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VSM (Méthode HOSHIN)

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Value Stream Mapping
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VSM (Méthode HOSHIN)

  1. 1. Process Excellence Training Value Stream Mapping 1
  2. 2. Agenda Introduction to Value Stream Design Drawing a Current State Characteristics of a Lean Value Stream Drawing a Future State Implementation 2
  3. 3. What is Value-Stream? Value Stream PROCESS PROCESS Cutting Welding Raw Material e Steam = PROCESS Assembl y cell Finished Product all activities (value adding and non value adding) requir to bring a product from raw material into the hands of a customer. 3
  4. 4. What is Value-Stream Mapping?  Follow a product‘s production path from beginning to the end, and draw a visual representation of every process in material and information flows (using icons)  Then draw a „future state“ (using icons) of how the product should flow. 4
  5. 5.  See the big picture, not just individual processes What is different?  See how the process currently operates  Design of both material and information flow  See linkages between information and material flow  See the waste and the source of waste  Establish a common language for improvement  Foundation for designing lean flow and the future state  Change in management focus  Focus on shortening lead time  Focus on connecting processes so value can flow 5
  6. 6. Value Stream Mapping icons Material flow icons Manufacturing process Operato r External Data Box Truck Shipment Push Arrow Finished Goods to Customer Supermarke t Withdraw al First-In-First-Out Sequence Flow Inventory Continuous Improvement sign 6
  7. 7. Value Stream Mapping icons Information flow icons Schedule Load Levelling Manual information flow Electronic information flow Kanban Post “Go see” 7
  8. 8. eal picture of the reality without excuses or exceptions Example of Value Stream Mapping 8
  9. 9. Value Stream Design Material flow is drawn from the left to right on the bottom half of the map in the order of processing steps, not according to the physical layout of the plant. Information flow is drawn from right to left in the top half of the map space. Do not map every purchased part in your product family. Just draw the flow for one or two main raw materials. Presentation of all purchased parts is best shown on a process level layout diagram. 9
  10. 10. Value Stream Design Choose a Product Family Drawing the Current State Understanding the current condition of the value stream Drawing a Future State Creating a „lean flow“ of value stream Implementation Projects 10
  11. 11. Concentration on one Product Family Define your Product Family through: Common „assembly“-steps and machines Production Steps Steering left Steering right Internal columns Seat slide Push rod column spot welding x x x x varnishing x x x x hand assembly x x x x x audits x x x x 11
  12. 12. Drawing the Current State the current Understanding Choose a Product Family Drawing the Current State Drawing a Future State Implementation Projects condition of the value stream  Material and Information flows  Draw with symbols!  Go along the value stream and draw by hand, with pencil  No standard times!  The current state is basis for the next step!  Analyse a similar value stream in case of new product! Steps: 1. Showing the customer. 2. Add Processes, Data, Inventory. 3. Add Material Flow. 4. Add Information Flow. 5. Complete with Lead time and process time. 12
  13. 13. 1. Step: Information about the The critical place to begin any improvement effort is clear specification of theCustomer value of a product as perceived by the end customer. Otherwise you run the risk of improving a value stream which efficiently provides the end customer with something other than what’s really wanted. Thus mapping begins with the customer requirements.  18.400 pieces per month:  • 12.000 per month „LH“  • 6. 400 per month „RH“  Customer plant operates on two shifts.  Returnable packaging with 20 brackets per container. The customer orders multiples of containers.  One daily shipment to the assembly plant by truck. 13
  14. 14. 2. Step: Production process of the Stamping Co.  Stamping Company‘s processes for this product family involve stamping a metal part followed by welding and assembly. The components are then staged & shipped to the vehicle assembly plant on daily basis.  Switching between type „LH“ and „RH“ brackets requires a one hour changeover in stamping and a 10-minute fixture change in the welding processes.  Steel coils are supplied by Michigan Steel Co. deliveries to Stamping Co. arrives Tuesdays and Thursdays.  Work time:  20 days per month  Two shift operation in all production departments  Eight (8) hours per shift, with overtime if necessary   Two 10-minute breaks during each shift. Manual processes stop during breaks. Unpaid lunch 14
  15. 15.  3) SPOT-WELDiNG II (dedicated to this product family) 2. Step: Process Details Stamping Co.  - manual process with one operator  - cycle time: 46 sec.  - changeover time: 10 min. (fixture change)  - machine reliability: 80%  - observed inventory:  - 1.600 pieces of Type „LH“  - 850 pieces of Type „RH“  4) ASSEMBLY I (dedicated to this product family)  - manual process with one operator  - cycle time: 62. Sec. - cycle time: 1 sec. (60 pieces per minute)  - changeover time: none  - changeover time: 1 hour  - reliability: 100%  - automated 200 ton press with coil (automatic) material feed  - observed inventory:  - machine reliability: 85%  - 1.200 pieces of Type “LH“  - 1/2 operator  - 640 pieces of Type „RH“  - observed inventory:  5) ASSEMBLY II (dedicated to this product family)   1) STAMPING (These press makes parts for many products)  - 4.600 pieces of Type „LH“ finished stampings  - 2.400 pieces of Type „RH“ finished stampings  - 5 days of coils before stamping  - manual process with one operator  - cycle time: 40 sec.  - changeover time: none  - reliability: 100% - cycle time: 39 sec.  - observed finished-goods inventory in warehouse:  - changeover time: 10 min. (fixture change)  - 2.700 pieces of Type „LH“  - machine reliability: 95%  - 1.440 pieces of Type „RH“     2) SPOT-WELDiNG I (dedicated to this product family) - manual process with one operator - observed inventory:  - 1.100 pieces of Type „LH“   - 600 pieces of Type „RH“   6) SHIPPING - Picks up parts from finished goods warehouse and stages them for the truck 15
  16. 16. 3. Step: Material flow  Customer:  One daily shipment to the assembly plant by truck.  Supplier:  Steel coils are supplied by Michigan Steel Co. deliveries to Stamping Co. arrives Tuesdays and Thursdays.  !!Focus on the main raw materials! 16
  17. 17. 4. Step: Production control of the Stamping Co.  Receives a 90/60/30-day forecast from the customer and enters this into MRP.  Receives a daily order from the customer.  Issues a 6-week forecast to Michigan Steel Co. via MRP.  Ensures coil steel by weekly faxed order release.  Generates MRP-based weekly departmental requirements based upon customer order, WIP inventory levels and anticipated scrap and downtime.  Issues weekly production schedules to Stamping, Welding and Assembly processes.  Issues daily shipping schedule to Shipping Department. 17
  18. 18. 5. Step: Drawing the timeline  Processing time according to the real observations /measures during the VSM (e.g. line output)  Lead Time for inventory: inventory quantity / daily customer requirement  Example: Daily requirement: 18.400 / 20 days = 920 parts Lead time for inventory between “Assembly #2” and “Shipping”: (2700+1440) / 920 = 4,5 days  Production lead time = time for one part to make its way through the plant = time between paying for raw material and getting paid for product 18
  19. 19. Current Value Stream 19
  20. 20. Drawing a Future State Choose a Product Family Drawing the Current State Drawing a Future State Implementation Projects The draft of a stream ... is the power of the value stream design  A future state draw is the base.  70 % exactness of the current state is sufficient, then currently refine (pencil!)  Material- and information streams  Start on the actual drawing  First repetition comes from the existing steps and machines: We can displace, combine or remove furnishings, deal smaller procurements... 20
  21. 21. An Ideal State in the Form of a North Star Current State Today Future State Future State True North 2 -3 alternatives 21
  22. 22. „Waste“ Wastes are elements of production, that don‘t create values. Wastes only cost time and money. Important points concerning „waste“:  Waste points to problems in value streams. Waste is more a symptom than a reason for problems.  We must detect the reason for waste and eliminate it. 22
  23. 23. „Overproduction“  „Overproduction“  = More  production than needed for the next process  =  production than needed for the next process  =  production than needed for the next process Sooner Faster 23
  24. 24. Characteristics of a Lean Value Stream All we are really trying to do in lean manufacturing is to get one process to make only what the next process needs when it needs it. We are trying to link all processes-from the final customer back to raw material- in a smooth flow -without detours- that generates the shortest lead time, highest quality and lowest cost. So how can you-on your shop floor- actually get one process to produce only what the next process needs when it needs it? 24
  25. 25. Individual Output against System Output  Question:  How fast do we have to  produce? If only one decided to increase the takt, it will not help the team! 25
  26. 26. Guideline 1:Produce to your takt time how often you should produce one part or product to meet customer requirements used to synchronize the pace of production with the pace of sales, particularly at the pacemaker process it is a reference number that gives you a sense for the rate at which a process should be producing On the future –state map, takt times are noted in the data boxes available working time per day Takt time = customer demand rate per day Producing to takt requires : -provide fast response (within takt) to problems -eliminate causes of unplanned downtime -eliminate changeover time in downstream, assembly-type processes 26
  27. 27. Guideline 2: Develop continuous flow wherever possible a) Batch and “push” type production b) Continuous flow refers to producing one piece at a time, with each item passed immediately from one process step to the next without stagnation (and many other wastes) in between. On the future –state map, each process box should describe an area of f 27
  28. 28. Guideline 3: Use supermarkets to control production where continuous flow does not extend upstream CUSTOMER PROCESS goes to supermarket and withdraws what it needs when it needs it. SUPPLYING PROCESS produces to replenish what was withdraw. A production Kan ban triggers production of parts, while a withdrawal Kan ban is a shopping list that instructs the material handle to get and transfer parts. 28
  29. 29. Guideline 3: Use supermarkets to control production where continuous flow does not extend upstream Supermarket: -belong to the supplying process and is used to schedule that process -Should be located near the supplying process to help that process maintain a visual sense of customer usage and requirements -the “customer” process=material handler then comes to the suppliers supermarket and withdraws what is needed -these withdrawals trigger the movement of kanban cards from the supermarket to the supplier process, where they are used as the only production instruction for that process 29
  30. 30. Alternatives for Push Plan Plan Push I A Plan I B Customer order I C D Customer order One Piece Flow A 1.) B C D Customer order FiFo (with WIP) 2.) A FIFO B FIFO C FIFO D Customer order Supermarket Pull 3.) A B C D 30
  31. 31. Advantage of pull … instead of … 31
  32. 32. Guideline 4: Try to send the customer schedule to only one production process That is call Pacemaker process because how you control production at this process sets the pace for all the upstream processes. The material transfers from the pacemaker process downstream to finished goods need to occur as a flow (no supermarkets or pulls downstream of the pacemaker process). the future –state map the pacemaker is the production process that is ntrolled by the outside customer’s orders. 32
  33. 33. Guideline 4: Try to send the customer schedule to only one production process Downstream: only Continuous Flow or FIFO Upstream: Supermarket Process 1 Process 2 Process 4 Process 3 Continuous Flow Process 1 Process 2 FIFO Process 3 FIFO Process 4 Continuous Flow or FIFO With custom products the scheduling point often needs to be further upstream. 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. Guideline 5: Distribute the production of different products evenly over time at the pacemaker process. (Level Production mix) NOT GOOD: Assembly Schedule 600 LH + 320 RH per day (Result) ⇒1 shift: 460 LH ⇒2 shift: 140 LH + 320 RH BETTER: according tray size: (Result) 20LH-20LH-20RH- 20LH-20LH20RH-… IMPORTANT: Strive for near-zero changeover time and frequent changeovers at the pacemaker process! 35
  36. 36. Guideline 6: Create an “initial pull” by releasing and withdrawing small, consistent increments of work at the pacemaker process. (Level the production volume). Release only small, consistent amount of production instruction (usually between 5-60 minutes) at the pacemaker process and simultaneously take away an equal amount of finished goods. consistent increments of work at the pacemaker process = pitch Pitch= takt time * the number of parts one finished goods container holds Pitch= Management time frame How often do you know your performance to customer demand? 36
  37. 37. Indicate not only the quantity to be produced, but also how long it takes to produced that quantity based on takt time. 37
  38. 38. Guideline 7: Develop the ability to make “every part every day” (then every shift, then every hour or pallet or pitch) in fabrication processes upstream of the pacemaker process. EPEx “x” can be week, day, shift, hour, pitch or takt This describes how frequently a process changes over to produce all part variations. 38
  39. 39. Key questions for the future state 1. What is the takt time? 2. Will you build to a finished good supermarket from which the customer pulls or directly to shipping? 3. Where can you use continuous flow processing? 4. Where will you need to use supermarket pull systems in order to control production of upstream processes? 5. At what single point in the production chain( the “pacemaker process”) will you schedule production? 6. How will you level the production mix at the pacemaker process? 7. What increment of work will you consistently release and take away at the pacemaker process? What process improvements will be necessary ? Reliability, changeover… 39
  40. 40. What process improvements will be necessary? Choose a Product Family Drawing the Current State Drawing a Future State Implementation Projects A Plan to Get There  Do not wait!  Implementation reviews: „No Problem“ = a Problem  To „manage the exceptions“ you need a pla – Tie your plan to measurable business objectives – Break your future state design into „loop – Make an implementation plan – Point out the connections to the layout p – To check implementation, you should be walk along the value stream In which value stream loop do you start? 40
  41. 41. Results - Indicator comparison Key indicators Results Before After Target Continuous flow Production output (per shift) Space (sqm) Lead Time (WIP x Takt) (Hours) Number of operators (per day) Productivity (pieces/operators no./hr) Transparency 41
  42. 42. 42

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Before using this training material as trainer you need: to be trained; run by yourself at least 2-3 value stream mapping (from simple to complex);read Learning to see and other lean specialty literature; Very familiar and able to recognize the 8 types of waste.
    Prepare for the participants this training material as a hard copy (can be 2 slides per page) to have the opportunity to take further notes during the training.
  • Give to the participants : A3 empty paper, pencil and rubber. Build with them the current value stream based on the information’s from the following pages. They will need to work with the icons from page 6&7.
  • True North:
    - 100% one piece flow
    - 100% value adding (value adding is every changes in the product to bring it to the state that the customer is ready to pay for)
    - 100% Quality
    - security for the people (like no los of the jobs)
  • The 7 Wastes are:
    1- over production
    2- Stock (space, material can be damaged etc..)
    3- transport (material related)
    4- waiting time
    5- moves (operator related)
    6- no quality (scrap)
    7- process steps that are not value adding from the customer point of view)
    (8-) Lack of using the available brains!
  • ?combination of continuous flow and some pull/FIFO….?difference in lead time and down times
  • Pull is a method for controlling production between flows.
  • E.P.E.I = Every Part Every Interval
  • Take the current value stream map from the exercise, divide the participants in small group and then each of the group should apply the 7 questions and define the future value stream map.
  • Value-stream mapping is only a tool. Unless you achieve the future state that you have drawn and achieved parts of it within a short period of time – your value stream map are nearly workless.
    Define an …..(period: example yearly) value stream plan.
    Put the teams to draw the plan for the next year.