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Globalisation

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Globalisation

  1. 1. Globalisation, Green Crime, Human Rights and State Crimes
  2. 2. Lesson Objectives • To understand the ways in which globalisation and crime are related. • To investigate what Sociologists can tell us about green crime • Look at the relationship between state crimes and human rights
  3. 3. • Globalisation- refers to the increasing Interconnectedness of societies: what happens in one locality is shaped by distant events and vice versa • Globalisation has many causes including the spread of new ICT and the influence of the global mass media, cheap air travel and the deregulation of financial and other markets
  4. 4. Activity • Using the globalisation and crime starter sheet link up the type of crime to its definition.
  5. 5. The global criminal economy • Held et al claimed that there had been a globalisation of crime. The increasing interconnectedness of crime across national borders, and the spread of transnational organised crime. • Globalisation creates new opportunities for crime, new means of committing crime and new offences e.g. Various cyber crimes
  6. 6. • Castells (1998) argues there is a global criminal economy worth over £1 trillion per annum • There is both a demand side (West) and a supply side (Third World Countries) • The global criminal economy could not function without a supply side that provides drugs, sex workers etc • This takes many forms:
  7. 7. Arms and nuclear material trafficking
  8. 8. Trafficking and smuggling people
  9. 9. Trafficking body parts An estimated 2,000 organs are taken from criminals in China.
  10. 10. Sex tourism
  11. 11. Cyber crime
  12. 12. Green Crimes
  13. 13. Smuggling of Illegal Goods
  14. 14. International Terrorism
  15. 15. Trafficking cultural artefacts
  16. 16. Trafficking endangered species
  17. 17. Drugs trade Worth an estimated $300- 400 billion annually at street prices
  18. 18. Money Laundering
  19. 19. Global Risk Consciousness • Globalisation creates new insecurities or ‘risk consciousness’. Risk is seen as global rather than tied to particular places e.g. Economic migrants and asylum seekers fleeing persecution have given rise to anxieties in western countries about risks of C&D and need to protect borders • Along with media creating moral panics- negative coverage of immigrants- leads to hate crimes • Leading to intensification of social control at the national level- UK tightening border controls • Another result of globalised risk is the increased attempts at international cooperation & control in various ‘wars’ on terror, drugs & crime
  20. 20. Globalisation, Capitalism and Crime • From a Marxist perspective, Taylor (1997) argues that by giving free reign to market forces globalisation has led to greater inequality and rising crime • Transactional corporations (TNCs) can now switch manufacturing to low wage countries to gain higher profits, producing job insecurity, unemployment and poverty • Deregulation means government have little control over their own economies (create jobs & raise taxes) and state spending on welfare has declined
  21. 21. • Marketisation has encouraged people to see themselves as individual consumers, calculating the personal costs and benefits of each action, undermining social cohesion • The increasingly materialistic culture promoted by the global media portrays success in terms of a lifestyle of consumption • These factors create insecurity and widening inequalities that encourage people to turn to crime e.g. lucrative drug trade (Deindustrialisation in LA led to growth of drug gangs)
  22. 22. • For the elite globalisation creates large scale criminal opportunities e.g. Deregulation of financial markets creates opportunities for insider trading and tax evasion • Globalisation also led to new employment patterns creating new opportunities for crime e.g. Using subcontracting to recruit ‘flexible’ workers often working illegally or for less than minimum wage or working in breach of H&S or labour laws
  23. 23. Patterns of Criminal Organisation • As globalisation creates new criminal opportunities, it is also giving rise to new forms of criminal organisation: 1.‘Glocal’ organisation- Hobbs & Dunningham found that the way crime is organised is linked to globalisation. It involves individuals with contacts acting as a ‘hub’ around which a loose-knit network forms, often linking legitimate and illegitimate activities.
  24. 24. • This is different from rigid hierarchical ‘Mafia’ style criminal organisations of the past • These new forms of organisation have global links (e.g. Drug smuggling) but crime is still rooted in its local context (still need local contacts and networks to find opportunities and to sell their drugs). • Concluding that crime works as a ‘glocal’ system- locally based, but with global connections
  25. 25. Organised crime and Globalisation (McMafia)
  26. 26. 2. McMafia- refers to the organisations that emerged in Russia & Eastern Europe following the fall of communism (which was a major factor in the process of globalisation). • The new Russian government deregulated much of the economy, leading to huge rises in food prices and rents • However commodity prices (for oil, gas, metals etc) were kept at old prices (lower than world market price). Therefore well connected citizens with access to large funds could buy these up very cheaply and sell them on the world market (selling at profit- creating Russia’s new capitalist class ‘oligarchs’)
  27. 27. • To protect themselves from increasing disorder oligarchs turned to the new ‘mafias’ (ex-state security/secret servicemen from old communist regimes). • With their assistance the oligarchs were able to find protection for their wealth and a means of moving it out of the country • These criminal organisations were vital for the entry of the new Russian capitalist class into the world economy
  28. 28. ACTIVITY • Summarise Globalisation and Crime in 100 words
  29. 29. H/W • http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/programmes/global_ • Here you will find short articles about different aspects of global crime. • As a group, you should each choose one of these to investigate. • Make sure you understand the details of your chosen case and then take it in turns to summarise your case as a presentation to the group.
  30. 30. Essay practice Item B : In today’s society we learn about crime and deviance largely from the mass media. Unfortunately, however, the image we are given is often an inaccurate one. While we might expect fictional portrayals of crime- in films, on TV, in novels and so on- not be an accurate representation, many sociologists argue that the image presented via the news media also distorts the reality of crime. Sociologists are very interested both in the possible causes of these misrepresentations and also in the effects that they may have on deviant behaviour Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of the media representations of crime and their effects (21 marks)
  31. 31. Globalisation Transnational crime Risk consciousness Definition: The way in Greater communication and Increased terrorism has which we seem to live in an travel have made the drugs increased our awareness increasingly ‘shrinking industry extend beyond of the international risks world’, where societies are national boundaries. Often we face and increased becoming more involving many countries the security at our national interconnected and supply comes from south borders, airports, ports dependant on each other. America (Colombia) and its and train stations. demand from western countries. Increased crime Global crime (1 trillion) Globalisation Ian Taylor (1973) Marxist argues that globalisation  Arms trafficking and crime has allowed capitalism to  Smuggling immigrants create more crime by Changing crime exploiting workers abroad  Trafficking women and Hobbs and Dunningham say and creating fraud on a children larger scale. crime is now longer local but  Sex tourism ‘Glocal’ meaning it involves manufacturing products networks of people across the abroad has led to a lack of  Cyber-crimes – globe. Gleeny (2008) argues jobs and opportunities for identity theft and child even the mafia has gone the working class, which porn global, it has franchised its leads them to crime.  Drugs trade businesses to different parts of the globe – McMafia  Money laundering

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/uk/2001/life_of_crime/crime.stm What is the key factor of globalisation? What is meant by transnational crime? What is transnational organised crime? How do Hobbs and Dunningham show evidence of organised crime in Britain? How do Hobbs and Dunningham point out that organised crime is still local at all points? How has critical criminology showed that changes in a political economy has effected crime? What three changes in the political economy has shaped crime did Taylor identify? Explain how Davis used the political economy and the drugs trade in Los Angeles to show Taylors changes. Using Currie, show how policies of national governments can affect criminal activity within their national boundaries. Extension questions Which do you think has had the biggest affect on crime today, local government policies or globalisation? Is this type of crime being shown as more common than ‘normal’ crime today? Why?
  • It describes the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through communication, transportation, and trade Globalisation: refers to the idea that the world is shrinking in a social, cultural and economic sense.
  • 1 Arms trafficking 2 Smuggling of illegal immigrants 3 Sex tourism 4 Trafficking body parts 5 Cyber-crimes 6 Green crimes 7 International terrorism 8 Smuggling of legal goods 9 Money laundering 10 Trafficking of endangered species 11 The drugs trade 12 Trafficking of cultural artefacts 3 Where westerners travel to Third World countries for sex. 6 Damaging the environment. 11 Smuggled to feed the western drug habit. 7 Much of terrorism is now based on ideological links made via the internet. 4 For organ transplants in rich countries. 9 The profits of organised crimes. 1 Selling weapons to illegal regimes. 12 Includes works of art having been stolen to order. 10 To use for pets and traditional medicines. 8 Such as tobacco and alcohol to evade customs. 5 Such as identity theft and child pornography. 2 Often linked to prostitution and slavery.
  • To illegal regimes, guerrilla groups and terrorists
  • Chinese Triads make an estimated $2.5 billion annually
  • For organ transplants in rich countries
  • Westerners travel to 3 rd world countries for sex, sometimes involving minors
  • Such as identity theft and child pornography
  • That damage the environment e.g. Illegal dumping of toxic waste in 3 rd world countries
  • Alcohol and tobacco, to evade taxes and of stolen goods such as cars to sell in foreign markets
  • Much terrorism is now based on ideological links made via the internet and other ICT, rather than on local territorial links as in the past
  • To produce traditional remedies
  • Of the profits from organised crime, estimated at up to 1.5 trillion per year
  • Deregulation is the removal or simplification of government rules and regulations that constrain the operation of market forces. [1] Deregulation does not mean elimination of laws against fraud or property rights but eliminating or reducing government control of how business is done, thereby moving toward a more laissez-faire, free market.
  • Marketisation- is the process that enables the state-owned enterprises to act like market-oriented firms (privatisation) e.g. NHS, Education etc
  • Health and Safety
  • http://www.sociologyexchange.co.uk/videos/view/20348/
  • Communism is a social, political and economic movement that aims at the establishment of a classless and stateless communist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production a commodity is the generic term for any marketable item produced to satisfy wants or needs

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