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Papilledema
Dr Shylesh B Dabke
Resident Dept. of Ophthalmology
Kasturba Medical College
Mangalore
Definition
▪ Passive hydrostatic non inflammatory swelling of optic
nerve head secondary to raised intracranial pressure.
...
Pathophysiology
 Disturbance in axoplasmic flow causing stasis swelling of axons and
leakage.
 Increased intracranial pr...
Theories of Genesis
 Mechanical Theory
 Ischemic Theory
 In most cases combined mechanism operates.
Causes(Bilateral)
 Space occupying lesions.
 Blockage of CSF flow.
 Reduction in CSF resorption.
 Increased CSF produc...
Causes(Unilateral)
 Foster kennedy syndrome
 Previous unilateral optic atrophy.
 Posterior fossa tumor.
 Brain abcess....
Symptoms(Ocular)
 Transient obscuration of vision.
 Central vision affected late.
 Horizontal Diplopia.
 Visual Acuity
Symptoms(General)
 Headache more in the morning, intensifies with head
movement, coughing or straining.
 Projectile vomi...
Signs(Mechanical)
 Elevation of the optic disc.
 Blurring of the optic disc margin.
 Filling in of the physiological cu...
Signs(Vascular)
 Hyperemia of the optic disc.
 Vascular congestion.
 Peripapillary haemorrhage.
 Exudates in the disc ...
Grading of Papilledema
(according to severity and its
chronicity)
Early Papilledema
 Disc elevation.
 Venous distention and
tortuosity.
 Obscuration of the normal
disc margin and overly...
Established Papilledema
 Marked elevation of nerve
head with blurring of margins.
 Engorged tortous venules.
 Peripapil...
Chronic Papilledema(Classical
“Champagne cork appears of disc)
 disc hyperemia decreases
and disc progressively
appears p...
Atropic Papilledema
 Onset of optic disc pallor
(secondary optic atrophy) .
 Decrease in disc haemorrhage.
 Narrowing o...
Papilledema Grading System
(Frisen Scale)
Grade 0
 Mild nasal NFL elevation.
 Rare obscuration of a portion
of major vessel
(usually at superior pole)
Grade 1 (Very early Papilledema)
 Obscuration of nasal
border of disc
 Normal temporal disc
margin
Grade 2 (Early papilledema)
 Obscuration of all the disc
borders
 Elevation of nasal border
 No major vessel obscuration
Grade 3 (Moderate papilledema)
 Obscuration of all borders
 Increased diameter of optic
nerve head
 Obscuration of segm...
Grade 4 (Marked papilledema)
 Elevation of entire nerve head
 Obscuration of all the borders
 A segment of major vessel...
Grade 5 (Severe papilledema)
 Anterior extension of optic
nerve head
 Total obscuration of vessel on
disc surface
 Obli...
Histopathological Findings
Acute disc edema
 Accumulation of extracellular fluid in and anterior to retinal lamina cribro...
 Sensory retinal changes
- Displacement of retina away
from optic disc.
- Buckling of the outer layers
of retina.
- Displ...
 Electron microscopy of axons
- Axonal swelling and
accumulation of mitochondria.
- Mitochondrial swelling and
disruption...
Chronic disc edema
 Degenerative and fibrotic changes in both anterograde and retrograde manner.
(hence atropy may occur ...
Visual field changes
 Enlargment of blind spot.
 Earliest loss of visual field
commonly involves inferior
nasal quadrent.
 Peripheral concen...
 Relative scotoma (first to green and red).
 Complete blindness.
 In all cases visual field changes should be monitored...
Differential diagnosis of Papilledema
 Papillitis.
 Pseudopapilledema.
- Drusen of optic disc.
- High Hypermetropia (cro...
 Papillitis
 Pseudopapilledema
- Drusen of Optic disc
 Pseudopapilledema
- Hyperopic disc
 Tilted optic disc
 Hypoplastic disc
 Myelinated nerve fibers
 History and physical examination including blood pressure measurement.
 Ophthalmic examination - In addition to fundus ...
CT Scan  To rule out
- Intracranial lesions.
- Obstructive hydrocephalus.
 Can detect
- Subarachnoid, epidural
& subdura...
Lumbar puncture
 Diagnostic
- Recording opening pressure.
 CSF for microbial and
infectious studies.
 Therapeutic proce...
 Fundus Fluoroscence Angiography(FFA)
Early Phase
disc capillary dilation
Dye leakage spots
Microaneurysm over the disc
L...
 Treatment directed at underlying cause.
 Timely intervention has a remarkable effect on prognosis.
(unless nerve is irr...
 BrainTumor
- Craniotomy to remove tumor.
 Resolution of papilledema within 6-8weeks.
 Pseudotumor Cerebri
- Surgical
Repeated Lumbar puncture
Decompression
Shunting procedure
 Resolution of papilledema wit...
 Papilledema in PIH
 General – bed rest.
 Control of BP.
 Control of edema – Diuretic, Hypertonic glucose.
 Non respo...
Surgical Decompression
 Indications  Failure of Medical treatment
- Marked disc swelling(>5D)
- Engorged veins
- Extensi...
Therapeutic success
 Relief of headache.
 Transient visual obscuration decreased.
 Stability/ improvement of field defe...
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Papilledema - Dr Shylesh Dabke

  1. 1. Papilledema Dr Shylesh B Dabke Resident Dept. of Ophthalmology Kasturba Medical College Mangalore
  2. 2. Definition ▪ Passive hydrostatic non inflammatory swelling of optic nerve head secondary to raised intracranial pressure. ▪ Usually bilateral ; may be unilateral. ▪ Optic disc swelling in the absence of raised intracranial pressure is referred to as optic disc edema.
  3. 3. Pathophysiology  Disturbance in axoplasmic flow causing stasis swelling of axons and leakage.  Increased intracranial pressure(ICT) is transmitted along subarachnoid space with optic nerve sheath acting as a tourniquet.  Increased ICT leads to increased optic nerve tissue pressure which alters pressure gradient resulting in stasis.
  4. 4. Theories of Genesis  Mechanical Theory  Ischemic Theory  In most cases combined mechanism operates.
  5. 5. Causes(Bilateral)  Space occupying lesions.  Blockage of CSF flow.  Reduction in CSF resorption.  Increased CSF production.  Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.  Focal or diffuse cerebral edema.  Reduction in size of CranialVault.  Vitamin A toxicity.
  6. 6. Causes(Unilateral)  Foster kennedy syndrome  Previous unilateral optic atrophy.  Posterior fossa tumor.  Brain abcess.  Subarachnoid haemorrhage.  Optochiasmatic choroiditis.
  7. 7. Symptoms(Ocular)  Transient obscuration of vision.  Central vision affected late.  Horizontal Diplopia.  Visual Acuity
  8. 8. Symptoms(General)  Headache more in the morning, intensifies with head movement, coughing or straining.  Projectile vomiting.  Loss of consciousness/ generalized motor rigidity.
  9. 9. Signs(Mechanical)  Elevation of the optic disc.  Blurring of the optic disc margin.  Filling in of the physiological cup.  Edema of the peripapillary nerve fiber layer.  Retinal or choroidal folds(Paton’s lines)  Macular fan.
  10. 10. Signs(Vascular)  Hyperemia of the optic disc.  Vascular congestion.  Peripapillary haemorrhage.  Exudates in the disc or peripapillary area.  Nerve fiber layer infarcts.
  11. 11. Grading of Papilledema (according to severity and its chronicity)
  12. 12. Early Papilledema  Disc elevation.  Venous distention and tortuosity.  Obscuration of the normal disc margin and overlying retinal vessels.  Absence of spontaneous venous pulsations
  13. 13. Established Papilledema  Marked elevation of nerve head with blurring of margins.  Engorged tortous venules.  Peripapillary splinter hemorrhages.  Cotton wool spots.  Hard exudates over the disc and macular area.
  14. 14. Chronic Papilledema(Classical “Champagne cork appears of disc)  disc hyperemia decreases and disc progressively appears pale in color.  Opticociliary shunts and drusen like deposits may be present on the disc.  High water mark.
  15. 15. Atropic Papilledema  Onset of optic disc pallor (secondary optic atrophy) .  Decrease in disc haemorrhage.  Narrowing of blood vessels and their ensheating.  Optic disc appears dirty white and blurred due to glial reaction.
  16. 16. Papilledema Grading System (Frisen Scale)
  17. 17. Grade 0  Mild nasal NFL elevation.  Rare obscuration of a portion of major vessel (usually at superior pole)
  18. 18. Grade 1 (Very early Papilledema)  Obscuration of nasal border of disc  Normal temporal disc margin
  19. 19. Grade 2 (Early papilledema)  Obscuration of all the disc borders  Elevation of nasal border  No major vessel obscuration
  20. 20. Grade 3 (Moderate papilledema)  Obscuration of all borders  Increased diameter of optic nerve head  Obscuration of segment of major blood vessels as they pass disc margin.
  21. 21. Grade 4 (Marked papilledema)  Elevation of entire nerve head  Obscuration of all the borders  A segment of major vessel obscured on the disc
  22. 22. Grade 5 (Severe papilledema)  Anterior extension of optic nerve head  Total obscuration of vessel on disc surface  Obliteration of optic cup.
  23. 23. Histopathological Findings Acute disc edema  Accumulation of extracellular fluid in and anterior to retinal lamina cribrosa, with enlargement of subarachnoid space with stretching.  Engorgement of axons occurs in prelaminar portion.
  24. 24.  Sensory retinal changes - Displacement of retina away from optic disc. - Buckling of the outer layers of retina. - Displacement of rods and cones away from their anchor near Bruch’s membrane. - Serious RD in peripapillary area.
  25. 25.  Electron microscopy of axons - Axonal swelling and accumulation of mitochondria. - Mitochondrial swelling and disruption. - Disruption of fascicles of the microtubules.
  26. 26. Chronic disc edema  Degenerative and fibrotic changes in both anterograde and retrograde manner. (hence atropy may occur anywhere from retinal nerve fiber layer to optic nerve)
  27. 27. Visual field changes
  28. 28.  Enlargment of blind spot.  Earliest loss of visual field commonly involves inferior nasal quadrent.  Peripheral concentric constriction.
  29. 29.  Relative scotoma (first to green and red).  Complete blindness.  In all cases visual field changes should be monitored carefully and decompression to be done before peripheral constriction sets in.
  30. 30. Differential diagnosis of Papilledema  Papillitis.  Pseudopapilledema. - Drusen of optic disc. - High Hypermetropia (crowded nerve fibers at disc). - AION.  Optic neuritits.  Tilted optic disc.  Hypoplastic disc.  Myelinated nerve fibers.
  31. 31.  Papillitis
  32. 32.  Pseudopapilledema - Drusen of Optic disc
  33. 33.  Pseudopapilledema - Hyperopic disc
  34. 34.  Tilted optic disc
  35. 35.  Hypoplastic disc
  36. 36.  Myelinated nerve fibers
  37. 37.  History and physical examination including blood pressure measurement.  Ophthalmic examination - In addition to fundus examination, assessment of visual acuity, pupillary examination, ocular motility & alignment, and visual fields.  MRI with or without contrast is the best investigation of choice. Investigations
  38. 38. CT Scan  To rule out - Intracranial lesions. - Obstructive hydrocephalus.  Can detect - Subarachnoid, epidural & subdural hemorrhages. - Acute infarctions. - Cerebral edema. Contraindication for MRI.
  39. 39. Lumbar puncture  Diagnostic - Recording opening pressure.  CSF for microbial and infectious studies.  Therapeutic procedure - Pseudotumor cerebri
  40. 40.  Fundus Fluoroscence Angiography(FFA) Early Phase disc capillary dilation Dye leakage spots Microaneurysm over the disc Late Phase Leakage of dye beyond disc margin Pooling of dye around the disc
  41. 41.  Treatment directed at underlying cause.  Timely intervention has a remarkable effect on prognosis. (unless nerve is irreversibly damaged)  Vision recovery is faster then subsidence of fundus features. Treatment
  42. 42.  BrainTumor - Craniotomy to remove tumor.  Resolution of papilledema within 6-8weeks.
  43. 43.  Pseudotumor Cerebri - Surgical Repeated Lumbar puncture Decompression Shunting procedure  Resolution of papilledema within 2-3weeks of shunt procedure. - Medical Acetazolamide Oral Glycerol Corticosteroids Weight reduction
  44. 44.  Papilledema in PIH  General – bed rest.  Control of BP.  Control of edema – Diuretic, Hypertonic glucose.  Non responders –Termination of pregnancy.
  45. 45. Surgical Decompression  Indications  Failure of Medical treatment - Marked disc swelling(>5D) - Engorged veins - Extensive hemorrhages - Early exudate spots - Progressive headache  Progressive optic neuropathy (early field constriction)  Direct Fenestration of optic nerve sheath.
  46. 46. Therapeutic success  Relief of headache.  Transient visual obscuration decreased.  Stability/ improvement of field defects.
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