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A computer is a machine that can be programmed
to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical
operations (computation) automatically.
Modern digital electronic computers can perform
generic sets of operations known as programs. These
programs enable computers to perform a wide range
of tasks. A computer system is a nominally complete
computer that includes the hardware, operating
system (main software), and peripheral equipment
needed and used for full operation. This term may
also refer to a group of computers that are linked and
function together, such as a computer
network or computer cluster.
FIRST COMPUTER
 Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer
and polymath, originated the concept of a
programmable computer. Considered the "father of
the computer",[17] he conceptualized and invented the
first mechanical computer in the early 19th century.
After working on his revolutionary difference engine,
designed to aid in navigational calculations, in 1833 he
realized that a much more general design,
an Analytical Engine, was possible. The input of
programs and data was to be provided to the machine
via punched cards, a method being used at the time to
direct mechanical looms such as the Jacquard loom.
ANALOG COMPUTER
 During the first half of the 20th century, many
scientific computing needs were met by increasingly
sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct
mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis
for computation. However, these were not programmable
and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern
digital computers.[20] The first modern analog computer
was a tide-predicting machine, invented by Sir William
Thomson (later to become Lord Kelvin) in 1872.
The differential analyser, a mechanical analog computer
designed to solve differential equations by integration
using wheel-and-disc mechanisms, was conceptualized in
1876 by James Thomson, the elder brother of the more
famous Sir William Thomson.
DIGITAL COMPUTER
 Early digital computers were electromechanical;
electric switches drove mechanical relays to perform
the calculation. These devices had a low operating
speed and were eventually superseded by much faster
all-electric computers, originally using vacuum tubes.
The Z2, created by German engineer Konrad Zuse in
1939, was one of the earliest examples of an
electromechanical relay computer.[21]In 1941, Zuse
followed his earlier machine up with the Z3, the
world's first working
electromechanical programmable, fully automatic
digital computer.
MODERN COMPUTER
 The principle of the modern computer was proposed by Alan Turing in
his seminal 1936 paper,[42] On Computable Numbers. Turing proposed a
simple device that he called "Universal Computing machine" and that
is now known as a universal Turing machine. He proved that such a
machine is capable of computing anything that is computable by
executing instructions (program) stored on tape, allowing the machine
to be programmable. The fundamental concept of Turing's design is
the stored program, where all the instructions for computing are stored
in memory. Von Neumann acknowledged that the central concept of
the modern computer was due to this paper.[43] Turing machines are to
this day a central object of study in theory of computation. Except for
the limitations imposed by their finite memory stores, modern
computers are said to be Turing-complete, which is to say, they
have algorithm execution capability equivalent to a universal Turing
machine.

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COMPUTER POWER POINT.pptx

  • 1. A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically. Modern digital electronic computers can perform generic sets of operations known as programs. These programs enable computers to perform a wide range of tasks. A computer system is a nominally complete computer that includes the hardware, operating system (main software), and peripheral equipment needed and used for full operation. This term may also refer to a group of computers that are linked and function together, such as a computer network or computer cluster.
  • 2. FIRST COMPUTER  Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer and polymath, originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered the "father of the computer",[17] he conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer in the early 19th century. After working on his revolutionary difference engine, designed to aid in navigational calculations, in 1833 he realized that a much more general design, an Analytical Engine, was possible. The input of programs and data was to be provided to the machine via punched cards, a method being used at the time to direct mechanical looms such as the Jacquard loom.
  • 3. ANALOG COMPUTER  During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers.[20] The first modern analog computer was a tide-predicting machine, invented by Sir William Thomson (later to become Lord Kelvin) in 1872. The differential analyser, a mechanical analog computer designed to solve differential equations by integration using wheel-and-disc mechanisms, was conceptualized in 1876 by James Thomson, the elder brother of the more famous Sir William Thomson.
  • 4. DIGITAL COMPUTER  Early digital computers were electromechanical; electric switches drove mechanical relays to perform the calculation. These devices had a low operating speed and were eventually superseded by much faster all-electric computers, originally using vacuum tubes. The Z2, created by German engineer Konrad Zuse in 1939, was one of the earliest examples of an electromechanical relay computer.[21]In 1941, Zuse followed his earlier machine up with the Z3, the world's first working electromechanical programmable, fully automatic digital computer.
  • 5. MODERN COMPUTER  The principle of the modern computer was proposed by Alan Turing in his seminal 1936 paper,[42] On Computable Numbers. Turing proposed a simple device that he called "Universal Computing machine" and that is now known as a universal Turing machine. He proved that such a machine is capable of computing anything that is computable by executing instructions (program) stored on tape, allowing the machine to be programmable. The fundamental concept of Turing's design is the stored program, where all the instructions for computing are stored in memory. Von Neumann acknowledged that the central concept of the modern computer was due to this paper.[43] Turing machines are to this day a central object of study in theory of computation. Except for the limitations imposed by their finite memory stores, modern computers are said to be Turing-complete, which is to say, they have algorithm execution capability equivalent to a universal Turing machine.