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Presentation in NordYrk conference, Arcada Helsinki, 13.6.2019

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  1. 1. The Concept of Desired Competences in Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning Konceptet för Önskad Kompetens i Kompetensmärkesstyrt Lärande ’Work-Integrated Pedagogy in Higher Education’ (WORKPEDA) PhD Sanna Brauer University of Oulu/ Faculty of Education sanna.brauer@oulu.fi MSci, PhD Researcher Eero Talonen Oulu University of Applied Sciences/ School of Professional Teacher Education eero.talonen@oamk.fi NordYrk 2019 Arbetsintegrerad pedagogik i högre utbildning
  2. 2. ’Work-Integrated Pedagogy in Higher Education’ (WORKPEDA) 2018-2020 •Work-integrated Pedagogy in Higher Educa6on project brings the working-life perspec2ve more strongly into educa6on. •Co-opera2on between educa2on and the world of work can improve graduates’ employment and speed up their transi6on to working life. •Students learn versa6le skills, their understanding gains depth and professional iden2ty becomes clearer. •WORKPEDA project develops pedagogy where higher educa6on ins6tutes together with the workplace create learning opportuni6es to integrate theory and prac6ce. •WORKPEDA project seeks to develop not only workplace learning but also teaching on campus.
 WORKPEDA is transforming learning Arbetspedagogiken förändrar lärandet
  3. 3. Work-package 4 Working-life perspective in curricula development Identification and Recognition of Desired Competences Oulu
  4. 4. • The gap between exis6ng and desired competences Digital open badges offer to visualise the gap between exis.ng and desired competences and help learners progress efficiently towards intended learning outcomes. In order to be able to describe the desired knowledge and skills through the badge constella6on of competences, we need to understand the construc6on process of required competences. 
 Identification and Recognition of Desired Competences Models for development of students’ working-life skills, for curricular reforms, and for work-integrated pedagogy Identifiering och erkännande av önskade kompetenser
  5. 5. 3 different views 1) What kind of competences students expect from educa6on? Vilken typ av kompetens förväntar sig studerandena av utbildningen? 2) What kind of competences working life expects from the students? Vilken typ av kompetens förväntar sig arbetslivet av studerandena? 3) How these different views on exit profiles or graduate a:ributes have been noted within development of assessment prac6ces and construc6on of the competence-based curricula? Utveckling av bedömingsmetoder och uppbyggnad av kompetensbaserade läroplaner. 3 olika syner på att definiera "kompetensen" Identification and Recognition of Desired Competences
  6. 6. Digital Open Badges Digitala märken i öppna badge-system •In the future, there will be increasingly numerous ways to develop competences. •Badges help students to perceive their exis6ng competences and inform how to proceed studying. •Digital open badges offer novel possibili6es in iden6fying and recognising different competences independent of how they were acquired. Digital badges (e.g. Mozilla Open Badges) describe and explain professional exper2se and requirements of digi2sed working life
  7. 7. (https://openbadgefactory.com) PERSONAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Personal Learning Environments and Personal Learning Networks in professional teaching PROFICIENCY GOALS -Understand the opportunities and available via a personal learning environment and network e.g. own skills development and visualising your own processes. -Understand how a personal learning environment can be utilised in professional teaching. THEMES -Personal learning environment and network possibilities and challenges in professional teaching. SKILLS DEMONSTRATION -Describe your current or a planned personal learning environment and/or network using any desired media e.g. video / written document. You may also describe a PLE from the perspective of your students and how they would utilise a PLE. -Also describe with which kind of tools or environments your described PLE will be accomplished. Upload your media e.g. to a cloud service and provide a link in your application. • A b a d g e i n c l u d e s a n identification image, graphic or icon, the name of the badge, issuer identification a n d o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n content. • The metadata describes the principles of judgement and explain how the competence in question should be demonstrated (e.g., an online document). • Even if competencies are acquired differently they should be assessed equally. “an image file embedded with information” (Grant, 2014, p. 7)
  8. 8. A badge-constella6on of competences describes and explains different p r o f e s s i o n s , requirements of working life, learning objec6ves and different study paths how to get there. For the student For policy makers and institutions For working life
  9. 9. Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning Competence- based approach Criterion-based assessment Evidence-based Updatable Trustworthy Brauer, 2019; cf. Salmon, 2018 Instruerande kompetens- märken Kompetensmärkesstyrd inlärningsprocess bygger på märkeskonstella6on av olika kompetenser.
  10. 10. Brauer, 2019 Feeding the desire to learn • Triggers offer to affect learning arousing and maintaining interest (Hidi & Renninger, 2006; Järvelä & Renninger, 2014; Renninger & Bachrach, 2015) until final completion of the desired learning action (Dichev et al., 2014). • Triggers allow students to continue studying after completing the initial task (Dichev et al., 2014; Werbach, 2014). WHAT STUDENTS EXPERIENCE, LEARN AND THEN APPLY • The prompting trigger of learning might help students visualise their learning as a reward badge (Brauer, Siklander, & Ruhalahti, 2017, Fitz-Walter et al., 2011; Gamrat et al., 2016; Hamari, 2017; Montola et al., 2009; Reid et al., 2015). • Students also gain a sense of excitement similar to that of playing games (Deterding, 2012; 2015). They benefit from facilitators’ interaction, collaboration and feedback during the learning process (Siklander et al., 2017).
  11. 11. Digital competence framework for educators: Areas and scope (Redecker, 2017, p. 15). UNESCO’s ICT Competency Framework for Teachers (UNESCO, 2011, p. 3) The standards and frameworks are important at the national and international levels to set the direction for development. Official guidelines are not always the best tool for individuals seeking to identify personal competences or to comprehend the needs of development in practice. “Different digital pedagogical competence frameworks seek to support teaching personnel, educational institutions and policymakers in developing effective and meaningful criterion-based competence development (Kools & Stoll, 2016).”
  12. 12. Learning, Education and Technology (LET) is a full-time two-year international Master’s Programme (120 ECTS credits). After completing the programme, students are awarded a Master of Arts (Education) degree. Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments Identification and recognition of desired competences Knowledge and competencies needed in modern education Collaborative Cross-disciplinary Working life co- operation Authentic cases
  13. 13. Students & Alumni Methodology: Systematic Literature Review (SLR) Interviews Questionnaire Results Identification and Recognition of Desired Competences
  14. 14. Problem-solving case 2 (10 cr)PBL Working Life Integrated Badges 8 cr Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning Process Gamified Constellation of Competences Alumni/ Working Life co-operation Working Life Relevance of Curricula Working Life Skills (UraMOOC 2 cr)
  15. 15. Creativity and Divergent Thinking! Convergent Thinking!Perceiving Level Bronze Approaching Level Silver Managing Level Gold Meta Badges + Critical Thinking! + OHJAAJAT ARVIOI! Novice EXPERTI SE! Co- operative! Knowledge Constructio n! = COLLABORA TIVE! THINKING SKILLS! SHARED! EXPERTISE! = = + Process Thinking! Adaptive EXPERTI SE ! Routine ! EXPERTI SE! COLLABO- RATIVE! SOLVING PROCESS! + + COLLABORATIVE! KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION! + Knowledge Sharing! Collaborati ve Knowledge Constructio n ! + + + = Example
  16. 16. DEFINING PROBLE M! PROBLEM DESCRIPTI ON! COLLABORA TIVE SOLVING PROCESS! TEAM WORK IN PROBLEM SOLVING! ELABORATI ON! = + URAMOOC!+ + + + + PROBLEM SOLVING 40 Basic Badges! 8 Meta Badges! 7 Level Badges! ! ! PRESENTING! + COLLABORA TION! + Problem Solving Case - BADGE! ! Badge applications reviewed by tutors, peers or working life! • The project is based on the model of integrative pedagogy, in which working-life experience is reflected on in the light of theoretical knowledge. • Taking an educational approach to work experience serves this purpose. The aim is to produce expertise that combines in-depth understanding, active agency, and versatile skills.
  17. 17. The ESCO Skills/Competences classification Competitive Skills - National Open Badge -constellation of problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTRE) The aim of the project is to develop a nationwide open badge constellation, which enables the verification of adults’ problem solving skills in technology-rich environments (PIAAC) by identifying and recognising competences acquired outside the formal education system, at different levels of education, and in transition phases of the education structure. In addition, the project provides a requirement framework of competence (determining the composition of objectives, core contents and assessment criteria) for securing IT-related problem-solving skills in formal and non-formal education.
  18. 18. Oulun yliopisto 10 Yliopistoa 6 Ammattikorkeakoulua Kiitos! Tack! Thank you for your attention! Sanna Brauer https://www.linkedin.com/in/sannabrauer/ Eero Talonen
  19. 19. References Brauer, S. (2019). Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning –Competence-based Professional Development for Vocational Teachers (doctoral dissertation). University of Lapland. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-337-110-1 Brauer, S. & Siklander, P. (2017). Competence-based assessment and digital badging as guidance in vocational teacher education. In H. Partridge, K. Davis, & J. Thomas (Eds.), Me, Us, IT! Proceedings ASCILITE2017: 34th International Conference on Innovation, Practice and Research in the Use of Educational Technologies in Tertiary Education. 191-196. Deterding, S. (2012). Gamification: designing for motivation. interactions, 19(4), 14–17. Deterding, S. (2015). The lens of intrinsic skill atoms: A method for gameful design. Human - Computer Interaction, 30(3-4), 294–335. http://doi.org/ 10.1080/07370024.2014.993471 Dichev, C., Dicheva, D., Angelova, G. & Agre, G. (2014). From gamification to gameful design and gameful experience in learning. Cybernetics and Information Technologies, 14(4), pp.80-100. Fitz-Walter, Z., Tjondronegoro, D., & Wyeth, P. (2011). Orientation passport: Using gamification to engage university students. Proceedings from the 23rd Australian computer-human interaction conference. 122-125. ACM. Gamrat, C., Bixler, B., & Raish, V. (2016). Instructional design considerations for digital badges. Digital Badges in Education: Trends, Issues, and Cases, 71–81. Grant, S. (2014). What counts as learning. DML Research Hub. Retrieved from http://dmlhub.net/publications/what-counts-learning/ Hamari, J. (2017). Do badges increase user activity? A field experiment on the effects of gamification. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 469-478. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.036. Hidi, S. & Renniger, K.A. (2006). The Four-Phase Model of Interest Development. Educational Psychologist, 41,(2), pp.111–127. Järvelä, S. and Renniger, K.A. (2014). Designing for learning: Interest, motivation, and engagement. In (R.K. Sawyer, Ed.) Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences, pp. 668–685. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Kools, M., & Stoll, L. (2016). What Makes a School a Learning Organisation?. OECD Education Working Papers, 137. Paris: OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/ 10.1787/5jlwm62b3bvh-en Montola, M., Nummenmaa, T., Lucerano, A., Boberg, M., & Korhonen, H. (2009). Applying game achievement systems to enhance user experience in a photo sharing service. Proceedings from the 13th international Academic Mindtrek conference: Everyday life in the Ubiquitous Era. Tampere, Finland. 94-97. Redecker, C. (2017). European Framework for the Digital Competence of Educators: DigCompEdu. Punie, Y. (Ed.). EUR 28775 EN. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. https://doi.org/10.2760/159770 Renniger, K. A. and Bachrach, J. E. (2015). Studying triggers for interest and engagement using observational methods. Educational Psychologist, 50,(1), pp.58– 69. Reid, A. J., Paster, D., & Abramovich, S. (2015). Digital badges in undergraduate composition courses: effects on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Computers in Education, 2(4), 377–398. Salmon, G. (2018). Five-stage model. Saatavilla https://www.gillysalmon.com/five-stage-model.html