Aquasomes were first discovered by Nir Kossovsky.
These are nanopaticulate carrier system with three layer
self assembled structure
These comprises of central solid nanocrystallinecore
coated with polyhydroxyoligomers onto which
biochemically active molecules are adsorbed.
Aquasomes are also called as “Bodies Of Water”,and
their water like properties protect and preserve
fragile biological molecules.
Maintain confirmational integrity as well as high
degree of surface exposure.
The carbohydrate stabilize nanoparticle of ceramic
are known as “Aquasomes”.
Aquasomes are spherical 60-300nm particle used for
drug and antigen delivery.
The main objective of preparing aquasomes is to
Aquasomes carbohydrate coating prevents
destruction denaturing interaction between drug and
Aquasomes maintain molecular confirmation and
optimum pharmacological activity.
Provides a platform for preserving the
conformational integrity of bioactive substances.
Deliver their contents through a combination of
specific targeting ,slow and sustained release.
Protect the drug/antigen/protein from harsh pH
condition & enzymatic degradation.
They exhibit the physical properties of colloids &
their MOA is controlled by their surface chemistry.
Principle Of Self Assembly
Governed By 3 Processes
Interaction Between charged particles
Hydrogen Bonding & Dehydration
1. Preparation Of Core
It is mainly depends upon:-
• Selection of material
• Its physical chemical properties
This can be fabricated by:-
• Colloidal precipitation
• For the core material ,ceramic material is widely used as they are
structurally to be known.
• Commonlyused ceramic core tin oxide & calcium phosphate.
Example:-Synthesis Of Nanocrystalline tin
oxide core material
This can be prepared by Direct current
3 inch diameter target of highly purified tin is sputterd in
High pressure gas mixture of argon & oxyen
The ultrafine particles form in gas phase are collected on copper tube &
cooled to 70 degree kelvin with liquid nitrogen
2.Coating Of Core
The second step involves the coating by carbohydrate on the
surface of ceramic core.
There are number of process to enable the carbohydrate
(polyhydroxy oligomers)coating to absorb epitaxially on the
surface or the nano crystalline ceramic cores.
Commonly used coating material are:-
Process generally entails
Addition of polyhydroxy oligomer
To a dispersion of core in ultra pure water
Lyophilization (to promote the adsorption of carbohydrate on the surface
of ceramic core
Excess of carbohydrate is removed by stir cell ultrafiltration
3.Immobilization Of Drug
Prepare the solution of drug with known concentration in suitable
Disperse the coated particles in it
Keep the dispersion overnight at low temperature or lyophilize it
Evaluation of drug
Size & shape
In vitro drug