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‫١بتثجحخدذر‬‫زسشصضطظع‬‫غفقكلمنهولء‬          ‫ى‬‫ابتثجحخدذر‬‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َََ َ‬‫زسشصضطظع‬‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ‬
‫غ ف ق كل من ه و لء‬‫َ َ َ َ ََ ََ َ َ َ‬                  ‫ى‬                  ‫َ‬  ‫اَ اِ اُ بَ بِ بُ تَ تِ تُ ثَ‬‫ثِ ثُ...
‫قِ قُ كَ كِ كُ لَ لِ لُ مَ مِ‬‫مُ نَ نِ نُ هَ هِ هُ وَ ِو وُ لَ‬      ‫ءَ ءِ ءُ ىَ ىَ ىُ‬    ‫لِ لُ‬
‫اا‬                        ١‫با‬                        ٣‫تا‬                        ٢‫ثا‬                        ٤‫جا‬  ...
(tsamaniya, tisa)   ٩     (ashara, tisa)      ١٠‫زا‬١
Fiqh 1.1: PurificationThe shariah has divided water into four kinds:1 mutlaq water,2 used water (for purification),3 water...
ablution?" Said the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, "Its (the sea) water is pureand its dead(animals) are lawful (...
is sufficient for him to wipe his head with any water remaining in his beard. Ibn al-Munzhirstated thatthis proves that th...
Hassan al-Basri, Ibn al-Musayyab, Ikrimah, Ibn Abu Laila, al-Thauri, Dawud azh-Zhahiri, an-Nakhai, Malik and others. Says ...
and for usis what he left, water to be used for drinking and purifying." This is related by ad-Daraqutni.Yahya ibnSaeed re...
two typesof blood are the (blood of the) liver and the spleen."This is related by Ahmad, ash-Shafi, al-Baihaqi and adDaraq...
His book. What is forbidden is what Allah m ade forbidden in His book. What he om its, Hehas pardonedfor you." It is well-...
to a m ale baby that has not yet begun to eat. If he already eats, then the garment is to bewashed."This hadith is related...
informedhim of this. He said It is sufficient for you to take a handful of water and sprinkle it over(the mazhi)."Fiqh 1.1...
other animals for some time and is given clean food to eat, then it becomes pure and is no longer calledjallalah. If this ...
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Download this Document for FreeTranslation ofFiqh Us SunnahAuthorSayyid SaabiqBook coverVolume 1Part 1Part 2Volume 2Part 1...
» Fiqh Us SunnahVolume 1Fiqh 1.1: PurificationThe shariah has divided water into four kinds:1234Fiqh 1.1 a: Mutlaq waterTh...
"The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, wiped his head with the extra water that was in hishand." Abu Hurairah also r...
Fiqh 1.5: Water left in a container after an allowable animal has drunk from itFiqh 1.5 a: Water remaining in a pot after ...
they did not see anything wrong in that." This is related by al-Bukhari. Said Ibn Abbas, "The client ofMaimunah was given ...
prayer."Fiqh 1.10 a: Al-Mazhi or prostatic fluidThis is a white sticky fluid that flows from the sexual organs because of ...
Jallalah refers to an anim al that eats the waste or flesh of other animals, such as cam els, cows, sheep,chickens, geese,...
If there are impurities on the ground, it is purified by pouring water over it. This is proven by AbuHurairahs hadith, men...
I f a pe r so n c a n no t d e te r mi n e w h a t p a r t o f h is c lo th e s c o n t a i n th e im p u r i ty , h e s h...
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  1. 1. ‫١بتثجحخدذر‬‫زسشصضطظع‬‫غفقكلمنهولء‬ ‫ى‬‫ابتثجحخدذر‬‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َََ َ‬‫زسشصضطظع‬‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ‬
  2. 2. ‫غ ف ق كل من ه و لء‬‫َ َ َ َ ََ ََ َ َ َ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫َ‬ ‫اَ اِ اُ بَ بِ بُ تَ تِ تُ ثَ‬‫ثِ ثُ جَ جِ جُ حَ حِ حُ خَ خِ‬ ‫خُ دَ دِ دُ ذَ ذِ ذُ رَ رِ رُ‬ ‫زَ زِ زُ سَ سِ سُ شَ شِ‬ ‫شُ صَ صِ صُ ضَ ضِ‬‫ضُ طَ طِ طُ ظَ ظِ ظُ عَ عِ‬ ‫عُ غَ غِ غُ فَ فِ فُ قَ‬
  3. 3. ‫قِ قُ كَ كِ كُ لَ لِ لُ مَ مِ‬‫مُ نَ نِ نُ هَ هِ هُ وَ ِو وُ لَ‬ ‫ءَ ءِ ءُ ىَ ىَ ىُ‬ ‫لِ لُ‬
  4. 4. ‫اا‬ ١‫با‬ ٣‫تا‬ ٢‫ثا‬ ٤‫جا‬ ٥‫حا‬ ٨‫خا‬ ٧‫دا‬ ٦‫ذا‬ ٩‫را‬ ١٠‫زا‬ )wahid, ithnin) ١ (tsalatha, Arbaa) ٣ )wahid, ithnin) ٢ (wahid, arbaa) ٤ (sitta, Khamsa) ٥ (tsamaniya, tisa) ٨ ٍ(saba, ashara) ٧ (sitta, Khamsa) ٦
  5. 5. (tsamaniya, tisa) ٩ (ashara, tisa) ١٠‫زا‬١
  6. 6. Fiqh 1.1: PurificationThe shariah has divided water into four kinds:1 mutlaq water,2 used water (for purification),3 water mixed with pure elements and4 water mixed with impure elements. We shall discuss each of them separately.Fiqh 1.1 a: Mutlaq waterThis kind of water is considered pure because of its inherent purity and as such, it can beused by anindividual to purify him or herself. It consists of the following categories:Fiqh 1.1 b: Rain w ater, snow , and hailThese substances are pure because Allah says so: "And sent down water from the sky uponyou, thatthereby He might purify you..." (al-Anfal 1), and "We send down purifying water from thesky" (al-Furqan 48). This is also supported by the following hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that theMessenger ofAllah, upon whom be peace, used to be silent between the (opening) takbir of the prayer andthe verbalQuranic recitation. Abu Hurairah asked him, "O Messenger of Allah, may my father andmother besacrificed for you, why do you remain silent between the takbir and the recital? What do yousay(silently during that time)?" He said, "I say, O Allah, make a distance between me and mysins similarto the distance you have made between the East and the West. O Allah, cleanse me of mysins in themanner that a white garment (is cleansed) from dirt. O Allah, wash my sins from me withsnow, water,and hail." This hadith is related by the "group", except for at-Tirmizhi.Fiqh 1.2: Sea w aterSea waters purity is based on the following hadith: Abu Hurairah related that a man askedtheMessenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, "O Messenger of Allah, we sail on the ocean and wecarryonly a little water. If we use it for ablution, we will have to go thirsty. May we use seawater for
  7. 7. ablution?" Said the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, "Its (the sea) water is pureand its dead(animals) are lawful (i.e., they can be eaten without any prescribed slaughtering)." Thishadith isrelated by "the five." At-Tirmizhi calls it hassan sahih, and al-Bukhari says it is sahih.Fiqh 1.2 a: Water from the w ell of ZamzamAli narrated that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, called for a bucket thatcontained water from the well of Zamzam. He drank from the bucket, then made ablution(with its water). This hadith is related by Ahmad.Fiqh 1.2 b: Altered w aterThis involves water whose form has been altered because of its being in a place for a longperiod oftime, or because of the place in which it is located, or because of its being mixed with asubstance thatcannot be completely removed from it (i.e., water mixed with algae, tree leaves, and soon). Thescholars agree that this type of water falls under the heading of mutlaq water.The rationale is simple: everything that falls under the general term of water, without anyfurtherqualifications, is considered pure, for the Quran says, "...and if you find not water, then goto clean,high ground..." (al-Maidah 6).Fiqh 1.2 c: Used w aterThis category refers to water which drips from the person after he performs ablution orghusl. It isconsidered pure because it was pure before its use for ablution, and there is no basis to thinkthat ithas lost its purity. This statement is supported by the hadith of Rabi bint Muwazh whichdescribes theablution of the Messenger of Allah. She states, "He wiped his head with (the water)remaining on hishands from his ablution." This hadith is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Abu Dawudsversion is,"The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, wiped his head with the extra water that wasin hishand." Abu Hurairah also reported that the Messenger of Allah met him alone in the streetsof Madinahwhile he was in post-sex impurity. He therefore slipped away, made ghusl and returned. TheMessengerof Allah, upon whom be peace, asked him "Where have you been, Abu Hurairah?" Heanswered, "I wasin post-sex impurity and did not want to sit with you while I was in that condition." TheProphet replied,"Glory be to Allah. The believer does not become impure." This is related by "the group."This is based on the rationale that since a believer never becom es im pure, the water he usesforpurification also does not become impure. Thus, a pure object touching a pure object cannotresult inones becoming impure. Ibn al-Munzhir said that it is related that Ali, Ibn Umar, AbuUmamah, Ata,al-Hassan, Makhul and anNakhai said that if a person forgot to wipe his head while makingablution, it
  8. 8. is sufficient for him to wipe his head with any water remaining in his beard. Ibn al-Munzhirstated thatthis proves that they took "used water" as pure. This opinion comes from one of thenarrationsattributed to Malik and ash-Shafi. Ibn Hazm ascribes it to Sufyan al-Thauri, Abu Thaur, andall scholarsof the Zhahiri school of thought.Fiqh 1.3: Water mixed with pure elementsThis category includes water that has been m ixed with substances like soap, saffron,flowers, and soon, that is, objects considered pure by the shariah. Such water is considered pure as long asit has not been so mixed with other substances that one can no longer call it water. If this isthe case, the water is still considered pure, but it cannot be used for purification. UmmAtiyah narrated that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, entered her house afterthe death of his daughter Zainab and said,"Wash her three or five or more times--if you see fit to do so--with water and dry treeleaves. For the final washing, use some kafoor or something from kafoor. When you arefinished, inform me." She did so, after which he gave the women his outer garment and toldthem to wrap Zainab in it. This was related by "the group."The deceased should be washed with something that may purify a live person. Ahmad, an-Nasai andIbn Khuzaimah record from Umm Hani that the Messenager of Allah and Maimunah washedthemselvesfrom one (water) container that had a trace of dough in it. In both of these hadith, we findthat thewater was mixed with another substance, but since the other substance was not substantialenough toalter its nature, it remained fit for consumption.Fiqh 1.3 a: Water mixed w ith impure elementsWe can divide this category into two sub-categories:1 The im pure substance alters the taste, color or odor of the water. In this case, it can notbe used forpurification. According to Ibn al-Munzhir and Ibn al-Mulaqqin, there is a consensus on thispoint.2 The liquid is still considered water, meaning that the impure substance has not altered itstaste, coloror odor. Such water is considered pure and may be used for purification. This is based uponthefollowing hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that a bedouin urinated in the mosque. The peoplestood to gethim (and stop him). The Prophet said, "Leave him and pour a bucket of water or a containerof waterover his urine. You have been raised to be easy on the people, not to be hard on them." Thishadith isnarrated by "the group," except for Muslim.Abu Saeed al-Khudri asked the Prophet, "Can we make ablution from the well of Budaah(i.e., a well inMadinah)?" The Prophet, upon whom be peace, told him, "Water is pure and nothing makesit impure."This hadith is related by Ahmad, ash-Shafi, Abu Dawud, anNasai and at-Tirmizhi, whoclassified it as hassan. Ahm ad said, "This hadith is sahih and Yahya ibn Maeen and Muhammad ibn Hazm classified it as such." This is also the opinion of Ibn Abbas, Abu Hurairah, al-
  9. 9. Hassan al-Basri, Ibn al-Musayyab, Ikrimah, Ibn Abu Laila, al-Thauri, Dawud azh-Zhahiri, an-Nakhai, Malik and others. Says al-Ghazzali, "I wish ash-Shafis opinion was like Maliks."There is also a hadith from Abdullah ibn Umar in which the Messenger of Allah is reportedto havesaid, "If there are at least two buckets of water, it will not carry any impurity." This hadithis related by the "five." However, this hadith is muzhtarab in its chain of narrators and text.Ibn Abdul-Barr said in at-Tamheed, "As to the opinion of ash-Shafi which is based on thishadith, it is weak on scrutiny and is not confirmed by historical reports."Fiqh 1.4: Leftover w ater"Leftover water" is what remains in a pot after some has been drunk. There are fivedifferent types ofleftover water.Fiqh 1.4 a: Water leftover after people have drunk from the potAccording to the shariah, such water is considered pure regardless of whether the one whodrank fromthe pot was a Muslim, an unbeliever, a person in post-sex impurity or a menstruatingwoman.Although Allah says in the Quran, "Verily, the idol worshippers are impure" (at-Taubah)this is areference not to their physical state, but to their false beliefs and creed. They may come intocontactwith dirt or impurities, but this does not mean that their possessions or bodies are impure. Infact, theyused to mix with the Muslims. Their emmissaries and delegations used to visit theMessenger of Allah and enter his mosque. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, did not orderthat the objects they touched be cleansed. As for mensturating women, Aishah said, "I usedto drink (from a container) while I was menstruating. I would then pass it to the Messengerof Allah and he would drink from the same spot where I had put my lips." (Related byMuslim.)Fiqh 1.5: Water left in a container after an allow able animal has drunk from itSuch water is considered pure. Since the animal qualifies for consum ption, its saliva is alsopure. Abu Bakr ibn al-Munzhir said, "The scholars are agreed that such water is permissibleto drink or use for ablution."Fiqh 1.5 a: Water rem aining in a pot after it has been drunk by a donkey, mule, beasts ofbirds of preySuch water is also considered pure, based on the hadith of Jabir in which the Messenger ofAllah wasasked about making ablution with drinking water left by donkeys. The Prophet, upon whombe peace,answered, "Yes, and from the drinking water left by any of the beasts of prey." This hadithwas relatedby ash-Shaifi, ad-Daraqutni and al-Baihaqi who said, "When its different chains are puttogether theybecome strong." It has also been related from Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah wentout at nightwhile he was on a journey. He passed by a man who was sitting by a pond. Said Umar, "Dida beast ofprey drink from your pond tonight?" The Messenger of Allah told him, "O owner of thepond, do notinform him. It is not necessary, for him (the beast of prey) is what he carried in his stomach
  10. 10. and for usis what he left, water to be used for drinking and purifying." This is related by ad-Daraqutni.Yahya ibnSaeed reported that once Umar was among a group that included Amr ibn al-Aas and,when theycame upon a pond, Amr said, "O owner of the pond, have the beasts of prey discovered yourpond?"Umar said, "Do not inform us, since the people drink after the wild beasts and the wildbeasts after thepeople." This is related by Malik in al-Muwatta.Fiqh 1.6: Water left in a pot after a cat has drunk from itSuch water is also considered pure. This is proven by the hadith of Kabshah bint Kab who,when she was under the care of Abu Qatadah, entered the room to pour some water for him.A cat came, drank some of the water, and Qatadah proceeded to tilt the container so the catcould drink more. Kabshah said, "He noticed that I was watching him." He asked, "Are yousurprised, O niece?" I answered, "Yes." He said, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom bepeace, said, It (the cat) is not impure. Theyintermingle with you."Fiqh 1.6 a: Water left in a pot after a pig or dog has drunk from itSuch water is considered impure and must be avoided. Al-Bukhari and Muslim haverecorded, on theauthority of Abu Hurairah, that the messenger of Allah said, "If a dog drinks from one ofyourcontainers, wash it seven times." Ahmad and Muslim also have this addition, "Cleanse oneof yourcontainers if a dog licks it by washing it seven times, the first washing being with dirt." Asfor theleftover water of a pig, it is clearly considered filth and impure.Fiqh 1.6 b: Types of impuritiesNajasah refers to impure substances that the Muslim must avoid and wash off if they shouldhappen to contaminate his clothes, body and so on. Says Allah in the Quran, "Purify yourraiment" (alMudathar 4); and, "Allah loves those who repent and who purify themselves"(al-Baqarah 222). The Messenger of Allah also said, "Purity is half of the faith."Fiqh 1.6 c: Dead animalsThis refers to animals which die from "natural causes," that is, without the proper Islamicway ofslaughtering. It also includes anything that is cut off of a live animal. Abu Waqid al-Laithyreported thatthe Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "What is cut off of a live animal is considereddead," i.e., it isconsidered like an anim al that has not been properly slaughtered. This is related by AbuDawud and byat-Tirmizhi, who classifies it as hassan and says that the scholars act according to thishadith.Fiqh 1.7: Dead anim als of the sea and dead locustsIbn Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Two types of dead animals and twotypes ofblood have been made lawful for us. The types of dead animals are seafood and locusts. The
  11. 11. two typesof blood are the (blood of the) liver and the spleen."This is related by Ahmad, ash-Shafi, al-Baihaqi and adDaraqutni. The hadith is weak, butImam Ahmad says that it is authentic in mauqoof form. Abu Zarah and Abu Hatim have saidthe same. Such a report has the implication of a marfu hadith because a companion saying,"This was allowed for us" or "This was forbidden for us" is like one of them saying, "Wewere ordered to do this," or "We were forbidden to do this," and so on. (Such statements areconsidered marfu with respect to their regulations). And we have already mentioned theProphets statement concerning the ocean, "Its water is pure and its dead animals areallowable (to eat.)."Fiqh 1.7 a: Dead animals that have no running blood(That is) bees, ants, and so on. They are considered pure. If they fall into some substanceand die, the substance will not become impure. Ibn al-Munzhir said, "I do not know of anydisagreement concerning the purity of such water save what has been related from ash-Shafi. It is well-known that he viewsthem as being impure. Nevertheless, it does not bother him if the object falling into asubstance doesnot alter it (in any way)."Fiqh 1.7 b: Bones, horns, claw s, fur, feathers, and skin and so on of dead animalsAll of these are considered pure. Concerning the bones of dead animals, az-Zuhri said, "Ihave metsome scholars of the preceeding generations who used such objects for combs and pots foroil, andthey did not see anything wrong in that." This is related by al-Bukhari. Said Ibn Abbas,"The client ofMaimunah was given a sheep as charity, and it died. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom bepeace,passed by it and said, Why do you not remove its skin, treat it and put it to use? She said,It isdead (i.e., it has not been slaughtered properly). He said to her, Only eating it isforbidden." This isrelated by the group. Ibn Majah attributes the incident to Maimunah and her client. Al-Bukhari and an-Nasai do not mention treating the skin. It is reported from Ibn Abbas that he recited: "Say(OMuhammad): "In all that has been revealed to me, I do not find anything forbidden to eat;if one wantsto eat thereof, unless it be carrion, or blood poured forth, or swine flesh..." (al-Anam 145).Then hesaid, "What is forbidden is its meat. As for its skin, skin used for waterskins, teeth, bones,fur and wool,they are permissible." This is narrated by Ibn Munzhir and Ibn Hatim. Similarly, its rennetand milk areconsidered pure. This is supported by the fact that when the companions conquered Iraq,they ate thecheese of the Magians which was made from rennet, although their slaughtered animals wereconsidered the same as dead animals. It is confirmed from Salman al-Farsi that when hewas askedabout cheese, clarified butter and pelts, he said, "What is permissible is what Allah madepermissible in
  12. 12. His book. What is forbidden is what Allah m ade forbidden in His book. What he om its, Hehas pardonedfor you." It is well-known that he was being asked about the cheese of the Magians, asSalman wasUmars deputy in Madain, Iraq.Fiqh 1.8: BloodThis includes blood that pours forth from an animals body, such as blood from a slaughteredanim al, orfrom menstruation, except for what small amounts are overlooked. Ibn Juraij said about theQuranic verse "...or blood poured forth..." (al-Anam 145), that this is the blood that flowsout. The blood that does not flow out, but remains in the veins, is permissible. This isrelated by Ibn al-Munzhir. And it is also related from Abu Majlizn in his discourse on bloodthat he was asked, "What about the blood that remains in the slaughtered sheep or at the topof the cooking pot?" He answered, "There is no problem with it. What is forbidden is theblood that flows out (of the animal at the time of slaughtering)." This was recorded by Abdibn Hameed and by Abu ash-Shaikh. It is also related from Aishah that she said, "We usedto eat the meat when the blood was streaking the pot." Al-Hassan said, "The Muslims alwaysprayed, even while they were bleeding." This was mentioned by al-Bukhari. It is confirmedthat Umar prayed while his wound was bleeding. Elucidating the point, Ibn Hajr says inFath al-Bari (acommentary on Sahih al-Bukhari): "Abu Hurairah did not see anything wrong in a drop ortwo of bloodduring the prayers. Based on this report from Abu Hurairah, the blood of a flee or the bloodthat comesfrom a pimple are to be overlooked. Abu Majlizn was asked about pus that gets on the bodyor theclothes. He said, There is nothing wrong with them. Allah mentions only the blood, not thepus."Commenting on the subject, Ibn Taimiyyah says, "It is obligatory to clean the clothes frompus, purulent matter or similar fluids." He also says, "There is no proof concerning itsimpurity." It is preferred for the person to avoid contact as much as possible with thesesubstances.Fiqh 1.9: Pigs m eatAccording to the verse (al-Anam 145) quoted earlier, items mentioned therein are impure.Thepronoun they refers to all three of the mentioned items. It is, however, allowed to knitwith the hair ofa pig according to most of the scholars.Fiqh 1.9 a: Vom iting of a person, urine, and excrem entThere is agreement among the scholars that these objects are impure. But, a slight amountof vomit(commonly understood as a small amount of liquid) and the urine of an unweaned malebaby areoverlooked and pardoned. It is sufficient just to sprinkle water over the urine of anunweaned malebaby. This is based on the hadith of Umm Qais. She came to the Messenger of Allah withher unweaned son. After a while, the baby urinated in the Prophets lap. The Prophet, uponwhom be peace, called for some water, which he sprinkled over his clothes, and did not givethem a complete washing. This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.Ali narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, "The urine of a baby boy should have watersprinkled upon it. The urine of a baby girl is to be washed off." Says Qatadah, "This refers
  13. 13. to a m ale baby that has not yet begun to eat. If he already eats, then the garment is to bewashed."This hadith is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi and Ibn Majah. In al-Fath, IbnHajr says itschain is sahih.Sprinkling is sufficient as long as the boy is still nursing. If he eats solid food, his urine must be washedfrom the clothes and body. There is no disagreement on this latter point. Perhaps the reasonfor thisexemption to the male babys urine is that people have a tendency to carry their male babiesaround,and it would have been difficult to clean the clothes after their frequent urinations.Fiqh 1.10: Al-WadiWadi is a thick white secretion discharged (by some people) after urination. It is consideredimpure.Aishah said, " Wadi comes out after urination. The person should wash the private parts andperformablution. It is not necessary to perform ghusl. This is related by Ibn al-Munzhir. Ibn Abbasrelated that"mani (sperm) requires ghusl. As for mazhi (semen) and wadi they require a completepurification."This is related by al-Athram. Al-Baihaqi has it with the wording, "Concerning mazhi(prostatic fluid) andwadi, he said, Wash your sexual organs and perform the same type of ablution as youperform forprayer."Fiqh 1.10 a: Al-Mazhi or prostatic fluidThis is a white sticky fluid that flows from the sexual organs because of thinking aboutsexualintercourse or foreplay, and so on. The person is usually not aware of when exactly it issecreted. Itcomes from both the male and the female sexual organs, although the amount from the latter isusually more than the formers. Scholars are agreed that it is impure. If it gets on the body, it isobligatory to wash it off. If it gets on the clothes, it suffices to sprinkle the area with water, asit is very hard to be completely protected from this impurity, especially for the young, singleperson. Ali said, "I used to excrete mazhi, so I asked a man to ask the Messenger of Allah,upon whom be peace, about it. I was shy to do so because of my position with respect to hisdaughter (Ali was the Prophets son-in-law). He said, Make ablution and wash your penis."This is related by al-Bukhari and others. Sahl ibn Hanif said, "I used to suffer from excessiveamounts of mazhi. I used to make lots of ghusl because of it. So Imentioned this to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and he said, It is sufficientto take ahandful of water and sprinkle it over your clothes wherever the fluid appears."The hadith is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi. The latter says, "Thehadith is hassansahih. In the chain is Muhammad ibn Ishaq, who is considered weak when he relates inmuanan(handed-down) form because of his reputation as one who commited tadlis. But in thisnarration, hemakes it clear that he heard the hadith directly." Al-Athram narrated the same hadith withthe wording,"I was bothered by a great deal of mazhi, so I went to the Prophet, upon whom be peace, and
  14. 14. informedhim of this. He said It is sufficient for you to take a handful of water and sprinkle it over(the mazhi)."Fiqh 1.11: Sperm , Al-ManiSome scholars say that sperm is impure, but apparently it is pure, for it is only recommended to washit off if it is still wet, and to scratch it off if it is dry. Said Aishah, "I used to scratch the sperm off theMessenger of Allahs clothes if it was dry, and wash it off if it was still wet." (This is related by ad-Daraqutni, Abu Awanah and al-Bazzar). It is also related that Ibn Abbas said, "I asked the Messengerof Allah about sperm on clothes. He said, It is the same as mucus and spittle. It is sufficient to rub thearea with a rag or cloth."The hadith was related by ad-Daraqutni, al-Baihaqi and atTahawi. There is a difference in the narrationover whether it should be in marfuor mauqoof form.Fiqh 1.11 a: The urine and stools of anim als that are perm issible to eatBoth of these are considered impure. Ibn Masud related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom bepeace, went to answer the call of nature. He asked Abdullah ibn Masud to bring three stones. Abdullahsaid, "I could not find three stones, so I found two stones and animal dung and brought them to him.He took the two stones and threw away the dung saying, It is impure."The hadith is related by al-Bukhari, Ibn Majah, and Ibn Khuzaimah. In one narration itstates, "It is impure. It is the stool of a donkey." A little amount of it is pardoned though, asit is very difficult to completely protect ones self from it. Al-Waleed ibn Muslim says, "Isaid to al-Auzai, What about theurine of animals whose meat is not eaten, like the mule, donkey and horse? He said that they used tocome into contact with these during their battles, and that they did not wash it off their bodies orclothes. As for the urine and stools of animals whose meat is permissible, Malik, Ahmad and a group ofthe Shaifiyyah says that it is pure. Commenting on the subject, Ibn Taimiyyah says, "None of thecompanions held that it is impure. In fact, the statement that it is impure is of recent origin and notfrom the early generations of the companions."Said Anas, "A group of people from the tribes of Ukul or Uraina came to Madinah and becam e ill in theirstomach. The Prophet ordered them to get a milking she-camel and drink a mixture of its milk andurine." This hadith is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Muslim and points to a camels urine as beingpure. Therefore, by analogy, other permissible animals urine may also be considered pure. Says Ibn al-Munzhir, "Those who claim that that was permissible only for those people are incorrect. Specification isonly confirmed by some specific proof." He also says, "The scholars permit, without any objection, thesale of sheeps stools and the use of cam els urine in their medicine, both in the past and in thepresent, again without any objection. This shows that they are considered pure." Says ash-Shaukani,"Apparently, the urine and stools of every living animal permissible to eat is pure." There is nothing toprove otherwise.Fiqh 1.12: JallalahJallalah refers to an anim al that eats the waste or flesh of other animals, such as cam els, cows, sheep,chickens, geese, and so on. Ibn Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah forbade the drinking ofsuch animals milk.This hadith is related by "the five," except for Ibn Majah. At-Tirmizhi grades it as sahih. In onenarration it states, "It is also prohibited to ride upon a jallalah. (Related by Abu Dawud.) Amr ibnShuaib related on the authority of his father, from his grandfather, that the Messenger of Allahprohibited the meat of domestic donkeys. As for the jallalah, he prohibited riding or eatingthem." (Related by Ahamad, an-Nasai and Abu Dawud.) If the jallalah animal is kept away from the
  15. 15. other animals for some time and is given clean food to eat, then it becomes pure and is no longer calledjallalah. If this is the case, it becomes permissible to eat, as the reason for its prohibition was thechange it underwent due to eating filth, a state which would no longer be present.Fiqh 1.12 a: AlcoholAccording to most scholars, alcohol is im pure. Says Allah in the Quran, "Alcohol, gam es of chance,idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satans handiwork." Some scholars say thatit is pure, for they take the meaning of rajis in its abstract sense as describing alcohol andwhatever is related to it. This is not labeled as impure in a definite, sensory way. Says Allah,"Stay away from the impurities of idols." Idols are impure in the abstract sense, and they areconsidered impure if one touches them.ScribdUpload a DocumentSearch Books, Presentations, Business, Academics...Explore Documents • Books - Fiction • Books - Non-fiction • Health & Medicine • Brochures/Catalogs • Government Docs • How-To Guides/Manuals • Magazines/Newspapers • Recipes/Menus • School Work • + all categories • • Featured • Recent People • Authors • Students • Researchers • Publishers • Government & Nonprofits • Businesses • Musicians • Artists & Designers • Teachers • + all categories • • Most Followed • Popular • Barsima Asa
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  17. 17. Download this Document for FreeTranslation ofFiqh Us SunnahAuthorSayyid SaabiqBook coverVolume 1Part 1Part 2Volume 2Part 1Volume 3Part 4Part 5Volume 4Part 1Part 2Volume 5Part 1
  18. 18. » Fiqh Us SunnahVolume 1Fiqh 1.1: PurificationThe shariah has divided water into four kinds:1234Fiqh 1.1 a: Mutlaq waterThis kind of water is considered pure because of its inherent purity and as such, it can be used by anindividual to purify him or herself. It consists of the following categories:Fiqh 1.1 b: Rain water, snow, and hailThese substances are pure because Allah says so: "And sent down water from the sky upon you, thatthereby He might purify you..." (al-Anfal 1), and "We send down purifying water from the sky" (al-Furqan 48). This is also supported by the following hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger ofAllah, upon whom be peace, used to be silent between the (opening) takbir of the prayer and the verbalQuranic recitation. Abu Hurairah asked him, "O Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother besacrificed for you, why do you remain silent between the takbir and the recital? What do you say(silently during that time)?" He said, "I say, O Allah, make a distance between me and my sins similarto the distance you have made between the East and the West. O Allah, cleanse me of my sins in themanner that a white garment (is cleansed) from dirt. O Allah, wash my sins from me with snow, water,and hail." This hadith is related by the "group", except for at-Tirmizhi.Fiqh 1.2: Sea waterSea waters purity is based on the following hadith: Abu Hurairah related that a man asked theMessenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, "O Messenger of Allah, we sail on the ocean and we carryonly a little water. If we use it for ablution, we will have to go thirsty. May we use sea water forablution?" Said the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, "Its (the sea) water is pure and its dead(animals) are lawful (i.e., they can be eaten without any prescribed slaughtering)." This hadith isrelated by "the five." At-Tirmizhi calls it hassan sahih, and al-Bukhari says it is sahih.Fiqh 1.2 a: Water from the well of ZamzamFiqh 1.2 b: Altered waterThis involves water whose form has been altered because of its being in a place for a long period oftime, or because of the place in which it is located, or because of its being mixed with a substance thatcannot be completely removed from it (i.e., water mixed with algae, tree leaves, and so on). Thescholars agree that this type of water falls under the heading of mutlaq water.The rationale is simple: everything that falls under the general term of water, without any furtherqualifications, is considered pure, for the Quran says, "...and if you find not water, then go to clean,high ground..." (al-Maidah 6).Fiqh 1.2 c: Used waterThis category refers to water which drips from the person after he performs ablution or ghusl. It isconsidered pure because it was pure before its use for ablution, and there is no basis to think that ithas lost its purity. This statement is supported by the hadith of Rabi bint Muwazh which describes theablution of the Messenger of Allah. She states, "He wiped his head with (the water) remaining on hishands from his ablution." This hadith is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Abu Dawuds version is,
  19. 19. "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, wiped his head with the extra water that was in hishand." Abu Hurairah also reported that the Messenger of Allah met him alone in the streets of Madinahwhile he was in post-sex impurity. He therefore slipped away, made ghusl and returned. The Messengerof Allah, upon whom be peace, asked him "Where have you been, Abu Hurairah?" He answered, "I wasin post-sex impurity and did not want to sit with you while I was in that condition." The Prophet replied,"Glory be to Allah. The believer does not become impure." This is related by "the group."This is based on the rationale that since a believer never becomes impure, the water he uses forpurification also does not become impure. Thus, a pure object touching a pure object cannot result inones becoming impure. Ibn al-Munzhir said that it is related that Ali, Ibn Umar, Abu Umamah, Ata,al-Hassan, Makhul and anNakhai said that if a person forgot to wipe his head while making ablution, itis sufficient for him to wipe his head with any water remaining in his beard. Ibn al-Munzhir stated thatthis proves that they took "used water" as pure. This opinion comes from one of the narrationsattributed to Malik and ash-Shafi. Ibn Hazm ascribes it to Sufyan al-Thauri, Abu Thaur, and all scholarsof the Zhahiri school of thought.Fiqh 1.3: Water mixed with pure elementsThis category includes water that has been mixed with substances like soap, saffron, flowers, and soThe deceased should be washed with something that may purify a live person. Ahmad, an-Nasai andIbn Khuzaimah record from Umm Hani that the Messenager of Allah and Maimunah washed themselvesfrom one (water) container that had a trace of dough in it. In both of these hadith, we find that thewater was mixed with another substance, but since the other substance was not substantial enough toalter its nature, it remained fit for consumption.Fiqh 1.3 a: Water mixed with impure elementsWe can divide this category into two sub-categories:1purification. According to Ibn al-Munzhir and Ibn al-Mulaqqin, there is a consensus on this point.2or odor. Such water is considered pure and may be used for purification. This is based upon thefollowing hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that a bedouin urinated in the mosque. The people stood to gethim (and stop him). The Prophet said, "Leave him and pour a bucket of water or a container of waterover his urine. You have been raised to be easy on the people, not to be hard on them." This hadith isnarrated by "the group," except for Muslim.Abu Saeed al-Khudri asked the Prophet, "Can we make ablution from the well of Budaah (i.e., a well inMadinah)?" The Prophet, upon whom be peace, told him, "Water is pure and nothing makes it impure."There is also a hadith from Abdullah ibn Umar in which the Messenger of Allah is reported to haveFiqh 1.4: Leftover water"Leftover water" is what remains in a pot after some has been drunk. There are five different types ofleftover water.Fiqh 1.4 a: Water leftover after people have drunk from the potAccording to the shariah, such water is considered pure regardless of whether the one who drank fromthe pot was a Muslim, an unbeliever, a person in post-sex impurity or a menstruating woman.Although Allah says in the Quran, "Verily, the idol worshippers are impure" (at-Taubah) this is areference not to their physical state, but to their false beliefs and creed. They may come into contactwith dirt or impurities, but this does not mean that their possessions or bodies are impure. In fact, they
  20. 20. Fiqh 1.5: Water left in a container after an allowable animal has drunk from itFiqh 1.5 a: Water remaining in a pot after it has been drunk by a donkey, mule, beasts ofbirds of preySuch water is also considered pure, based on the hadith of Jabir in which the Messenger of Allah wasasked about making ablution with drinking water left by donkeys. The Prophet, upon whom be peace,answered, "Yes, and from the drinking water left by any of the beasts of prey." This hadith was relatedby ash-Shaifi, ad-Daraqutni and al-Baihaqi who said, "When its different chains are put together theybecome strong." It has also been related from Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah went out at nightwhile he was on a journey. He passed by a man who was sitting by a pond. Said Umar, "Did a beast ofprey drink from your pond tonight?" The Messenger of Allah told him, "O owner of the pond, do notinform him. It is not necessary, for him (the beast of prey) is what he carried in his stomach and for usis what he left, water to be used for drinking and purifying." This is related by ad-Daraqutni. Yahya ibnSaeed reported that once Umar was among a group that included Amr ibn al-Aas and, when theycame upon a pond, Amr said, "O owner of the pond, have the beasts of prey discovered your pond?"Umar said, "Do not inform us, since the people drink after the wild beasts and the wild beasts after thepeople." This is related by Malik in al-Muwatta.Fiqh 1.6: Water left in a pot after a cat has drunk from itintermingle with you."Fiqh 1.6 a: Water left in a pot after a pig or dog has drunk from itSuch water is considered impure and must be avoided. Al-Bukhari and Muslim have recorded, on theauthority of Abu Hurairah, that the messenger of Allah said, "If a dog drinks from one of yourcontainers, wash it seven times." Ahmad and Muslim also have this addition, "Cleanse one of yourcontainers if a dog licks it by washing it seven times, the first washing being with dirt." As for theleftover water of a pig, it is clearly considered filth and impure.Fiqh 1.6 b: Types of impuritiesFiqh 1.6 c: Dead animalsThis refers to animals which die from "natural causes," that is, without the proper Islamic way ofslaughtering. It also includes anything that is cut off of a live animal. Abu Waqid al-Laithy reported thatthe Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "What is cut off of a live animal is considered dead," i.e., it isconsidered like an animal that has not been properly slaughtered. This is related by Abu Dawud and byat-Tirmizhi, who classifies it as hassan and says that the scholars act according to this hadith.Fiqh 1.7: Dead animals of the sea and dead locustsIbn Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Two types of dead animals and two types ofblood have been made lawful for us. The types of dead animals are seafood and locusts. The two typesof blood are the (blood of the) liver and the spleen."Fiqh 1.7 a: Dead animals that have no running bloodthem as being impure. Nevertheless, it does not bother him if the object falling into a substance doesnot alter it (in any way)."Fiqh 1.7 b: Bones, horns, claws, fur, feathers, and skin and so on of dead animalsAll of these are considered pure. Concerning the bones of dead animals, az-Zuhri said, "I have metsome scholars of the preceeding generations who used such objects for combs and pots for oil, and
  21. 21. they did not see anything wrong in that." This is related by al-Bukhari. Said Ibn Abbas, "The client ofMaimunah was given a sheep as charity, and it died. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,passed by it and said, Why do you not remove its skin, treat it and put it to use? She said, It isdead (i.e., it has not been slaughtered properly). He said to her, Only eating it is forbidden." This isrelated by the group. Ibn Majah attributes the incident to Maimunah and her client. Al-Bukhari and an-Nasai do not mention treating the skin. It is reported from Ibn Abbas that he recited: "Say (OMuhammad): "In all that has been revealed to me, I do not find anything forbidden to eat; if one wantsto eat thereof, unless it be carrion, or blood poured forth, or swine flesh..." (al-Anam 145). Then hesaid, "What is forbidden is its meat. As for its skin, skin used for waterskins, teeth, bones, fur and wool,they are permissible." This is narrated by Ibn Munzhir and Ibn Hatim. Similarly, its rennet and milk areconsidered pure. This is supported by the fact that when the companions conquered Iraq, they ate thecheese of the Magians which was made from rennet, although their slaughtered animals wereconsidered the same as dead animals. It is confirmed from Salman al-Farsi that when he was askedabout cheese, clarified butter and pelts, he said, "What is permissible is what Allah made permissible inHis book. What is forbidden is what Allah made forbidden in His book. What he omits, He has pardonedfor you." It is well-known that he was being asked about the cheese of the Magians, as Salman wasUmars deputy in Madain, Iraq.Fiqh 1.8: BloodThis includes blood that pours forth from an animals body, such as blood from a slaughtered animal, orcommentary on Sahih al-Bukhari): "Abu Hurairah did not see anything wrong in a drop or two of bloodduring the prayers. Based on this report from Abu Hurairah, the blood of a flee or the blood that comesfrom a pimple are to be overlooked. Abu Majlizn was asked about pus that gets on the body or theclothes. He said, There is nothing wrong with them. Allah mentions only the blood, not the pus."Fiqh 1.9: Pigs meatAccording to the verse (al-Anam 145) quoted earlier, items mentioned therein are impure. Thepronoun they refers to all three of the mentioned items. It is, however, allowed to knit with the hair ofa pig according to most of the scholars.Fiqh 1.9 a: Vomiting of a person, urine, and excrementThere is agreement among the scholars that these objects are impure. But, a slight amount of vomit(commonly understood as a small amount of liquid) and the urine of an unweaned male baby areoverlooked and pardoned. It is sufficient just to sprinkle water over the urine of an unweaned maleThis hadith is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi and Ibn Majah. In al-Fath, Ibn Hajr says itschain is sahih.Sprinkling is sufficient as long as the boy is still nursing. If he eats solid food, his urine must be washedfrom the clothes and body. There is no disagreement on this latter point. Perhaps the reason for thisexemption to the male babys urine is that people have a tendency to carry their male babies around,and it would have been difficult to clean the clothes after their frequent urinations.Fiqh 1.10: Al-WadiWadi is a thick white secretion discharged (by some people) after urination. It is considered impure.Aishah said, " Wadi comes out after urination. The person should wash the private parts and performablution. It is not necessary to perform ghusl. This is related by Ibn al-Munzhir. Ibn Abbas related that"mani (sperm) requires ghusl. As for mazhi (semen) and wadi they require a complete purification."This is related by al-Athram. Al-Baihaqi has it with the wording, "Concerning mazhi (prostatic fluid) andwadi, he said, Wash your sexual organs and perform the same type of ablution as you perform for
  22. 22. prayer."Fiqh 1.10 a: Al-Mazhi or prostatic fluidThis is a white sticky fluid that flows from the sexual organs because of thinking about sexualintercourse or foreplay, and so on. The person is usually not aware of when exactly it is secreted. Itmentioned this to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and he said, It is sufficient to take ahandful of water and sprinkle it over your clothes wherever the fluid appears."The hadith is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi. The latter says, "The hadith is hassansahih. In the chain is Muhammad ibn Ishaq, who is considered weak when he relates in muanan(handed-down) form because of his reputation as one who commited tadlis. But in this narration, hemakes it clear that he heard the hadith directly." Al-Athram narrated the same hadith with the wording,"I was bothered by a great deal of mazhi, so I went to the Prophet, upon whom be peace, and informedhim of this. He said It is sufficient for you to take a handful of water and sprinkle it over (the mazhi)."Fiqh 1.11: Sperm, Al-ManiSome scholars say that sperm is impure, but apparently it is pure, for it is only recommended to washit off if it is still wet, and to scratch it off if it is dry. Said Aishah, "I used to scratch the sperm off theMessenger of Allahs clothes if it was dry, and wash it off if it was still wet." (This is related by ad-Daraqutni, Abu Awanah and al-Bazzar). It is also related that Ibn Abbas said, "I asked the Messengerof Allah about sperm on clothes. He said, It is the same as mucus and spittle. It is sufficient to rub thearea with a rag or cloth."The hadith was related by ad-Daraqutni, al-Baihaqi and atTahawi. There is a difference in the narrationover whether it should be in marfuor mauqoof form.Fiqh 1.11 a: The urine and stools of anim als that are perm issible to eatBoth of these are considered impure. Ibn Masud related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom bepeace, went to answer the call of nature. He asked Abdullah ibn Masud to bring three stones. Abdullahsaid, "I could not find three stones, so I found two stones and animal dung and brought them to him.He took the two stones and threw away the dung saying, It is impure."T he ha di th is r e la t e d b y a l- Bu k h a r i , I b n Ma ja h , a n d I b n K h u z a im a h . I n o n e n a r r a t io n i t s ta te s, " I t is i mp u r e . I t i s t he s to ol of ado nke y." A l it tl e a mo u n t o f i t i s p a r d o n e d t h o u g h , a s it is v e r y d if f ic u l t t o c o mp le te ly p r o t e c t o n e s se l f f r o m it . A l- W a le e d i bnMu sl im s a y s, " I sa id t o a l - A u z a i , W h a t a b o u t th eurine of animals whose meat is not eaten, like the mule, donkey and horse? He said that they used tocome into contact with these during their battles, and that they did not wash it off their bodies orclothes. As for the urine and stools of animals whose meat is permissible, Malik, Ahmad and a group ofthe Shaifiyyah says that it is pure. Commenting on the subject, Ibn Taimiyyah says, "None of thecompanions held that it is impure. In fact, the statement that it is impure is of recent origin and notfrom the early generations of the companions."Said Anas, "A group of people from the tribes of Ukul or Uraina came to Madinah and becam e ill in theirstomach. The Prophet ordered them to get a milking she-camel and drink a mixture of its milk andurine." This hadith is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Muslim and points to a camels urine as beingpure. Therefore, by analogy, other permissible animals urine may also be considered pure. Says Ibn al-Munzhir, "Those who claim that that was permissible only for those people are incorrect. Specification isonly confirmed by some specific proof." He also says, "The scholars permit, without any objection, thesale of sheeps stools and the use of cam els urine in their medicine, both in the past and in thepresent, again without any objection. This shows that they are considered pure." Says ash-Shaukani,"Apparently, the urine and stools of every living animal permissible to eat is pure." There is nothing toprove otherwise.Fiqh 1.12: Jallalah
  23. 23. Jallalah refers to an anim al that eats the waste or flesh of other animals, such as cam els, cows, sheep,chickens, geese, and so on. Ibn Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah forbade the drinking ofsuch animals milk.This hadith is related by "the five," except for Ibn Majah. At-Tirmizhi grades it as sahih. In onenarration it states, "It is also prohibited to ride upon a jallalah. (Related by Abu Dawud.) Amr ibnShuaib related on the authority of his father, from his grandfather, that the Messenger of Allahprohibited the meat of domestic donkeys. As for the jallalah, he prohibited riding or eatingthem." (Related by Ahamad, an-Nasai and Abu Dawud.) If the jallalah animal is kept away from theother animals for some time and is given clean food to eat, then it becomes pure and is no longer calledjallalah. If this is the case, it becomes permissible to eat, as the reason for its prohibition was thechange it underwent due to eating filth, a state which would no longer be present.Fiqh 1.12 a: AlcoholAccording to most scholars, alcohol is im pure. Says Allah in the Quran, "Alcohol, gam es of chance,id ol s a n d di vi ni ng a r r o w s a r e o n l y a n in f a m y o f S a ta n s h a n d i w o r k . " S o me sc h o la r s sa y th a t i t i s p u r e , f o r t h e y t a ke t he me a ni ngof r a j is in it s a b st r a c t se n se a s d e sc r i b i n g a lc o h o l a n d w h a te v e r is r e la t e d t o i t. T h is is n o t la b e le d a s im p u r e i n a de f in it e ,se n so r y w a y. S a y s A l la h , " S ta y a w a y f r o m t h e im p u r i ti e s o f id o l s. " I d o l s a r e i mp u r e i n th e a b s tr a c t se n se , a n d t he y a r ec on si de r e d im pu r e if o n e to u c h e s t h e m.The explanation of the preceding verse is that they are a tool of Satan, for they cause enmity andhatred and keep people away from the remembrance of Allah and pra.yer. In Subul as-Salaam it says,"Their origin is pure and their being prohibited does not mean that the object itself is impure. Forexample, hashish is prohibited but it is pure. But, something impure is not necessarily prohibited. Everyimpure thing is prohibited, but not vice-versa. That is because of the ruling that something impurecannot be touched under any circumstances. If a ruling says that something is impure, it is alsoprohibited. This differs from a ruling that something is prohibited. For example, it is forbidden to wearsilk and gold, but they are absolutely pure by consensus." If one understands that, then the prohibitionof alcohol does not necessarily entail its also being considered im pure: it needs som e other evidence toprove that it is impure. If not, then we are left with the original position that it is pure. If one claimsother than that, he must substantiate it.Fiqh 1.13: Purifying the body and clothesIf the clothes or body are contaminated with impurities, it is obligatory to wash them with water untilthey are cleansed of the im purities. This is especially the case if the impurity is visible, such as blood. If there are some stains thatremain after washing which would be extremely difficult to remove, they can be overlooked. If the impurity is not visible, such asurine, it is sufficient to wash it one time. Asma bint Abu Bakr related that a woman came to the Prophet, upon whom be peace, andsaid, "Our clothes are contaminated with menstrual blood. What should we do about this?" He said, "Scrape it, rub it with water, pourwater over it and then pray in it." (This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim) If impurities get on the lower portion of a womansdress, it is purified by dust as she trails along. A woman said to Umm Salamah, "I have a long dress that drags on the ground, evenwhen I walk through places that contain filth. What should I do about it?" Umm Salamah answered her, "The Messenger of Allah said,W ha t c o me s a f te r i t p u r if ie s i t. " T h is is r e la te d b y A h ma d a n d A b u D a w u d .Fiqh 1.13 a: DogsDogs are considered impure. Any container that a dog has licked must be washed seven times, the firsttime with dirt. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenager of Allah, upon whom be peace, said,"Purifying a container that a dog has licked is done by washing it seven times, the first washing beingwith dirt (that is, water mixed with dirt until it becomes muddy)." This was related by Muslim, Ahmad,Abu Dawud, and al-Baihaqi. If a dog licks a pot that has dry food in it, what it touched and whatsurrounds it must be thrown away. The remainder may be kept, as it is still pure. As for a dogs fur, it isconsidered pure.Fiqh 1.14: Purifying the ground
  24. 24. If there are impurities on the ground, it is purified by pouring water over it. This is proven by AbuHurairahs hadith, mentioned earlier, about the bedouin who urinated in the mosque. The Prophet, uponwhom be peace, said all that needed to be done for purification was to pour water over it. Said AbuQulabah, "The drying of the ground is its purification." Aishah said, "The purification of the ground is itsbecoming dry." (Related by Ibn Abi Shaibah.) This, of course, refers to the case where the impurity is aliquid. If the impurity is a solid, the ground will only become pure by its removal or decay.Fiqh 1.14 a: Purifying clarified butter and other sim ilar substancesIbn Abbas relates from Maimunah that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, was asked about a mousethat fell into a pot of clarified butter. He said, "Take (the mouse) and what is around it out, and throw itaway. Then eat (the rest of) your clarified butter." This is related by al-Bukhari.Co mm e n ti ng o n th e s u b je c t, a l- H a f e z h I b n H a jr sa y s , " I b n A b d u l Ba r r r e p o r te d th a t t h e r e is a g r e e me n t th a t i f a de a d a ni ma l f a l lsin to a s ol id ma tt e r , w h a t t h e d e a d a n i ma l to u c h e s a n d w h a t is a r o u n d i t m u s t b e t h r o w n a w a y , p r o v id e d t h a t o n e c a n ma ke su r eth a t t he a n im a l d id n o t to u c h th e r e ma i n d e r . A s f o r a li q u id s u b st a n c e , th e r e is s o m e d i f f e r e n c e o f o p in io n . T h e ma jo r i ty sa y t ha tth e e nt ir e l iq ui d b e c o m e s im p u r e ; a z - Z u h r i , a l - A u z a i , a n d so me o th e r s d is a g r e e w i th t h a t o p in io n .Fiqh 1.15: Purifying the skin of dead anim alsTanning purifies the skin and the fur of a dead animal. This is based on the hadith of Ibn Abbas, inwhich the Prophet said, "If the animals skin is tanned, it is purified." (Related by al-Bukhari andMuslim.)Fiqh 1.15 a: Purifying m irrors and sim ilar objectsMi r r or s , kn iv e s , sw o r d s, n a i ls , b o n e s, g la ss , p a i n t e d p o t s a n d o t h e r s mo o t h s u r f a c e s t h a t h a v e n o p o r e s a r e p u r i f ie d by s im pl yw i pi ng the m a n d r e mo v i n g a n y i mp u r e r e ma i n s . T h e c o m p a n io n s o f th e P r o p h e t u se d t o p r a y w h il e w e a r i n g s w o r ds sme a r e d w it hbl oo d, a nd t he y u se d t o j u s t w ip e t h e s w o r d s t o p u r i f y t h e m .Fiqh 1.15 b: Purifying shoesShoes may be purified by rubbing them against the ground, as long as the remains of the impurity areremoved. Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "If one of youstepped in some filth, the dirt will purify his shoes." Related by Abu Dawud. In another narration itstates, "If one of you steps in some filth with his shoes on, the dirt will purify them." Abu Saeedreported the Prophet, upon whom be peace, saying, "When a person comes to the mosque, he shouldlook at his shoes. If he finds any filth on them, he should wipe them against the ground and pray inthem." (Related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud.) Since shoes are repeatedly exposed to filth, it is sufficientjust to wipe them against the ground. This is similar to the case of defecation. In fact, it is strongerthan that case, as defecation usually occurs only two or three times a day.Fiqh 1.15 c: Useful points that are greatly needed concerning purificationRope used for hanging clothes with impurities on them may afterwards be used for hanging pureclothes.If a liquid falls on a person and he does not know if it was water or urine, he need not inquire about it.If he does inquire, the one who is asked need not answer him even if he knows that the liquid isimpure. In that case, the person need not wash his clothes.If a person finds something moist on his body or clothes at night, and he does not know what it is, heneed not smell it to discover what it might be. It is related that Umar passed by a gutter (and got wet).Umars companion asked the owner of the gutter if the water was pure or impure. Umar told theowner not to answer the question, and went on his way.Clothes that have street mud on them need not be washed. Reported Kamyal ibn Ziyad, "I saw Aliwading through the mud, after which he entered the mosque and prayed without washing his legs."If a person finishes his prayer and sees som e impurities on his clothes or body of which he was notpreviously aware, or he was aware of them but forgot about them, or he did not forget about them but he was not able toremove them, then his prayer is still valid and he need not repeat it. This opinion is supported by Allahs statement, "Andthere is no sin for you in the mistakes you makeunintentionally." (al-Ahzab 5). Many of the companions and those of the following generation gave thislegal verdict.
  25. 25. I f a pe r so n c a n no t d e te r mi n e w h a t p a r t o f h is c lo th e s c o n t a i n th e im p u r i ty , h e s h o u l d w a sh t h e w h o le g a r m e n t. T hi s i s ba se d o nth e a xi om , " I f a n o b l ig a t io n c a n n o t b e f u l f i ll e d e x c e p t b y p e r f o r mi n g a n o th e r r e la te d a c t , th e n th a t a c t a ls o b e c ome s o bl ig a t or y ."If a person mixes his pure clothes with his impure clothes (and gets confused between them), heshould investigate the matter and pray once in one of the clothes. This is similar to the question of the

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