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Building Social Movements for Brands - An Analysis of Global Movements

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Building Social
Movements for Brands
An Analysis of Global Movements



                          John Bell, Tom Boland an...
Table of Contents
Executive Summary                                                 3

Our Approach                       ...
Executive Summary


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Building Social Movements for Brands - An Analysis of Global Movements

  1. 1. Building Social Movements for Brands An Analysis of Global Movements John Bell, Tom Boland and Erin Carter March 2013
  2. 2. Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 Our Approach 6 Our Findings 7 Movement qualities that drive social actions 11 Profiles of Movements Obama ‘08 – Yes, We Can 15 Political Movement Obama ‘12 – It Begins With Us 16 Political Movement Romney ‘12– Believe in America 17 Social Movement Earth Hour 18 Social Movement It Gets Better 19 Social Movement Occupy Wall Street 20 Social Movement Tsunami Relief Fund 21 Brand Movement Amex Small Business Saturday 22 Brand Movement Nike Foundation, The Girl Effect 23 Brand Movement Pepsi Refresh 24 Appendix A: Top Ten Pages on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube 25 2 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  3. 3. Executive Summary D igital and social media have changed of membership, such as the number of how causes and movements grow and subscribed fans of a Facebook page, for accelerate. Building movements is hard instance, determines the pool of people we can work, and doing it well is an art and science drive to save energy, support gay rights, adopt practiced by NGOs, political candidates, and a more sustainable lifestyle, or some other supporters of social causes. The collaboration action or behavior change. and communication advantages of digital and social platforms have reduced the overall How does the number of people driven to cost of organizing supporters, but not the action by the 2012 campaign to re-elect complexity. Sharing via social networks, President Obama compare to a brand program using content effectively, and managing like Pepsi Refresh Everything? How does the relationships with individuals can affect engagement level of a global social program elections, environmental movements, brand like Earth Hour, that promotes energy-saving movements and more.   behaviors, compare with a brand program like Nike’s The Girl Effect? And how do the As more brands aspire to build movements engagement levels of various movements around causes that intersect with the online compare to the most popular phenomena in community and their business, understanding social media, like Psy’s Gangnam Style, that the benchmarks of scale and success drive more than a billion actions? becomes key. Brands want big movements that drive people to action. But how big is big? As movements aspire to drive people to some The size of a movement matters. Most brands type of action or behavior change, what does will be as concerned about overall reach of a success look like? What do brands need to do program as the various types of engagement differently? What lessons can we learn? they can inspire in people. The actual size 3 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  4. 4. What are social actions? How do different movements compare to each other? Whether a political movement, a social movement or a brand movement, all are Entertainment Phenomena, Political, Social trying to do more than simply reach people. and Brand Movements, fall into a descending They need to drive action, whether as simple order of magnitude. as sharing a Facebook post or retweeting a message, or as complex as changing energy- Entertainment phenomena, like Justin Bieber saving behavior. To compare movements, and Gangnam Style, earn more than a billion we looked at a variety of typical engagement social actions. Political campaigns, like the metrics, from liking a Facebook page U.S. Presidential, race garner hundreds of (“fanning” a page) to watching a video to millions of social actions. Social and Brand following a Twitter handle. We consider Movements fall below these levels, often each a “social action.” Most are triggers for earning between five to ten million social additional advocacy. Facebook shares, for actions. example, broadcast our action to our own friends and followers via our own personal Political campaigns rely on paid media to page, and expand the reach of a program. spark owned and earned media to a massive The value of social actions are not all equal. scale in a short period of time. Some stimulate more sharing or drive more time spent with content. Each is a discrete Presidential elections have a singular purpose action, and we have grouped them into a — to get a candidate elected by a fixed date. As single number to make comparing movements such, they need to capture people’s attention easier. Detail of social action types can be and drive action in a concentrated period of found in the Profiles of Movements section. time. Even the established movements with millions of members, like the 2012 campaign to re-elect President Obama, need to grow and update their existing member base, and increase the actions they are likely to take. Invariably, these campaigns rely on paid media to grow the member base fast and drive them to social actions in a short period of time. 4 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  5. 5. Social and Brand Movements can achieve a Large movements have at least four common similar level of scale to each other, and do so characteristics. more slowly, often over a few years. Enduring “truths” have emerged about what Nike’s The Girl Effect drove more than 8 it takes to sustain large movements. These million social actions in 2012, its sixth year include singular, focused purpose; a genuine of activity. Earth Hour after four years has or authentic motivation; low barriers to expanded across global markets, and grown to entry; and a commitment to the people and more than 6 million actions — many focused at resources to cultivate growth and action. a signature moment in the year. Brand Movements that do not align and support current business goals are often discontinued before earning the full benefits of multi-year growth. Pepsi Refresh achieved 8 million-plus social actions in just two short years, fueled by an integrated, paid, owned and earned1 program to acquire supporters and drive action. Still, this program was either coincident or correlative to a period of a drop in product sales. While the program may have improved brand measures, few programs can maintain internal support when actual product sales or growth are hurting. 1 Owned media includes all of the content and platforms controlled by a brand or organization, such as websites and content, like videos. Earned media describes all of the community advocacy (e.g., sharing inside Facebook) as well as the non-paid stories run in professional and semi-professional media outlets. Paid media includes all forms of paid advertising. 5 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  6. 6. Our Approach W e examined social actions across and other factors. For example, liking a three types of movements, and Facebook page may carry less weight than compared these to a fourth sharing and commenting on a post; viewing category of the most popular entertainment a video may be a more passive social action phenomena. than retweeting a brand’s tweet. We primarily looked at activity across the three major ƒƒ Political movements included US social networks most often used by these Presidential elections, as well as emergent movements- Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. phenomena, like the Arab Spring. We reviewed 10 different movements from ƒƒ Social Movements included advocacy and across the globe, looking for those that were behavior change efforts around social developed for political campaigns, social causes. causes, or brands. These 10 were culled from a list of 30 movements overall. We analyzed ƒƒ Brand Movements included focused efforts each category, looking at total social actions, from major brands to drive action around a as noted above, as well as the duration of the social cause aligned with the brand. program: was it in its infancy, or had it been in existence for a few years? The objective ƒƒ Entertainment phenomena captured the was to reveal strengths and weaknesses artists and media with the absolute highest of different movements, especially those level of social actions. designed to contribute to driving sustained behavior change. For a deeper understanding For the sake of this analysis, we have assumed of individual movements’ strengths and that all social actions are weighted equally. weaknesses, a ranking and analysis of each Understandably, how one social action is political, brand and social movement we weighted may depend on the category, timing, explored can be found in the final section. 6 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  7. 7. Our Findings Entertainment rules…by a lot! Political 400,000,000 Movement Comparison Obama ‘12 Across all platforms, players in the 300,000,000 Total Social entertainment category quickly emerge as Actions in the most popular. Psy (Gangnam Style), who One Year 200,000,000 took over the top spot on YouTube in less than a year, had been viewed more than one billion times by year’s end. Those who reign Obama ‘08 100,000,000 on Twitter and Facebook are not the same as 50,000,000 the leaders on YouTube, but nearly all those Romney ‘12 who lead in these social networks are in the 0 entertainment industry. Few brands, and even fewer non-entertainment individuals rise the New York Times reported social actions of to the very top on these networks. Notably, nearly 50mm for President Obama, and only no causes or movements seeking behavior 9mm for Governor Romney. Political election change were at the top. For a full list of the top movements can get big quickly, fueled by a mix pages on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, see of integrated marketing and very sophisticated Appendix A. message targeting driven by data insights. These campaigns were not merely social. They represent integrated programs that combine Political movements in the US owned, earned and paid media, for maximum are becoming more effective in impact. At their heart is a sophisticated the use of “integrated” social approach to email-driven CRM, combined both with paid advertising and action-oriented media. programs in social media. The 2012 campaign Measured by social actions, President to re-elect the President of the United States Obama’s recent re-election campaign put more emphasis on mobile fundraising achieved almost three times the impact of his to match changes in user behaviors. The 2008 campaign. Compared to his opponent, campaign also achieved greater results with Governor Mitt Romney, who had an impressive lower ad spend. This was due to at least social media footprint, President Obama four factors. The Obama campaign had clearly led in social actions. In October 2012, an established base of followers on social 7 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  8. 8. Comparison of 8,000,000 Social vs Brand 7,000,000 Pepsi Movements Refresh 6,000,000 Total Social Actions Amex Small 5,000,000 Business Earth Hour Social 4,000,000 It Gets Better Brand 3,000,000 Nike The 2,000,000 Girl Effect Tsunami 1,000,000 Occupy Wall Street 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Years networks from the previous election cycle. the activity and engagement with those who These users had four years of growth in their participate in the movement nearly stops own reliance on social networks. Meanwhile, completely. the campaign developed increasingly more sophisticated CRM practices,as well as data- International, non-election, political driven targeting. movements work differently. They are smaller, and the dollars available are often insignificant Political movements generate an amazing in comparison to what is spent on election- amount of social actions over a short period based political movements. Many also lack the of time. They are designed to educate and organization of election-based movements. influence an audience to accomplish three For example, the Egyptian movement We Are specific short-term goals: drive advocacy, All Khaled Said, which expressed outrage over encourage fundraising, and generate votes. Khaled Said’s death at the hands of Egyptian They rely on advertising dollars online and police, lacks the scale for a true comparison, offline to “jumpstart” election programs. By with only 293,000 Facebook fans. The Anti- June 2012, the Obama re-election campaign Japan Sentiment in China, although growing spent $31mm in online advertising alone. This in news coverage, is not a cohesive, mobilized was four times what Mitt Romney’s campaign movement that supporters could join, never had spent, though both candidates spent mind be driven to common actions. between $400-492mm on total ad spend in the course of a year. After the election, though, 8 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  9. 9. Social and Brand movements from North America to over 25 global markets. achieve similar levels of scale. Earth Hour has grown across the world, driving a synchronized and simple activity Social and brand movements designed to among its followers. While it is relatively sustain action over several years are often straightforward to tally up the social actions smaller than the compressed efforts of an taken in a program like Earth Hour, or even election campaign. Election movements to understand how many people turned their have a simple, singular call-to-action, whose lights off during the actual “Earth Hour,” it is relevance is broadly clear to a community. much harder to evaluate whether the program They also have large advertising budgets and causes, or correlates to sustained behavior sophisticated social CRM techniques. change. Are people participating in the social and symbolic actions of Earth Hour actually Even while some brand movements, like Pepsi changing the way they live every day to save Refresh or American Express Small Business energy? “Social actions” is a simple measure Saturday, may support their efforts through of how much engagement, and even digital some paid media budget, these are dwarfed advocacy, we may be driving. All movements by the money spent during an election cycle. have a more tangible behavior goal that must Social and Brand movements often rely on be tracked, as well. sophisticated use of owned and earned media, with some “strategic” paid media. Conversely, Occupy Wall Street — a movement that received significant media Social movements perform well when they attention and led to popular social memes — have low barriers to entry and simple calls to has receded. The call to action is not clear. The action. The Girl Effect, which advocates rights actual goals of the movement are confusing. for young women, and Earth Hour, which People may be interested in the movement, promotes energy conservation, have both been but don’t know how to best participate. Indeed, active for over four years. They enjoy large Occupy Wall Street bills itself as a “leaderless social footprints as the ideas have spread to resistance movement,” which could be part different regions of the world. It Gets Better, of the reason that interested parties are not a program which seeks to eliminate bullying entirely clear on how to effect change on any of gay and lesbian youth, has also grown a reasonable scale. significant social footprint, as it has expanded 9 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  10. 10. Brand movements need to align cause itself, which already had meaning for with business success to be people before American Express embraced sustained. it. Rather than fabricating an issue or cause, American Express chose to champion one that The best brand movements generate people were already invested in and talking impressive social participation figures when about. they have low barriers to entry and a clear call to action. But if a movement does not There are common characteristics to the support the business goals of a brand, few best-performing movements. Between the brands will stay committed, as is the case with high-performing, election-based political the Pepsi Refresh Project. While it may have movements and the more modest social and boosted brand reputation with 6.6mm social brand movements, some qualities stand out as actions in support of the movement, it did not more critical keys to success: translate into a sales lift, and correlates to a period of overall sales decline. Pepsi reported Social and Brand Political that they “measured our results by the level of engagement between the brand and our ƒƒ Low barrier to ƒƒ A strong CRM consumers, social ROI [impact made] and entry. program connected brand-equity results. And, by these measures, to social. we [were] more than satisfied.” However, it’s ƒƒ Clear call to action. been argued that the cost of the program ƒƒ Owned, earned and compared to the weakening sales and market ƒƒ Measureable paid media working share made it unsustainable in the long-term.2 actions together. American Express Small Business Saturday, ƒƒ Addresses a ƒƒ Leverage big data on the other hand, has been in the market for personally or locally to find and activate two years. Consumers and merchants are relevant cause. key opinion leaders supporting the program, which has translated (KOLs). to a 23% increase in small business revenue.3 Part of its success may be explained by the 2 http://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/186127/why-pepsi-canned- the-refresh-project.html 3 http://mashable.com/2012/03/22/american-express-small-business- saturday/ 10 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  11. 11. Movement qualities that drive social actions Relevant Cause: part of something bigger, and could show their involvement via Facebook. Most movements Supporters generally need a strong cause to are keenly aware that emotional cues, rather rally around and support. While it can be about than rational reasons, drive action and invest a global or national issue, it must have some in strong storytelling to inspire action and personal and/or local relevance. The beauty of belief. All of these are simple examples of the Small Business Saturday in the United States art and science of behavioral economics that is that everyone has a local business that explain why any of us would actively support a they care about. Most causes have emotional cause. as well as rational drivers —something participants are passionate about, and can Clear Call-to-Action “put their heart into.” Often, it is not connected and Low Barrier: to a brand or buying a product. When causes blatantly connect to selling a product, they can Successful movements have a clear call come across as being too “sales-y” or focused to action and make it easy for people to on making money, rather than promoting participate. Removing barriers to participation the cause. The Girl Effect, Earth Hour, Small and encouraging simple, everyday actions that Business Saturday and It Gets Better are all are easy for people to do on a regular basis good examples of strong, relevant causes. can help allow a movement to catch hold. Application of Behavioral Earth Hour is an example of a movement that Economics: had a low barrier to entry, asking participants to give up electricity for just one hour during For the sake of this paper, we will consider the the entire year. As noted previously, however, broad discipline of driving people to action via getting people to do something once a year behavioral insights as “behavioral economics.” may not result in a sustained habit. From social proof to confirmation bias to letting people be creative and display their involvement, great movements know how to trigger action. Pepsi Refresh Everything invited people to vote to determine which non-profits would receive $20mm of funding. Participants became invested in the outcome, 11 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  12. 12. Measureable Actions: may not lead to sales growth, as was the case with Pepsi Refresh Project. (One of Not only do supporters need to know the things that helped make The Girl Effect what goals they are working toward with successful is that the Nike brand is not the movement they have joined, but it is readily evident as a sponsor; because the important for the organizers to be able to movement is unbranded, it has a scope and measure whether the movement has “moved vision much larger than athletic gear.) the needle” in any significant way. The key performance indicators will vary, depending 3 Given the demands on consumers’ on the mission statement of the movement, time and attention, the more a brand or and could be connected to product sales, movement can limit barriers to entry, the social change, or political gain. Being able more likely it is that participants will join. to track year-over-year results allows the Complicated requirements for support movement’s organizers, supporters (and can be a hindrance to participation and/ detractors) determine success. or duration of a movement. Simple actions and simple messages work best. The Four enduring lessons for artful management and targeting of simple movements: messages and actions in the campaign to re-elect President Obama was part of its 1 Understand and be able to articulate the success. cause behind the movement and the actions required of participants. Without a clear 4 Be prepared to invest time, effort, and vision, a movement cannot succeed (e.g., dollars to assist the movement’s growth. Occupy Wall Street). Additionally, it is vital Part of the success of the Obama 2008 that brands be clear on financial and brand and 2012 campaigns came from the sheer reputation goals, and set appropriate volume of dollars and work effort involved metrics against which to measure the from paid staffers and volunteers. Similarly, positive impact on business in addition to American Express has invested significant the community impact. amounts of money in paid media and other resources to support their strategy and 2 Some of the most successful movements efforts for Small Business Saturday. While are those that are perceived as genuine some movements are successful and “go and organic. Trying to develop and define a viral” with little financial investment, this is movement connected to a product, or where rare. The biggest brand movements require the purchase of the product is key to the financial support, allowing them to grow movement, may be perceived as inorganic on a scale that unsupported movements and forced. Connecting directly to a product cannot. 12 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  13. 13. Movements Rankings Social Total Social Facebook Twitter YouTube YouTube Google+ Movements Actions Fans Followers Views Subscribers Followers Obama ‘12 It 1 350.6mm 33mm 28mm 287mm 284k 2.4mm Begins With Us Obama ‘08 Yes, 2 123.5mm 3.2mm 109k 120mm 150k 0 We Can Romney ‘12 3 Believe in 44mm 7.9mm 1.23mm 34mm 32mm 882k America 4 Pepsi Refresh 6.7mm 4.0mm 65k 2.6mm 2k 0 5 Earth Hour 6.3mm 768k 81k 5.4mm 72k 8k AMEX Small Biz 6 5.0mm 3.2mm 16k 1.8mm 0k 0 Saturday 7 Nike Girl Effect 4.4mm 306k 36k 4mm 4k 0 8 It Gets Better 4.1mm 287k 77k 3.8mm 46k 642 Tsunami Relief 9 773k 38k 50.5k 682k 302 3,364 Project Occupy Wall 10 585k 411k 172k 0 0 2,732 Street 13 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  14. 14. Sub-Category Rankings Political Total Social Facebook Twitter YouTube YouTube Google+ Movements Actions Fans Followers Views Subscribers Followers Obama ‘12 It 1 350.6mm 33mm 28mm 287mm 284k 2.4mm Begins With Us Obama ‘08 Yes, 2 123.5mm 3.2mm 109k 120mm 150k 0 We Can * Romney ‘12 3 Believe in 44mm 7.9mm 1.23mm 34mm 32mm 882k America * no official Google+ channel Social Total Social Facebook Twitter YouTube YouTube Google+ Movements Actions Fans Followers Views Subscribers Followers 1 Earth Hour 6.3mm 768k 81k 5.4mm 72k 8k 2 It Gets Better 4.1mm 287k 77k 3.8mm 46k 642 Tsunami Relief 3 773k 38k 50.5k 682k 302 3,364 Project Occupy Wall 4 585k 411k 172k 0 0 2,732 Street* * no official YouTube channel Brand Total Social Facebook Twitter YouTube YouTube Google+ Movements Actions Fans Followers Views Subscribers Followers 1 Pepsi Refresh 6.7mm 4.0mm 65k 2.6mm 2k 0 AMEX Small Biz 2 5.0mm 3.2mm 16k 1.8mm 0k 0 Saturday 3 Nike Girl Effect 4.4mm 306k 36k 4mm 4k 0 *Facebook page and Twitter page are no longer live Data reflects a snapshot in time, as of Tuesday, 11/27/12 14 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  15. 15. Profiles of Movements Obama ‘08 – Yes We Can Description Strengths The “Yes We Can” movement ƒƒ Barack Obama became the 44th became nationally recognized in president of the United States the United States during Barack in an election that saw 130mm Obama’s 2008 campaign for people vote, the most ever in a president. presidential election. Target The message was powered by ƒƒ The Pew Research Center US a massive media buy, including determined the 2008 election digital and social media, which was the most racially and Sustained Action helped harness the grassroots ethnically diverse in US Duration of 2008 base and generated the largest history, which reinforces election cycle voter turnout in US history. how successful the Obama campaign was at attracting new Size Call to Action voters. 123.5mm social actions The desired behavior of this Weaknesses movement was to identify and Key Engagement activate a new group of voters ƒƒ Detractors point to Obama’s Platforms who would help fundraise, $740mm media spend as a YouTube, Social campaign, and vote for a leader major driver of his election Networks, Twitter, who promised to bring real campaign. Email, Paid Media change. Obama’s campaign Spend and in- team introduced new forms of ƒƒ Bloomberg published Obama’s game advertising technology to fundraising that spending, which eclipsed the combined the traditional reach combined $646.7mm that of old media with the targeting Bush/Kerry spent four years SOURCES: capabilities of digital/social media. earlier. http://mashable.com/2010/12/30/ad- agency-obama-campaign-purchase/ http://www.barackobama.com/ http://www.k-state.edu/ Cause actr/2010/12/20/three-simple- words-a-rhetorical-analysis-of-the- slogan-_25e2_2580_259cyes-we- can_25e2_2580_259d-molly-mcguire/ default.htm Elect Barack Obama to the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_ Obama_presidential_campaign,_2008 Presidency in 2008. http://www.slideshare.net/mjmetekohy/ srmguruobama2008012 9sho rt212338595089952692-1950834 http://www.politico.com/news/ stories/1108/15306.html http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/ news?pid=newsarchivesid=a erix76GvmRM 15 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  16. 16. Political Movement Obama ‘12 – It Begins With Us Description Strengths The “It Begins With Us” ƒƒ Barack Obama won a second movement became nationally term as President of the Target recognized in the United States United States by leveraging big US during Barack Obama’s 2012 re- data and cloud computing to election campaign. generate 2.2mm volunteers, the Sustained Action largest grassroots campaign Duration of 2012 Again, President Obama in political history. election cycle leveraged new media and big data to help target and connect with ƒƒ To illustrate, the Economist Size new voters. Through his message reported on how President 350.6mm and innovative marketing strategy, Obama spent the lion’s share of social actions Obama won his re-election by a his funds on online advertising margin of 50.35% to 48.13%. to develop “a huge network of Key Engagement volunteers, to proselytize on his Platforms Call to Action behalf.” Social Networks, Reddit, Tumblr, The desired behavior of this Weaknesses YouTube, Twitter, movement was to identify and Email, Paid Media activate new groups of voters, to ƒƒ Some point to the fact that help fundraise, campaign, and Obama had four years as vote for a leader who promised to president to gather support SOURCES: keep moving the country forward. through social networks and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_ Obama_presidential_campaign,_2012 To do this, Obama’s campaign other media outlets, whereas http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f- VZLvVF1FQ team introduced leveraged big the Republican candidates http://www.barackobama.com/ http://adage.com/article/campaign- data and cloud computing to were not afforded the same trail/romney-outspent-obama- advertise/238241/ improve his targeting capabilities. opportunity. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_ Obama_on_social_media Cause http://www.bluestatedigital.com/work/ case-studies/barack-obama http://www.economist.com/ node/21552590 www.linkedin.com/today/post/ article/20121009061552-33767-obama- vs-romney-in-social-media-who-s- using-it-best? Re-elect Barack Obama to the Presidency in 2012. 16 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  17. 17. Political Movement Romney ‘12– Believe in America Description Strengths The “Believe in America” ƒƒ Utilized multiple social movement became nationally networks, from Facebook to recognized in the United States Pinterest to Spotify, to capitalize Target during Mitt Romney’s 2012 on a range of audience US campaign for president. segments and communication formats. Sustained Action It was based on the theory Duration of 2012 that Romney’s experience in ƒƒ Although he had lower follower election cycle the financial sector could help numbers on Facebook, Romney address the economic situation made strategic Facebook ad Size the United States was facing, and buys so that his ads would 44 mm social put America back “on a course to appear next to terms such actions greatness.” as “Obama” and “Democrat.” The result, according to one Key Engagement Call to Action report, is that Romney gained Platforms Facebook followers at double Facebook, The desired behavior of this the rate of Obama. YouTube, Twitter, movement was to encourage Television, people to vote for Romney, Weaknesses Google+, email who, if elected, promised to grow the economy, create jobs, ƒƒ As Forbes notes, although and increase financial checks the campaign had access to SOURCES: and balances in the federal a significant amount of data http://www.nytimes.com/ interactive/2012/10/08/technology/ government through social networking, campaign-social-media.html http://campaignstops.blogs.nytimes. it failed to utilize it in such a com/2012/11/15/social-and-anti-social- media/ http://www.forbes.com/sites/ Cause way that drove actions that markfidelman/2012/11/11/5-ways- romney-could-have-won-the-election- would lead to a Romney win on with-data-social-and-mobile/ http://adage.com/article/campaign-trail/ Elect Mitt Romney to the election day. infographic-obama-romney-social- media/236798/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitt_ Presidency in 2012. Romney_presidential_campaign,_2012 http://www.businessinsider.com/winner- ƒƒ Romney was forced to spend of-the-obamaromney-social-media- campaign-2012-9?op=1 much of his campaign prior to http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/ article/20121009061552-33767-obama- the nomination dealing with vs-romney-in-social-media-who-s- using-it-best Republican opponents, and defending himself against detractors in his own party, which led to a split focus. 17 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  18. 18. Social Movement Earth Hour Description Strengths Earth Hour is a worldwide ƒƒ Supporters highlight Earth movement organized by the Hour’s global adoption by 150 World Wildlife Fund (WWF) countries, measureable impact, and held towards the end of and four years of activity as March encouraging households evidence of success. and businesses to turn off their non-essential lights to raise ƒƒ For example, Commonwealth Target awareness about the need to take Edison (a utility company that Global action on climate change. services Chicago) reported that about 840,000 pounds of carbon Sustained Action Call to Action dioxide were kept out of the Once-a-year atmosphere during Earth Hour activation, that has The goal of this movement is 2008. taken place for the to reduce energy consumption. past four years Every March 27th, WWF encourages supporters to shut Weaknesses Size down all their power (lights, 6.3mm heating, air conditioning, etc.) ƒƒ Detractors label Earth Hour social actions for exactly one hour (known as as a failure because the once- Earth Hour). Participants are a-year program generates Key Engagement encouraged to spread the word to insignificant short-term and Platforms their friends and family through long-term behavior changes, Facebook, Twitter, social channels. beyond a symbolic action. Website, Google+, YouTube and TV Cause ƒƒ To illustrate, Roger Sowell published a report in A small act by a large group of 2009 that showed no apparent SOURCES: people can make a big difference. decrease in the power load http://worldwildlife.org/pages/earth- hour http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_Hour Using this principle, Earth Hour throughout the state of https://twitter.com/earthhour https://www.facebook.com/earthhour aims to show the world that by California during Earth Hour. http://sowellslawblog.blogspot. com/2009/03/busted-earth-hour.html making small sacrifices, there can be some hope in reversing the effects of global warming. 18 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  19. 19. Social Movement It Gets Better Description Strengths It Gets Better is an Internet- ƒƒ Supporters classify It Gets based movement founded in Better as a success due to the the United States in 2010 by movement adoption in 25 global Dan Savage and his husband markets and two years of Terry Miller, in response to the sustained activity. Target suicides of teenagers who were Global bullied because they were gay or ƒƒ For example, President Obama (NA heavy to date) suspected of being gay. shared his support by making a promotional video that had over Sustained Action Call to Action 461K views to date. Continuous The goal of this movement is Weaknesses Size to prevent bullying and suicide 4.1mm among LGBT youth. To do this, It ƒƒ Detractors point out It Gets social actions Gets Better encourages gay adults Better should focus on parents, and straight allies to help convey not teens, to help reduce LGBT Key Engagement the message that LGBT teens’ suicide. Platforms lives will improve. Facebook, Twitter, ƒƒ To illustrate, The Family Website, Google+, Cause Acceptance Project’s research YouTube and has demonstrated that Tumblr Everyone deserves to be “parental acceptance, and respected for who they are. even neutrality, with regard to a child’s sexual orientation” SOURCES: can bring down the attempted http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/It_Gets_ Better_Project suicide rate. http://www.youtube.com/user/ itgetsbetterproject http://www.whitehouse.gov/itgetsbetter http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=HzcAR6yQhF8 19 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  20. 20. Social Movement Occupy Wall Street Description Strengths Occupy Wall Street (OWS) is a ƒƒ Supporters highlight how OWS protest movement that began on is currently active in 1,500 cities 9/17/11. The main issues are social globally and how technology and economic inequality, greed, and social media are increasing corruption, and perceived undue awareness and participation. Target influence of corporations on Global government. ƒƒ In November 2011, Public Policy Polling did a national survey Sustained Action Call to Action which found that 33% of voters Continuous supported OWS. The goal of this movement is to Size fight back against the richest 1% Weaknesses 585k of people who are writing the social actions rules of an unfair global economy. ƒƒ Detractors often criticize OWS OWS encourages supporters to for not having clear demands Key Engagement follow the revolutionary Arab and thus not being able to Platforms Spring tactic to achieve their accomplish any goals. Facebook, Twitter, goals, and encourages the use Tumblr, Website of nonviolence to maximize the ƒƒ Ginia Fellafante points out and Celebrities safety of all participants. in the New York Times that (Michael Moore, OWS supporters have a lack of Nancy Pelosi) Cause focus, highlighting some who note that “no one who uses an Occupy Wall Street is a leaderless Apple computer can possibly SOURCES resistance movement, with say anything critical about http://occupywallst.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupy_ people of many colors, genders capitalism.” Wall_Street http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring and political persuasions. The http://www.yesmagazine.org/people- power/occupywallstreet?gclid=CLOX one thing all participants have jv2p67MCFYd9Ogod1DgACQ http://www.yesmagazine.org/people- in common is that We Are The power/five-ways-occupywallstreet-has- succeeded http://www.theblaze.com/stories/ 99% who will no longer tolerate top-ten-richest-celebrities-supporting- occupy-wall-street/# the greed and corruption http://stpeteforpeace.org/occupyarrests. sources.html of the 1%.  http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/25/ nyregion/protesters-are-gunning-for- wall-street-with-faulty-aim.html?_r=2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_ Policy_Polling 20 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  21. 21. Social Movement Tsunami Relief Fund Description Strengths There were many organizations ƒƒ Supporters proudly highlight delivering relief, or funding relief that the Tsunami fundraising programs, in the wake of the movement is currently 93% of Japanese Tsunami. GlobalGiving the way to its goal, with $8.8 was one organization that million dollars raised out of a Target effectively connected donors $9.5 million goal. Global with disaster areas or grassroots projects in developing worlds. ƒƒ For example, Makoto Sustained Action Potential donors could browse Katakeyama explained how Continuous and select from a wide offering of he received relief money from projects, and could easily transfer GlobalGiving so he could start Size funds to the area of interest. oyster farming again, which 773k social actions directly benefited his local Call to Action economy and increased the Key Engagement local food supply. Platforms Following the Japanese Facebook, Twitter, earthquake and tsunami in March Weaknesses Website, Google+, 2011, GlobalGiving established mobile/texting a fundraising goal of 9.5 million ƒƒ Detractors label GlobalGiving dollars for tsunami relief. They as fiscally irresponsible solicited and collected donations because it takes 10% of SOURCES: from multiple platforms, donations for operating http://www.globalgiving.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GlobalGiving including, digital, mobile, social expenses. http://www.globalgiving.org/projects/ japan-earthquake-tsunami-relief/ and TV. http://www.charitynavigator.org/index. cfm?bay=search.summaryorgid=11648 ƒƒ To illustrate, Charity Navigator, Cause http://ecopreneurist.com/2008/11/21/ low-ranked-charity-not-a-scam-but- skip-global-giving-if-you-sleep-in-this- the well-respected non- black-friday/ profit watchdog, only gives GlobalGiving is a charity GlobalGiving three out of a fundraising movement that gives possible four stars (a concern, social entrepreneurs and non- since a four-star rating isn’t profits from anywhere in the hard to achieve). world a chance to raise the money that they need to improve their communities from anywhere in the world. 21 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  22. 22. Brand Movement Amex Small Business Saturday Description Strengths American Express started ƒƒ American Express helped drive Small Business Saturday in sales in small, local stores, as 2010 as a way to generate more 102mm customers shopped on awareness of local, small Small Business Saturday. businesses, and to assist in Target generating sales for their small ƒƒ Mashable reported that US business merchants. American Express “saw a 23% increase in transactions Sustained Action Call to Action at small business in 2011,” Once a year which was a win for the small Shop small and shop local — go businesses, as well as Amex. Size into your local stores and give 102 million US them your business. Weaknesses consumers shopped “small” Spread the word — tell others to ƒƒ Critics point out how the on Small Business shop small and shop local. one-day affair has limited Saturday in 2011. sustainable impact, how Cause American Express charges 5mm social very high fees to vendors actions. Small businesses across America (~2.5%), and how this need the enduring support campaign is designed to help Key Engagement of local shoppers. While the Amex, rather than the small Platforms benefits of big chains and big box business community. Facebook, Twitter, retailers cannot be dismissed, it’s Website, Merchant America’s small businesses that ƒƒ Inc.com recently reported Kits, CRM, serve our communities best. that the program is “a Advertising monetary boom if they can get more people to use the card…but there’s been no SOURCES: reciprocal kindness back www.americanexpress.com/Business http://mashable.com/2012/03/22/ to the merchants.” american-express-small-business- saturday/ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/02/ business/american-express-to-refund- 85-million.html http://www.inc.com/eric-markowitz/ small-business-saturday-real-effects- on-merchants.html 22 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  23. 23. Brand Movement Nike Foundation, The Girl Effect Description Strengths Founded by The NoVo Foundation ƒƒ Supporters highlight how and The Nike Foundation, The Girl Nike was able to successfully Effect is a movement to invest draw attention and interest in and provide opportunities to to an important international adolescent girls as a means social and economic issue, as Target to end poverty in developing evidenced by $41mm donated to Global countries. It is based on the the program in first three years theory that, if given the right (2007-2009). Sustained Action opportunities, girls and women Continuous can be effective at lifting ƒƒ The Huffington Post reported themselves and their communities on how the Girl Effect helped Size out of poverty. decrease HIV prevalence by 4.4mm 60%, compared to peers. social actions Call to Action Key Engagement The desired behavior of this Weaknesses Platforms movement was to end poverty in YouTube, developing countries by focusing ƒƒ Critics have slammed the Facebook, on, and investing in adolescent Girl Effect for playing up to Twitter, Multiple girls in those countries. stereotypes of women and Websites, Email, girls as natural caregivers, Partnerships (with Cause ignoring questions of Clinton Global structural inequality and Initiatives, etc.) Ending poverty by investing power imbalance. and PR/Blogger resources in girls around the Outreach world. ƒƒ Aidwatchers openly questioned, “Why reinforce perceptions about “women’s SOURCES: work” and “men’s work” by http://youthinkyouknowme.girleffect. org/ claiming that women make http://www.girleffect.org/learn/the- big-picture better homemakers?” http://nikeinc.com/pages/the-girl-effect http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Girl_ Effect www.hks.harvard.edu/hauser/role-of- brand/documents/girleffect.pdf http://www.guardian.co.uk/global- development/poverty-matters/2012/ mar/23/girl-hub-strength-weaknesses http://aidwatchers.com/2011/01/so-now- we-have-to-save-ourselves-and-the- world-too-a-critique-of-%E2%80%9Cthe- girl-effect%E2%80%9D/ 23 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  24. 24. Brand Movement Pepsi Refresh Description Strengths The Pepsi Refresh Project began ƒƒ Built equity for the Pepsi brand, in 2010 as an initiative to identify as evidenced in a 2010 Forbes and fund projects that would and Reputation Institute study, have a positive impact on their which indicated that Pepsi community, states, or the country. moved from #16 to #5 among Target Originally planned as a one-year the country’s most reputable US campaign, Pepsi Refresh lasted brands. for two years, and awarded Sustained Action $20mm in grants to non-profit ƒƒ Empowered communities and Two years organizations, businesses, and individuals to believe they could individuals, who were chosen step up and change their world. Size through a system of voting via 6.7mm social social media. Weaknesses actions Call to Action ƒƒ Didn’t correlate directly enough Key Engagement to sales, as market share Platforms The desired behavior of this decreased during the same Facebook, movement was to encourage time period. Twitter, Website, individuals and nonprofits to Mobile, YouTube, ideate innovative and creative ƒƒ Faced criticism with how grants and Advertising solutions to help move their were awarded, and there were Celebrity tie-ins communities forward. many allegations of cheating. (NFL) Cause SOURCES: Refresh Everything (The Pepsi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepsi_ Refresh_Project Refresh Project) was conceived http://adage.com/article/viewpoint/a- teaching-moment-professors-evaluate- as a “ground-breaking initiative pepsi-refresh-project/237629/ http://www.hugeinc.com/casestudies/ designed to fund good ideas, big pepsi http://www.pepsico.com/PressRelease/ and small, that help refresh our The-Pepsi-Refresh-Project-Awards-13- Million-to-Support-the-Publics-Favorite- Idea03222010.html world.” http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/06/ business/06charity.html http://helloenso.com/Pepsi-refresh 24 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  25. 25. Appendix A: Top Ten Pages on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube Facebook Twitter YouTube Brand Fans Brand Followers Brand Views 1 Facebook 84,121,319 1 Lady Gaga 32,660,281 1 Psy 1,116,593,319 2 YouTube 67,719,238 2 Justin Bieber 32,372,480 2 Justin Bieber 817,886,738 Texas Holdem Jennifer Lopez/ 3 67,666,376 3 Katy Perry 30,699,659 3 636,739,081 Poker Pitbull 4 Rihanna Eminem/ 64,797,581 4 Rihanna 27,579,512 4 527,855,009 Rihanna 5 Eminem 64,490,260 5 Barack Obama 25,257,501 5 LMFAO 512,476,646 6 The Simpsons Charlie Bit My 58,826,643 6 Britney Spears 22,912,239 6 505,465,413 Finger - again! 7 Shakira 58,572,171 7 Taylor Swift 22,449,120 7 Shakira 504,975,753 8 Coca-Cola (Coke) 56,883,666 8 YouTube 21,435,228 8 Lady Gaga 502,934,765 Harry Potter 9 and the Deathly 54,723,452 9 Shakira 19,175,242 9 Michel Telo 473,010,286 Hallows 10 Lady Gaga 54,678,908 10 Kim Kardashian 17,050,528 10 Don Omar 415,846,863 Source: http://fanpagelist.com/ as of 1/3/13 Source: http://twitaholic.com as of 1/3/13 Source: http://www.youtube.com as of 1/3/13 25 BUILDING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FOR BRANDS MARCH 2013
  26. 26. About Social@Ogilvy S ocial@Ogilvy is the largest social media marketing communications network in the world. Named 2011 Global Digital/Social Consultancy of the Year by The Holmes Report, the practice leverages social media expertise across all Ogilvy Mather disciplines, offering an extensive list of services within the foundational business solutions – Listening and Analytics; Social Business Solutions; Social Media Marketing and Communications; Social Shopping; Social CRM; Social Care; and Conversation Impact. For more information, visit social.ogilvy.com and connect with us at www.facebook.com/socialogilvy, www.twitter.com/ socialogilvy, www.slideshare.com/socialogilvy.

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