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Digital Preservation

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Case studies of different aspects of preservation of digital resources, and a proposal for a national strategy for India

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Digital Preservation

  1. 1. NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE PRESERVATION OF DIGITAL RESOURCES : CASE STUDIES & A PROPOSAL Smita Chandra Email : [email_address] Dr. Vivek Patkar Independent Researcher, Mumbai. Email : [email_address]
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Importance and need for digital preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders of preservation and their role </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies and approaches to digital preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Web archiving strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata preservation, implementation and OAIS </li></ul><ul><li>IPR and copyrights </li></ul><ul><li>International initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Indian scenario </li></ul><ul><li>A proposal relevant to Geomagnetism and in general </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Importance of Digital Preservation <ul><li>1975 – Two Viking space probes sent to Mars by USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Data generated by unrepeatable mission cost $1 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded data on magnetic tapes was corrupted / unidentifiable after 2 decades despite being kept in climate controlled environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists could not access data, unable to decode the formats used. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Importance of Digital Preservation <ul><li>Original format developers not alive. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally old printouts tracked and retyped. </li></ul><ul><li>NASA therefore is biggest supporters of Digital Projects. </li></ul><ul><li>This illustrates wide gap in information generation and its management. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Need for Digital Preservation <ul><li>Huge scientific data 259 MB/person/yr. is being generated (having economic value). </li></ul><ul><li>90% is stored digitally. </li></ul><ul><li>This provides huge opportunities for long term digital preservation. </li></ul><ul><li>Initiatives for long term preservation needed with common goal, centrally funded activities with partnership and collaboration. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stakeholders of Preservation <ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Archives </li></ul><ul><li>Museums </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Institution </li></ul>
  7. 7. Role of Libraries / Archives in Preservation activities <ul><li>Maintaining digital material for long term </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation : Treatment for stability </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration (Bring back document to its original state) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Strategies for Preservation <ul><li>Technical Preservation (hardware / software of object) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Emulation (Mimic original environment using latest software) </li></ul><ul><li>Data Migration (Transfer digital materials from one format to current one). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Two Main Digital Preservation Approaches <ul><li>Preservation through digitization (for greater security / saving space / producing multiple copies). </li></ul><ul><li>Born digital – (Convert information form from Analog to Digital). </li></ul><ul><li>Digitization costly but necessary for human progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate action by individuals / organization needed. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Technical Approaches to Archiving <ul><li>Open Archival Information System (OAIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Published by consultative committee for space data system (CCSDS) 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 14721 : 2003 standard </li></ul><ul><li>An archive consists of organization of people and systems with responsibility to preserve information and make it available to users. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Technical Approaches to Archiving <ul><li>Three key players of OAIS model in archiving are : </li></ul>OAIS MODEL Creator Archive Operator Designated user community
  12. 12. Creator : Some of players are <ul><li>Authors </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright owners </li></ul><ul><li>Professional societies </li></ul><ul><li>Publishers </li></ul><ul><li>Distributors </li></ul>With so many players rights of ownership and responsibility to provide content to archive needs to be addressed.
  13. 13. Archive Operator <ul><li>Collection policy needs attention (Based on topic / subject / user community addressed) </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary of archiving activity needs to be defined. </li></ul>E.g. National library of New Zealand collects electronic material using PUSH / PULL Business Process & online publication with purview copyright and community licensing agreements.
  14. 14. Users <ul><li>Archiving should consider needs of specified user community. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing needs of user community </li></ul><ul><li>Change of users with time </li></ul><ul><li>Issue of access to archive, domain of material (Private vs. Public) needs to be addressed specifically. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsive and automated access control system required to facilitate use and save archive to problems arising out of user and third partly interaction. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tools for quality of Digital Objects <ul><li>Preservation Web Services Architecture for New Media and Interactive Collections (PANIC), Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving Access to Digital Information (PADI), the National Library of Australia </li></ul><ul><li>PRONOM Project, National Archives, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation and Long-Term Access via Networked Services (PLANETS), European Union </li></ul>
  16. 16. Web Archiving <ul><li>Started in 1996 to tap wealth of information on web before they vanish. </li></ul><ul><li>Special software products i.e. web crawlers / spiders employed. </li></ul><ul><li>They have limitations like non-coverage of some hidden content, unable to interpret certain codes for links and long time to retrieve archived web pages. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Strategies for Web Archiving <ul><li>Making a local copy of the files of a web site and navigating through this copy </li></ul><ul><li>Running a web server to make accessible the contents to the user </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganizing documents in a non-web manner </li></ul>Examples: - Minerva, U.S. Library of Congress - Way Back Machine , Internet Archive, USA
  18. 18. Metadata and Digital Preservation <ul><li>Creation and maintenance of metadata required for long term preservation of digital information. </li></ul><ul><li>Within Archive </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata (maintained / migrated format to format & standard to standard independent of objects it describes). </li></ul><ul><li>Refers each digital object and provides </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Structural Administrative Rights Management Other information </li></ul>
  19. 19. Metadata and Digital Preservation <ul><li>Metadata preservation is popular area of research in last decade. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Library Group (RLG) at NLA has developed model to identify entities that supports its PANDORA (Preserving & Accessing Networked Documentary Resources of Australia) to support archive concept. </li></ul>
  20. 20. OAIS Model and Metadata Source: Day, M.,
  21. 21. OAIS and Metadata Implementation <ul><li>NEDLIB Project National Library of Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>DSEP (Deposit System for Electronic Publication) </li></ul><ul><li>CURL (Consortium of Univ. Res. Libraries of Cambridge, Leeds & Oxford). </li></ul><ul><li>PREMIS (Preservation Metadata : Implementation Strategies Working Group) sponsored by OCLC / RLG. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium) developed archival metadata scheme) </li></ul><ul><li>PID (Persistent identifier) assigns unique name to a digital object that points to bibliographic record. </li></ul><ul><li>URN (Uniform Resource Name) refers to identifiers. </li></ul>OAIS and Metadata Implementation
  23. 23. IPR & Copyright <ul><li>Different countries are addressing issues are IPR and copyright with respect to digital preservation. </li></ul><ul><li>National Libraries responsible for archiving national domain. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library of Congress : best practices for digital preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Koninklyke Bibliotheek (KB), the National Library of The Netherlands : individual, collective and the ‘opt-out’ approach to archiving scholarly journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK, Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOCKSS </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Data Archiving <ul><li>“ ...is primarily a program of practices and procedures that support the collection, long-term preservation and low-cost access to & dissemination of scientific and technical data…” </li></ul><ul><li>Some Initiatives: </li></ul><ul><li>International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU)/CODATA Group on Data and Information </li></ul><ul><li>World Meteorological Organization (WMO) </li></ul><ul><li>World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li> - The Research Index </li></ul><ul><li> - Public Commons Project </li></ul>
  25. 25. International Initiatives USA The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP) by the Library of Congress with research focus on: (i) Technical infrastructure and building a preservation layer (ii) Building core capacity and organizational issues (iii) Long-term research program
  26. 26. International Initiatives <ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><li>The Continuing Access and Digital Preservation Strategy of the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) with </li></ul><ul><li>Main objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Establish best practice and guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Generate support and collaborative funding </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a long-term strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Areas covered: </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting and preserving the World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues related to internet archiving </li></ul><ul><li>Archiving e-journals </li></ul><ul><li>UK LOCKSS </li></ul><ul><li>Data curation for e-Science </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of e-Prints </li></ul><ul><li>Survey and assessment of information resources </li></ul><ul><li>Study of records lifecycle </li></ul>
  27. 27. International Initiatives <ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>The Network of Expertise in Long-term </li></ul><ul><li>Storage of Online Resources (nestor) </li></ul><ul><li>Kopal </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Preservation Europe </li></ul><ul><li>@ http://www.digitalpreservationeurope.eu </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Indian Scenario <ul><li>Initiative for information organization and management by Govt. and NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Library Initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INFLIBNET (UGC) : e-Journal consortia, retro-conversion, web-site hosting, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sci & Tech (INDEST) by MHRD. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proposal : </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Consortia agreements incorporate compulsory option </li></ul><ul><li>of ‘archiving’ scholarly journals </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Consortia efforts for web archiving initiatives </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Indian Scenario <ul><li>Digital Library Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Library of India (DLI) to digitize books in Indian languages. </li></ul><ul><li>The Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) by CSIR. </li></ul><ul><li>NISCAR by CSIR, MST and </li></ul><ul><li>Department of AYUSH </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OAIS model for digital preservation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Indian Scenario <ul><li>Organizations involved in CMD </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Repositories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eprints of the Indian Institute of Science <http://etc.ncsi.ernet.in> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Chemical Laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><li><http://dspace.ncl.res.in/dspace/index.jsp> </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate the option of digital preservation in the software </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Indian Scenario Social Science Data -- The Census of India -- M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation Proposal : Centralized Data Managament and Preservation Strategy Museums and Art Galleries -- Ministry of Culture, GOI -- The National Archives
  32. 32. Institutions involved in Data Production and Storage Scientific and Technical Data Oceanic data Ministry of Ocean Development (MOD) Meteorological and seismic data Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) Satellite imageries, land use and wasteland maps on different scales National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) Geological maps on various scales, geological and seismic data Geological Survey of India (GSI) Topographical maps, geodetic trigonometric and levelling data, gravity & geomagnetic data, GPS data, tidal data, repetitive geodetic & geophysical data Survey of India (SOI) Soil maps and land use data National Bureau of Soil Survey and Soil Maps Command area maps Central Water Commission Resource Institute
  33. 33. A Proposal Relevant to Geomagnetism <ul><li>Huge number of photographic magnetograms are kept at Alibagh (1901-1920) and at different World Data Centers (WDCs) under ICSU. </li></ul><ul><li>50 years after International Geophysical Year (IGY, 1957-1958), Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY, 2007-2008) is planned to digitize old magnetograms. </li></ul><ul><li>Foster International Co-operation in digitizing old magnetograms because aged films are brittle and cracking. </li></ul>
  34. 34. A Proposal Relevant to Geomagnetism <ul><li>Digital Preservation for longer life and make them amenable to computational analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>The mission is universal (equal) access by everyone having an internet connection and a computer thus cut down the travel cost and time of researchers. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging library professionals to address issues related to preservation and intellectual property right (IPR) and allied issues. </li></ul>
  35. 35. A Proposal (General) <ul><li>Maintaining digital material by building institutional repositories and digital libraries. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing adequate financial and technical resources for establishing certification system. </li></ul><ul><li>Archiving and maintaining access to S & T data with the help from ICSU / CODATA. </li></ul><ul><li>National Informatics Center (NIC) entrusted with framing guidelines and policy. </li></ul><ul><li>or establishing a new agency </li></ul><ul><li>For handling digital preservation, for collaboration, sharing and avoiding duplication. </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted Digital Repository for accurate and reliable information. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Legally sustainable digital preservation policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Joining the Digital Preservation Consortium. </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to collection management of digital material in libraries. </li></ul><ul><li>Amendment of the Delivery of Books Act and Press and Registration Act to cover the digital material. </li></ul><ul><li>Training of manpower for the management and preservation of electronic records. </li></ul><ul><li>Research in the area of digital preservation. </li></ul>A Proposal (General)
  37. 37. Conclusion <ul><li>Implementation of suitable preservation strategy for digital data and documents is required for our country. </li></ul><ul><li>Best practices for digital preservation in India can be established by combining OIAS model and trusted digital depository. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative efforts and sharing information will help preservation rather than duplication. </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced LIS professionals can play a major role in preserving the library material and handling the IPR like allied issues. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Thank You