Genetics research-project

24. Mar 2011

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Genetics research-project

  1. By Jayme Meehan and Alyssa Gagg
  2. Basic Principles of Genetic’s: 1.) The passing of each trait from parent to offspring is determined by genes. 2.) That offspring inherits one trait from each parent for each trait. 3.) That a trait may not show up in an individual but can still be passed on to the next generation. Co-dominant traits are two alleles that affect the phenotype of the heterozygote.
  3. 1) The Human Genome Project first started in the 1980s as an organized effort to provide the information researchers need to understand the genetic basis of all disease. 2) The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health devoted 3% to 5% of their annual Human Genome Project budgets toward studying the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding availability of genetic information. This represents the world's largest bioethics program, which has become a model for ELSI programs around the world. There are some societal concerns arising from the New Genetics. Such as Fairness in the use of genetic information by insurers, employers, courts, schools, adoption agencies, and the military, among others.
  4. 3) In 2008 Congress passed the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. Although GINA is arguably “the first civil rights bill of the 21st century,” they have consistently reminded Genomics Law Report readers that passing GINA into law was only the first step. Under GINA, discrimination based on genetic information is prohibited in hiring, promotion, discharge, pay, fringe benefits, job training, classification, referral and other aspects of employment. Employers are also restricted in acquiring and disclosing genetic information.   4) Define: Single gene disorder- A disease caused by abnormality in one gene Chromosome abnormalities- packages containing the genes, located in every cell of the body. Normally, humans have 46 chromosomes half come from the mother and half from the father. Extra or missing chromosomes or even parts of chromosomes generally result in multiple birth defects and mental retardation. Multifactorial disorders- These are caused by mutations in multiple genes, which may interact with environmental factors. Multifactorial disorders tend to occur later in life, such as colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease.   Karyotyping is one of the many techniques that help study the human genes for several genetic diseases. Karyotyping comes from the word karyotype. Karyotype is a complete profile of an individual's chromosomal set up. Any changes in the arrangement of a karyotype helps doctors study possiblegenetic disorders. In simpler terms, karyotyping is a close study of chromosomes.  
  5. Animal Cloning? For it or against it?
  8. AGAINST ANIMAL CLONING Cloning from a single species couldn’t create a correct breeding population in reproduction of animals. Even if males and females animals were cloned, the question is whether they would be able to live at all in the absence of parents that could teach or show them their natural behavior. Cloning endangered species is a highly ideological issue. Many environmentalists are opposed to cloning endangered species mainly because they think it may ruin natural habitat and wild animal populations. Breeding in captivity should not be undertaken in isolation. In 2006, David Ehrenfeld concluded that cloning an animal is an experiment in technology that would never work. He said working projects doesn’t address any of the issues that come with animal extinction, for example habitat overpopulation. While cloning technologies are used on a regular basis in plant conservation, care must be taken to ensure genetic diversity. He says: “Vertebrate cloning poses little risk to the environment, but it can consume scarce conservation resources, and its chances of success in preserving species seem poor. To date, the conservation benefits of transgenics and vertebrate cloning remain entirely theoretical, but many of the risks are known and documented. Conservation biologists should devote their research and energies to the established methods of
  9. FOR ANIMAL CLONING If your talking about species that lived side by side with humans at one point and we changed the species in anyway to tip there survival rate. Then yes we have that responsibility to bring them back. Example, the woolly mammoth was still alive until about 1650 BCE. Not a very long ago. The reason of there extinction was two reasons. 1) climate change 2) over hunting. If this is true than something even humans suffered many times in our existence, woolly mammoths would have still survived in small numbers all over our northern hemisphere to this day if not for the pressure that humans put upon it for there own survival in a changing environment. Then today mammoth and even woolly rhino's would still be walking the tundra. The tundra is almost unchanged, a huge vast area for these animals to live in. These areas are not possible even for locals. They call them the dead lands. If anyone does live on the tundra then they are relying on supplies or are very isolated. They would not impact the environment harshly, they would increase survival chances. More food for smaller animals on there dead carcasses, larger carnivores too, like the grizzly and maybe even the polar bear. God knows the polar bear needs some help in there changing environment or there going to be extinct.
  10. A lot of people argue whether cloning endangered or extinct species is dangerous because it is not a natural birth, and the donor may not be an exact match to the clone. Although, some people agree animal cloning could be better because animals humans have made an impact on their species so we could undo our changes.

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