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Hofstede model

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Hofstede model

  1. 1. WELCOME
  3. 3. Introduction • Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions given by Prof. Professor Geert Hofstede Dutch        social psychologist. • Based on data gathered from IBM employees across 40 countries. • Motive is to study culture
  4. 4. Hofstede Definition of culture “the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from others”
  5. 5. Evolution of Various Dimensions • Before this Various Anthropologist like Clyde Kluckhoh,  Edward T. Hall (1976), Florence Kluckhohn and Fred  Strodtbeck gave their theories. • Inkeles and Levinson gave four problem areas o Dependence on superiors; o Need for rules and predictability, also associated with nervous  stress; o The balance between individual goals and dependence on the  company; o  The balance between ego values
  6. 6. • In 1970 Hofstede gathered data from 400 IBM employee across 30 countries • The four basic problem areas defined by Inkeles and Levinson (1969) and empirically supported in the IBM data represent dimensions of national cultures ie  Power Distance Index (PDI)  Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV)  Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)  Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)
  7. 7. year Dimension Research remark 1991 Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Normative Orientation (LTO)*  Michael Harris Bond, Canadian psychologist Based on Confucian thinking 2010 Indulgence versus Restraint Bulgarian scholar Michael Minkov  based on Michael Minkov's analysis of the World Values Survey data for 93 countries
  8. 8. Hofstede’s 6D Model Dimension Characterstics Online Classroom Score Large vs. small  power distance Extent to which  members of a society  accept and expect  that power in  institutions is  distributed Students in power  distance cultures are  taught to honor others  or consider people on  more equal terms US:40 World  average:55 Individualism vs.  collectivism Refers to the strength  of connection people  have to members of  their  community Students in both the  societies either feel  more  comfortable  when working in  groups or when they  are working alone US:91(world’s  highest) World  average:43 Masculinity vs.  femininity Extent  to which the  society values  maintains traditional  male & female roles Students from  countries that score  high in masculine or  in feminine index  either they contribute  more or less US:62 World  average:50
  9. 9. Strong vs. weak uncertainty avoidance Degree to which members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty Students with uncertainty avoidance either treat uncertainty within a course as just another issue or they tend to avoid uncertainty US: 46 World average: 64 Long term vs.  short term  orientation  Extent to which a society exhibits a future oriented perspective rather than short term point of view Students from countries either share values associated with long term or associated with short term values US:29( world’s lowest) World average:45 Indulgence  vs.  restraint • society that allows free gratification to enjoy life and have fun. •Restraint stands for a society that controls gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms Students from different countries either enjoy their life to full extent or they control their needs through rules and regulation US have Indulgence than world
  10. 10. Comparison Of Various Cultures Dimensions In Different Countires
  11. 11. Dimension Graph Remark Power Distance Index In Europe.. •In northern region its low •In southern and eastern region it is high •India scores high on this dimension, 77 indicate a hierarchy and top down approach Individualism index •Gap between developed western & less developed eastern countries
  12. 12. Masculinity V/s Feminity •Low in Nordic countries •highest in Japan (95), • In india its about 56 india is a masculine society •India Masculine in terms of visual display of success and power Long term orientation •Long term orientation high in japan(80) and India(60) •Moderate in Eastern and Western Europe
  13. 13. Uncertainty Avoidance •Highest in Sothern and eastern Europe countries for eg Greece has UAI 105 •Lower for Chinese structure it is 30 •India has UAI 40 which means moderate avoidance to uncertainty
  14. 14. Is it important to be aware of cultural differences????
  15. 15. Practical Applications of Hofstede Model
  16. 16. • International Communication • International Management • International Negotiation • International Marketing
  17. 17. Innovative research • Basically used in HRM • India have problems of Brain drain in its Organizational Work Culture • Helped to understand the needs and aspirations of an employees
  18. 18. Research In Hofstede Model Field Description Researcher Culture and Aviation •Attitudinal data from 9,000 male commercial airline pilots in 18 countries •Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance were identified as the most relevant dimensions for aviation •Implications discussed about training, certification, automation usage, proceduralisation and research agendas Merritt, A. (1998). Replicating Hofstede: A study of pilots in eighteen countries Medical •Countries with a low or medium Human Development Index (HDI) transfuse far fewer blood products than countries with a high HDI • effects of education level and cultural aspects W. De Kort, E. Wagenmans, A. Van Dongen, Y. Slotboom, G. Hofstede, I.Veldhuizen, "Blood product collection and supply: a matter of money?
  19. 19. THANK YOU