from the male pelvis, it is wider and acts as protective structure for the reproductive organs as well as the bladder and rectum. Pelvis consists of four bones; two innominate (or ‘hip’) bones, the sacrum and the coccyx.
  9. 9. There are four main types of female pelvis: 1- The gynecoid: it is the classic female pelvis and is seen in about 50% of all the women and characterized rounded bean shape, well curved sacrum and wide subpubic arch. It is the best shape suitable for normal vaginal delivery. 2- Android pelvis: which is the typical male pelvis and found in < than 30% of women and characterized by heart shape inlet (triangular), and narrow subpubic arch. This type is not suitable for vaginal delivery. 3- Anthropoid pelvis: is found in 20% of women and characterized by a long and narrow oval shaped, and narrow subpubic arch. The fetal head can engages in this type. 4- Platypelloid pelvis: which is a flattened gynecoid pelvis and seen in 3% of women and characterized by oval shaped inlet which has wider transverse diameter wide diameter and subpubic arch. The fetal head has to engage in the transverse diameter

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