Basic Principles of Genetic’s:
1.) The passing of each trait from
parent to offspring is determined by
2.) That offspring inherits one trait from
each parent for each trait.
3.) That a trait may not show up in an
individual but can still be passed on to
the next generation.
Co-dominant traits are two alleles that
affect the phenotype of the
1) The Human Genome Project first started in
the 1980s as an organized effort to provide
the information researchers need to
understand the genetic basis of all disease.
2) The U.S. Department of Energy and the
National Institutes of Health devoted 3% to
5% of their annual Human Genome Project
budgets toward studying the ethical, legal, and
social issues surrounding availability of
genetic information. This represents the
world's largest bioethics program, which has
become a model for ELSI programs around
the world. There are some societal concerns
arising from the New Genetics. Such as
Fairness in the use of genetic information by
insurers, employers, courts, schools, adoption
agencies, and the military, among others.
3) In 2008 Congress passed the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. Although GINA is
arguably “the first civil rights bill of the 21st century,” they have consistently reminded
Genomics Law Report readers that passing GINA into law was only the first step. Under
GINA, discrimination based on genetic information is prohibited in hiring, promotion,
discharge, pay, fringe benefits, job training, classification, referral and other aspects of
employment. Employers are also restricted in acquiring and disclosing genetic
Single gene disorder- A disease caused by abnormality in one gene
Chromosome abnormalities- packages containing the genes, located in every cell of the
body. Normally, humans have 46 chromosomes half come from the mother and half from
the father. Extra or missing chromosomes or even parts of chromosomes generally result
in multiple birth defects and mental retardation.
Multifactorial disorders- These are caused by mutations in multiple genes, which may
interact with environmental factors. Multifactorial disorders tend to occur later in life,
such as colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease.
Karyotyping is one of the many techniques that help study the human genes for several
genetic diseases. Karyotyping comes from the word karyotype. Karyotype is a complete
profile of an individual's chromosomal set up. Any changes in the arrangement of a
karyotype helps doctors study possiblegenetic disorders. In simpler terms, karyotyping is a
close study of chromosomes.
AGAINST ANIMAL CLONING
Cloning from a single species couldn’t create a correct breeding population in
reproduction of animals. Even if males and females animals were cloned, the question
is whether they would be able to live at all in the absence of parents that could teach
or show them their natural behavior.
Cloning endangered species is a highly ideological issue. Many environmentalists are
opposed to cloning endangered species mainly because they think it may ruin natural
habitat and wild animal populations. Breeding in captivity should not be undertaken in
In 2006, David Ehrenfeld concluded that cloning an animal is an experiment in
technology that would never work. He said working projects doesn’t address any of
the issues that come with animal extinction, for example habitat overpopulation. While
cloning technologies are used on a regular basis in plant conservation, care must be
taken to ensure genetic diversity. He says:
“Vertebrate cloning poses little risk to the environment, but it can consume scarce
conservation resources, and its chances of success in preserving species seem poor.
To date, the conservation benefits of transgenics and vertebrate cloning remain
entirely theoretical, but many of the risks are known and documented. Conservation
biologists should devote their research and energies to the established methods of
FOR ANIMAL CLONING
If your talking about species that lived side by side with humans at one point and
we changed the species in anyway to tip there survival rate. Then yes we have
that responsibility to bring them back. Example, the woolly mammoth was still
alive until about 1650 BCE. Not a very long ago. The reason of there extinction
was two reasons.
1) climate change
2) over hunting.
If this is true than something even humans suffered many times in our existence,
woolly mammoths would have still survived in small numbers all over our northern
hemisphere to this day if not for the pressure that humans put upon it for there
own survival in a changing environment. Then today mammoth and even woolly
rhino's would still be walking the tundra. The tundra is almost unchanged, a huge
vast area for these animals to live in. These areas are not possible even for locals.
They call them the dead lands. If anyone does live on the tundra then they are
relying on supplies or are very isolated. They would not impact the environment
harshly, they would increase survival chances. More food for smaller animals on
there dead carcasses, larger carnivores too, like the grizzly and maybe even the
polar bear. God knows the polar bear needs some help in there changing
environment or there going to be extinct.
A lot of people argue whether
cloning endangered or extinct
species is dangerous because it is
not a natural birth, and the donor
may not be an exact match to the
Although, some people agree
animal cloning could be better
because animals humans have
made an impact on their species
so we could undo our changes.