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Presentation about România

  1. A Presentation About România Peleş Castle - XIX Century Royal Castle
  2. România I. Overview II. Brief History III. Recent History IV. Political System V. Security & Defense VI. Famous Romanians VII. Images
  3. Overview  7th most populous EU state (19 million)  92,043 sq mi  $282Bn GDP (2013 PPP) ($13K/capita, 46% EU avg.)  Industry is 30% of GDP (EU average is 15%)  89% Romanians, 7% Magyar, 4% other  Mostly Christian-Orthodox, some Catholics & reformats  Caucasians România within the European Union (blue), and on the European continent România Location & Demographics
  4. Landmarks 1.Danube river (South) 2.Carpathians mountains (shape and position heavily influenced history) 3.Black Sea 4.Capital București (Bucharest) România Physical Map Iași Ploești
  5. România I. Overview II. Brief History III. Recent History IV. Political System V. Security & Defense VI. Famous Romanians VII. Images
  6. Dacia Kingdom (led by Decebal) conquered by Rome (led by Emperor Trajanus) and made part of Roman Empire Dacians natives and Romans colonizers formed Romanians Trajans’s Column in Rome, Italy, built by Trajan, can be seen today and depicts images from the war Romanian is a Latin (Romance) language, just like Italian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese România History - Antiquity King Decebal Emperor Trajanus Bridge over Danube built by Apollodorus of Damascus Trajan’s Column in Rome
  7. 3 Kingdoms (Moldavia in East, Wallachia in South, Transylvania in West) Between Ottoman Empire, Austrian- Hungarian Empire, and Russian Empire Kings Stephen and Vlad both fought against the Ottomans Three Romanian kingdoms in 15th century România History – Middle Ages Stephen the Great of Moldavia Vlad the Impeller of Wallachia Iancu de Hunedoara of Transylvania
  8.  King Michael the Brave unifies all Romanian kingdoms in 1600 AD  Kingdom did not survived his assassination by foreigners, but set the precedent of a Romanian state United Romanian Kingdom (1600) România History – Middle Ages
  9.  Alexandru Ioan Cuza forms personal union in 1859, creating the first modern Romanian state  Introduces modern reforms (Secularization, Agrarian & Land, Civil Code, Education, Universal Man Suffrage, Standing Army, etc.)  Cuza is authoritarian, forced to abdicated; Romanian elite select a German noble to establish a royal family (Carol I de Hohenzollern  Carol I lead and wins the 1877 Independence War Ottoman Empire, proclaims Kingdom of Romania România History – XIX Century Proclamation of Union (1859) Alexandru Cuza King Carol IIndependence War (1877) Industrialization 1850
  10.  Carol I’s son, King Ferdinand I, leads Romania in WWI with Allies (Entante Cordiale)  Romanians in Transylvania proclaim the Great Union with Romania (1918)  Romanian Army conquers back Transylvania from imploding Habsburg Empire  The resulting Kingdom of Greater Romania confirmed by Trianon (Paris) Peace Treaty (1920) România History – After World War I Proclamation of Great Union Romanian Army in Budapest King Ferdinand I
  11. România History – 1920 to 1940 Regional industrial power Main industries: 1. Oil & Gas: exploration & refining – 6th worldwide 2. Agriculture: major exporter 3. Heavy & light industry 4. Machinery construction
  12. At the end of the WWII, Romania: 1) Lost Eastern Moldova to USSR, and 2) Was occupied by the Red Army and forced to embrace communism for the next half century  Nazi Germany and USSR partition Eastern Europe in 1939-40. Soviets annex eastern Moldavia, Hungary occupies Northern Transylvania  Allies are powerless (France conquered, UK isolated), neutrality not an option  Between two evils, Romania chose to fight bolsheviks alongside Germany România History – During World War II City of Iaşi bombed by soviets; Red Army soldiers occupying Romania
  13. WWII  Towards end of war, Romania switches sides to Allies; Eastern Moldavia lost back to USSR, but conquers Transylvania back again  Falls under soviet and bolshevik occupation; Soviets pillaged the country savagely; mass rapes & deportations After WWII: Forced communism  Elites (capitalists, land owners, upper middle class) imprisoned and executed, or (few) exiled; King Michael I abdicated and exiled  Properties (land, real estate, industrial, cash) confiscated, even small land from peasants  45 years of oppression, dictatorship, and isolation România History – After World War II Eastern Europe behind the Iron Curtain (USSR and occupied states) România USSR Poland Hungary Bulgaria East Germany
  14. România I. Overview II. Brief History III. Recent History IV. Political System V. Security & Defense VI. Famous Romanians VII. Images
  15. România Oppressed by Soviets & Communists (1945-1989) Eastern Europe behind the Iron Curtain (USSR and countries oppressed by the communist regimes) România USSR
  16. Three phases 1) 1945-1955 USSR dismantle former industrial base, pillage resources (via Sovroms “JV-s”); country planned as agriculture base only 2) 1955-Early 1980s National communists took over, distance from USSR, borrow funds from West for massive re- industrialization, especially heavy industry; small “openness” towards West 3) Early 1980s-1989 National communists isolated by West (due to direct USA-USSR talks & Gorbatchev’s Perestroika); Foreign debt paid through severe austerity; Little maintenance, no new investments leads to economic stagnation & collapse in 1989 România History: Communism (1945-1989) Danube – Black Sea Canal Rombac 1-11 (BAC license) Dacia 1300 (Renault license) Cernavoda Nuclear Plant (CANDU) Subway (Romanian design) Trucks (MAN license) Petromidia Refinery Political prisoners in forced labor camps Nationalization of all property decreed
  17.  Based on very austere life, only very basics covered very poorly: electricity rolling blackouts, rationalization of food and gasoline, one TV channel (only propaganda)  Severe political oppression by feared Security Police (“Securitate”), no free speech, propaganda and cult of personality (epoch claimed as “Golden Age”) România History: Communism (1945-1989) Daily commute Line for food ratios Line for heating gas Palace “of the People” Bucharest street view (1960’s) Ceausescu and forced “support” rallies Cult of personality at large scale (stadium show)
  18. Fighting and Dying for Freedom against Communism More than 1,100 heroes – Rest in Peace! România Revolution Against Communism (1989)
  19.  Free elections, new Constitution, new laws, multiple changes of power by democratic means  Land, most properties restituted  Transition to free market economy, liberalization of prices  Mass privatizations  Integration in European economy, borders opened to capital, goods, services  Major foreign investments  Received EU cohesion funds (EU ‘s “Marshal Plan” for Eastern Europe) World Trade Center in Bucharest România 1990’s and 2000’s
  20.  1990 – 1999: Building Democracy  1999: Invitation to join EU  2000 – 2004: Negotiations o 2004 Joined NATO  2005: Accession Treaty Signed  2005-2007: Accession Treaty Ratifications by EU States  2007-Present: EU State Romanian President Băsescu (left) and Prime Minister Tăriceanu (right) signing the Accession Treaty of Romania to the European Union (Luxembourg, 2005) România Joining the European Union (2007)
  21. România Joining the European Union (2007) The European Union flag is officially raised in front of the Romanian Government seat in Bucharest, at midnight, 2007 New Year Eve
  22. România Joining the European Union (2007) The Romanian Delegation joins the European Parliament in Bruxelles, Belgium Bruxelles, Belgium
  23. 2007 New Year Joining EU – Ceremonies & Celebrations România Joining the European Union (2007)
  24. România Benefits as EU State The European Union (EU) is a confederation of 28 sovereign states. The States remain sovereign but voluntarily delegate powers (competencies) to the EU government institutions for the purpose of achieving the Union’s goals (“Ever closer Union”) 1) Benefits for Romanian Citizens: True Freedom on a Continental Scale  As EU Citizens (formal status): right and freedom to work, have residence and live, study, invest, own properties and land, vote and be elected in any state of the Union (no visa, passport, or permits required other than for any national of that state)  Direct representation in the European Parliament (via direct elections)  Protection from the embassy of any EU state outside Europe 2) Benefits for Economy and Romanian Enterprises: World’s Largest Market  Freely move capital, goods, services and part of the largest economy in the world ($17.3Tn 2013 Est.) and one of the largest markets in the world (500 million citizens)  Interests represented globally via EU’s representation in G7, G20, etc. 3) Benefits & Obligations for Romanian State: Western Discipline and Developing Grants  Western (often German inspired) EU legislation rigor & regulations  Access to EU Cohesion funds (grants; €34 Bn 2007-2013)  Access to EU Agriculture Policy subsidies  Anti-corruption and assistance for improved justice system from EU  Obligation to implement EU Laws and European Court of Justice rulings  Obligation to contribute to the EU Budget
  25. România The Last 25 Years Story as Reflected by GDP 1. Former centralized economy collapsed (could not compete in capitalism) 2. 300+ % inflation, very high unemployment, massive deficits 3. Modest reforms (1996-2000) Lastyearsasunder communistregime Romanians win Freedom (Dec 16th-22nd 1989) Formal invitation to join EU (Helsinki EU Summit, Dec 1999) 1.Western companies invest in the future EU state 2.Visa-free travel makes it easier to Romanians to seek work and send money home, fueling consumption Romania joins EU as the 27th state (Jan 1st, 2007) 1.More foreign investments 2.More Romanians seek opportunities across EU and send money home 3.EU cohesion funds (grants) add to economy 4.Economy connected to world’s economy suffers from recession and recovers Romania joins NATO (Apr 2004) Note: Nominal GDP, not adjusted to PPP
  26. GDP $285 Bn (IMF 2013, PPP) GDP per Capita $13.4K (40% EU average) GDP Formation Services 52%, Industry 35%, Agriculture 12% (2009 est.) Tax Rate 16% Flat Rate Inflation 1.5% (2013) Labor Force 9.3 million (2012) Unemployment 7.1% (2014/Jun) Exports $64 Bn (2012) Source: IMF, Wikipedia România Economic Integration in the EU Mercedes Powertrain Plant (Cugir) Dacia Logan, European Best Seller Softronic, Romanian High-Speed Train OMV Petrobrazi Refinery Ford Plant (Craiova) New A3 Highway (segment)
  27. România Today România Today
  28. România Romania & Republic of Moldova  2.5 million Romanians live in Republic of Moldova (65% of country’s population); former Romanian territory occupied by USSR during WWII and made soviet republic  Moldova declared independence from USSR in 1991  Union not possible yet, but aspired by many o Romania has EU and NATO obligations; needs more economical power o Moldova held in-check by Russia, who has troops and supports an unrecognized breakaway puppet “republic of Transnistria” in the East o Unionists on both sides think that the best path towards some form of unification is within EU; Romania is actively supporting Moldova’s accession to the EU o Moldova signed an EU free trade agreement in 2014 (early association step) Romanians in Republic of Moldova attending a pro-EU rally
  29. România I. Overview II. Brief History III. Recent History IV. Political System V. Security & Defense VI. Famous Romanians VII. Images
  30. România Political System - Overview  Romania is a democratic republic, deriving its sovereignty from the people  Semi-presidential parliamentary representative democracy • President is Head of State • Prime Minister leads the Government  Multi-party system • Executive power is exercised by the Government • Legislative power is vested in both the Government and Parliament • Judiciary is independent of the Executive and the Legislature Provision in the Romanian Constitution formally establishing the legal link with EU Treaties and their precedence over national law (Adopted by public Referendum in 2004 by the Sovereign will of the Romanian people)1): Title VI, Art. 148 from the Romanian Constitution “(2) As a result of the [EU] accession, the provisions of the constituent treaties of the European Union, as well as the other mandatory community regulations shall take precedence over the opposite provisions of the national laws, in compliance with the provisions of the accession act. Note 1) This is the legal design of a supra-national union of sovereign states; Can theoretically be revoked also by Sovereign will. Romanian Constitution (Supreme law of land) EU Treaties
  31. EU Council President EU Council (Senate) Elects România Political System – How It Works RO President RO Government RO Prime Minister  Constitutional Amendments & Referendums  Local Councils & Mayors  County Councils & County Presidents Vote of (No) Confidence Appoints European Commission (Government) EU Commission PresidentAppoints Vote of (No) Confidence EU Level State Level Local & County RO Parliament EU Parliament by Citizens from all EU States Other Heads of EU States (Presidents or Prime-Ministers, depending on state) Sits in the EU Council as Head of State Romanian Citizens Direct Vote Direct Vote Direct Vote Direct Vote
  32. Klaus Werner Iohannis  President of Romania (2014-2019)  Liberal-Democrat Party (European People’s Party)  Former Mayor of Sibiu  Ethnic German & Protestant România Political Leadership - President
  33. Romanian Government  Prime-Minister Dacian Cioloș (2016)  Agronomist engineer and politician  Former EU Commissioner for Agriculture in the European Commissions (2009-2014 led by José Barroso) România Political Leadership - Government The Romanian Government led by Prime-Minister Dacian Cioloș after being sworn in by the President (center of the photo), following the vote of investiture by the Parliament (Nov/2015)
  34. Romanian Parliament  Chamber of Deputies & Senate  Last elections Dec/2012 o Won by Social Liberal Union 60%  Next elections Dec/2016 România Political Leadership - Parliament
  35. România Political Leadership - Judiciary Constitutional Court High Court of Cassation and Justice  Constitutional Court • President: Augustin Zegrean (from 2010)  High Court of Cassation and Justice • President: Horaţiu Dumbravă (from 2011)  Superior Council of Magistrates • President: Livia Stanciu (from 2010)
  36. Mugur Isărescu  Governor of Romania’s National Bank  Co-leads (with the Government) the process to adopt the EURO currency (Target: 2019) România Political Leadership - National Bank
  37. Corina Creţu  Regional Policy Commissioner (Minister) in the European Commission (Government) 2014-2019  Manages EU’s improving the economic well-being of regions by restructuring declining industrial areas and diversifying rural areas which have declining agriculture  33% of EU budget is dedicated to this policy area România Political Leadership – EU Government
  38. Adina Vălean Vice-President, European Parliament European People’s Party România Political Leadership – EU Parliament1) Ioan Mircea Paşcu Vice-President, European Parliament Party of European Socialists Note: 1) European Parliament has a total of 14 Vice-Presidents and 751 Members directly elected by EU Citizens every five years
  39. România I. Overview II. Brief History III. Recent History IV. Political System V. Security & Defense VI. Famous Romanians VII. Images
  40. România Security & Defense  NATO Member State since 2004  Frontier state with FSU space (Ukraine & Black Sea)  Stability factor in Balkans  Active participation in NATO/UN missions o Afghanistan o Iraq o Angola (UNAVEM) o Former Yugoslavia (IFOR/SFOR)
  41. România Security & Defense  Key US strategic partner in Europe  Romanian Air Base in Constanta (Kogalniceanu) to serve as the main US transit center for Afghanistan, replacing Manas in Kyrgyzstan o “It is therefore no surprise that the U.S. has opted to use the Mihail Kogalniceanu airbase, situated in south-east Romania 16 miles northwest of Constanta, the country’s principal port on the Black Sea, for transit of people into and out of Afghanistan. In 2003, it became one of four Romanian military facilities that have been used by U.S. military forces as a staging area for the invasion of and ongoing counter-insurgency efforts in Iraq, operated by the 458th Air Expeditionary Group, and it has become one of the main operating bases of US Army Europe's Joint Task Force East.” --Star & Stripes
  42. România Security & Defense Romania’s Bold Eagles Battalion in Iraq (2006) Romanian troops next to US/NATO Allies (Afghanistan) NATO Summit in Bucharest, Romania (2008) US & Romanian Navies performing joint exercises in Black Sea, in the context of the Ukrainian Crisis (2014)
  43. România Security & Defense Armed Forces Parading on the National Day (December 1st)
  44. România I. Overview II. Brief History III. Recent History IV. Political System V. Security & Defense VI. Famous Romanians VII. Images
  45. Nadia Comăneci (born 1961) – 1st Perfect “10” Winner of three Olympic gold medals at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal and the first female gymnast ever to be awarded a perfect score of 10 in an Olympic gymnastic event România Famous Romanians
  46. Henri Coandă (1886-1972) - The Jet Engine Grand-Daddy Build and flown the first ever jet engine and jet aircraft in 1910 România Famous Romanians
  47. Bran Castle Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia (1431–1476) Known as Vlad the Impeller was the basis of the fictional character Dracula in Bram Stoker’s famous novel România Famous Romanians
  48. George Emil Palade (1912 – 2008) 1974 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine together with Albert Claude and Christian de Duve. The prize was granted for his innovations in electron microscopy and cell fractionation which together laid the foundations of modern molecular cell biology. [1], the most notable discovery being the ribosomes of the endoplasmic reticulum – which he first described in 1955. România Famous Romanians
  49. Herta Müller (born 1953) Romanian-born German novelist, poet, essayist and recipient of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature Müller is noted for her works depicting the effects of violence, cruelty and terror, usually in the setting of Communist Romania under the repressive Nicolae Ceauşescu regime which she experienced herself. Many of her works are told from the viewpoint of the German minority in Romania and are also a depiction of the modern history of the Germans in the Banat, and Transylvania. Her much acclaimed 2009 novel The Hunger Angel (Atemschaukel) portrays the deportation of Romania's German minority to Stalinist Soviet Gulags during the Soviet occupation of Romania for use as German forced labor România Famous Romanians
  50. Constantin Brâncuși 1876 – 1957) Sculptor; his abstract style emphasizes clean geometrical lines that balance forms inherent in his materials with the symbolic allusions of representational art România Famous Romanians
  51. România I. Overview II. Brief History III. Recent History IV. Political System V. Security & Defense VI. Famous Romanians VII. Images
  52. Sibiu (Nagyszeben / Hermannstadt) European Union’s Capital of Culture 2007 România Images Sighişoara Braşov
  53. România Images - Iaşi Royal Palace & Palas City Center National Theater Old street car
  54. Putna Monastery – XV Century România Images
  55. România Images - Landscapes Danube Delta Carpathians Mountains
  56. România Images – Rural Areas
  57. România Images – Rural Areas & Prince of Wales In 2006 the Prince of Wales bought and restored an 18th Century Saxon house in Viscri, Romania, a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. His Royal Highness said: "Ever since I first visited Romania in 1998, I have been doing my utmost to ensure a sustainable future for the Saxon villages of Transylvania and their people. Tourism clearly has a vital role to play in this.“
  58. România Images – Traditional Costumes
  59. România Images – Urban Romania Various cities Typical cities built during communism Street View
  60. România Images – Urban Romania Modern apartment buildings Various cities
  61. România Images – Bucharest (Capital)
  62. Photos of Every Day Romanians România
  63. România © 2001-2015 by Irina & Radu Filip. All right reserved. This presentation is not to be used for private commercial purposes. Modifications are permitted only if this notice is kept unchanged in its entirety. Permitted to be used for academic purposes. Copyright of the photos shown belongs to their respective authors.