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Introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open (Bicocca, ott. 2019)

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Le slides della lezione tenuta presso la Facoltà di Giurisprudenza dell'Università di Milano-Bicocca il giorno 28 ottobre 2019 e intitolata "Introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open: dal software libero agli open data".

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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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Introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open (Bicocca, ott. 2019)

  1. 1. 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu Avv. Prof. Simone Aliprandi Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open: dal software libero agli open data Lunedì 28 ottobre 2019 Università di Milano-Bicocca
  2. 2. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open i miei riferimenti in rete • Il mio sito web: www.aliprandi.org • Array Law Firm: www.array.eu • Blog: http://aliprandi.blogspot.it • LinkedIn: http://it.linkedin.com/in/aliprandi
  3. 3. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open • Twitter: @simonealiprandi https://twitter.com/simonealiprandi ma soprattutto... • Pagina Facebook: www.facebook.com/simone.aliprandi.page/
  4. 4. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open OPENNESS Tema che può essere affrontato da 3 diversi punti di vista: ● punto di vista filosofico → etica hacker / cultura open ● punto di vista tecnologico → software open source e standard aperti ● punto di vista giuridico → licenze open (per software, dati, contenuti)
  5. 5. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open OPENNESS Tema che può essere affrontato da 3 diversi punti di vista: ● punto di vista filosofico → etica hacker / cultura open ● punto di vista tecnologico → software open source e standard aperti ● punto di vista giuridico → licenze open (per software, dati, contenuti)
  6. 6. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open ETICA HACKER I principi generali su cui si basa l'etica hacker sono: ● Condivisione ● Apertura ● Decentralizzazione ● Libero accesso alle tecnologie informatiche ● Miglioramento del mondo
  7. 7. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open PREMESSA 1 L'AMBITO IN CUI CI MUOVIAMO È QUELLO DEL DIRITTO D'AUTORE (O COPYRIGHT) ©
  8. 8. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Il copyright è l'istituto giuridico che tutela le opere creative come ad esempio le opere letterarie, le opere musicali, le opere fotografiche, l'arte figurativa, la cinematografia, il software. Non tutela le idee creative in sé, ma la forma espressiva con cui le idee sono state estrinsecate.
  9. 9. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open PREMESSA 2 IL COPYRIGHT È UN SISTEMA CLOSED BY DEFAULT
  10. 10. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open COPYRIGHT = CLOSED BY DEFAULT regola copyright eccezione libero utilizzo scadenza termini © © CC stabilito dalla legge vedi articoli 65 e seguenti stabilito dal titolare dei diritti
  11. 11. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open come si acquisisce il diritto d'autore sulle proprie creazioni? Articolo 6 – Legge 633/41 Il titolo originario dell'acquisto del diritto di autore è costituito dalla creazione dell'opera, quale particolare espressione del lavoro intellettuale.
  12. 12. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open PARTE 1 INTRODUZIONE ALL'OPEN LICENSING
  13. 13. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open LICENZA deriva dal latino “licere” che significa “permettere, autorizzare”. Una licenza d'uso per opere creative è in sostanza un documento con cui il titolare dei diritti regolamenta l'utilizzo della sua opera e ne autorizza (alcuni) usi. licenziante > licenziatario
  14. 14. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Questo documento ha due “anime”: da un lato definisce quali usi si possono fare dell'opera; dall'altro stabilisce quali condizioni devono rispettare gli utilizzatori dell'opera. A seconda che prevalgano le libertà concesse o le condizioni imposte, possiamo parlare di licenza open o di licenza proprietaria
  15. 15. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open licenza proprietaria photo by Nathan Gibbs | license CC by-nc-sa | source www.flickr.com/photos/nathangibbs/4855872454
  16. 16. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open licenza open photo by Nathan Gibbs | license CC by-nc-sa | source www.flickr.com/photos/nathangibbs/4855872454
  17. 17. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Il senso dell'open licensing Domanda 1) Ma se l'obbiettivo è lasciare che la mia opera circoli liberamente perché dovrei applicare una licenza? Non basta diffonderla e non dire nulla riguardo al copyright? – Risposta: NO Domanda 2) Ma se l'obbiettivo è lasciare che la mia opera circoli liberamente perché dovrei applicare una licenza? Non basta rilasciarla in pubblico dominio, rinunciando a tutti i diritti?
  18. 18. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Il senso dell'open licensing Domanda 1) Ma se l'obbiettivo è lasciare che la mia opera circoli liberamente perché dovrei applicare una licenza? Non basta diffonderla e non dire nulla riguardo al copyright? – Risposta: NO Domanda 2) Ma se l'obbiettivo è lasciare che la mia opera circoli liberamente perché dovrei applicare una licenza? Non basta rilasciarla in pubblico dominio, rinunciando a tutti i diritti? – Risposta: DIPENDE
  19. 19. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open PARTE 2 LE LICENZE OPER PER SOFTWARE
  20. 20. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Un po' di storia ● 1989: dalla mente di R.M. Stallman e E. Moglen nasce la GNU General Public License (GPL), capostipite delle licenze open ● 1991: L.Torvalds rilascia il kernel Linux sotto licenza GNU GPL (vers. 2) ● 1998: B.Perens e E.S.Raymond fondano la Open Source Initiative ● 2007: viene rilasciata la vers. 3 della GPL ● 2014: secondo stime di Black Duck Software, la GPL (v.2 + v.3) è utilizzata dal 37% dei progetti open source
  21. 21. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Classificazione generale tipologie di software Fonte: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Categorie_software.png
  22. 22. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Due diversi approcci ● Free Software Foundation → indicazione di compatibilità con la GPL ● Open Source Initiative → coerenza con la Open Source Definition vs
  23. 23. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Quante licenze? ● Attualmente il sito della OSI presenta una lista di circa 80 licenze che rispettano i criteri della Open Source Definition. → https://opensource.org/licenses ● Mentre il sito della FSF presenta una lista di circa 50 licenze dichiarate compatibili con la GNU GPL. → www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.it tante ...o troppe?
  24. 24. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Quante licenze? ● Attualmente il sito della OSI presenta una lista di circa 80 licenze che rispettano i criteri della Open Source Definition. → https://opensource.org/licenses ● Mentre il sito della FSF presenta una lista di circa 50 licenze dichiarate compatibili con la GNU GPL. → www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.it tante ...o troppe?
  25. 25. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open PARTE 3 LE LICENZE OPEN PER ALTRI TIPI DI OPERE
  26. 26. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Le prime sperimentazioni ● La licenza GNU GPL utilizzata anche su opere non-software (già dai primi anni) ● La Open Publication License (OPL) del progetto Open Content > 1999 ● La Licence Art Libre > 2000 ● La Free Music Public License (FMPL) > v.0.7 – 2001 ● La Open Audio License di EFF > 2001tnte ...o troppe?
  27. 27. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open La licenza GNU FDL ● La GNU Free Documentation License è una licenza creata dalla Free Software Foundation nell'ambito del progetto GNU principalmente per rilasciare documentazione software e materiale tecnico e didattico. Comparsa nel 1999 è attualmente arrivata alla versione 1.3 (2008). ● È stata la prima licenza non-software ad aver avuto una diffusione massiva in quanto utilizzata dai principali progetti open source e soprattutto da Wikipedia (sostituita nel 2009 dalla CC BY- SA).ante ...o troppe?
  28. 28. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Le licenze Creative Commons ● Nel 2001 negli USA viene lanciato un progetto molto lungimirante (capitanato dal giurista Lawrence Lessig) con l'obbiettivo di creare un set di licenze che potessero funzionare per tutti i tipi di opere creative... … eccetto software (per una ragione tecnica) e le banche dati (per una ragione giuridica).oppe?
  29. 29. 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Le sei (+ una) licenze Creative Commons Attribution Attribution – Share Alike Attribution – No Derivatives Attribution – Non commercial Attribution – Non commercial – Share Alike Attribution – Non commercial – No Derivatives CC Zero Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu
  30. 30. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open 50 sfumature di... open immagine tratta dal libro “Creative Commons: manuale operativo” (www.aliprandi.org/manuale-cc)
  31. 31. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open Le licenze Open Data ● Il licensing di banche dati richiede alcune accortezze poiché si tratta di opere particolari (più compilative che creative) che tra l'altro in Unione Europea sono tutelate con diritti diversi rispetto al resto del mondo. ● Nel 2009 la Open Knowledge Foundation (Regno Unito) lancia la Open Database License (ODbL). ● Nel 2013 Creative Commons lancia la versione 4.0 delle sue licenze, che diventano così applicabili senza problemi anche alle banche dati.
  32. 32. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open per approfondire www.aliprandi.org/capire-copyright www.aliprandi.org/manuale-cc
  33. 33. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open ma soprattutto
  34. 34. Avv. Simone Aliprandi, Ph.D. – Copyright-Italia.it / Array Law Firm www.copyright-italia.it – www.aliprandi.org – www.array.eu grazie per l'attenzione slides rilasciate sotto licenza Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike 4.0 28/10/2019, Università Milano-Bicocca – Un’introduzione alla cultura open e alle licenze open

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