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# Avionics

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### Avionics

1. 1. INTERACTING WITH A FIGHTER PLANE avionics
2. 2. When you’re in a cockpit, you want to be friend with the plane… That you’ll do using the display instruments…and that’s a part of the job. The cockpit is a pilot’s world, consisting in needles on clock faces and more… Everyone has a name and a function Here goes…
3. 3. If you have to take off, you need speed. In fact speed is the essence of all flight… You’ll know about the right speed watching the airspeed indicator. This “clock” is a member of the pitot-static system, so named because it operates by measuring pressure in the pitot and static circuits. It working on air pressures, indicating two kinds of speed: indicated airspeed (towards the current position) and true airspeed (towards the land). Western aircrafts display speed in mp/h or knots. But eastern ones do that in km/h. If you’re having bad luck and you’re indicator’s malfunctioning, you’ll have to throw eyes on…
4. 4. The machmeter A machmeter is also an aircraft pitot-static system flight instrument that shows the ratio of the true airspeed to the speed of sound, a dimensionless quantity called Mach number. This is shown on a machmeter as a decimal fraction. In oposition with his previous brother, you have to do some math to be aware of your speed. If you don’t, you’ll probably loosing altitude and that’s the reason for
5. 5. The altimeter An altimeter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of a plane above a fixed level. This is also a pitot-static system flight instrument, operating on air pressures by the principle the greater the altitude - the lower the pressure. But this device has also a brother, operating on radio waves. It’s called…
6. 6. Radar altimeter The radar altimeter uses the time taken for a radio signal to reflect from the surface back to the aircraft. The radar altimeter is used to measure height above ground level during landing, warning the pilot if the aircraft is flying too low. Of course, this can be told also by the…
7. 7. The artificial horizon This is a navigational instrument based on a gyroscope providing an artificially simulated horizon for the pilot. If you’re airborne, it probably be best to know if your plane it’s flying not inverted as in Top Gun movie. This instrument helps you to avoid false sensations. If you’re not sure that the horizon tricks you or not, then look at the…
8. 8. The vertical airspeed indicator Also known as variometer, this indicator is a pitot-static instrument used to determine the level flight. The vertical airspeed shows the rate of climb or the rate of descent, measured in feet per minute or meters per second. This helps you to be sure that you’re still flying, not going down… Yet…you still need where to go. And that’s a job for the…
9. 9. The compass It is an instrument used to determin the heading. There are two types of compasses – magnetic and gyroscopic one. The magnetic compass is perhaps the simplest instrument employed to indicate direction being used widely by sailors and aviators alike. In airplanes, the magnetic compass is primarily used for navigational purposes needing no inputs for the pilot or onboard systems, therefore it is wide used in all airplanes, from single-engine aircraft to large commercial jets. However, the errors due to plane’s evolutions and terrestrial field magnetic positioning make necessary the use of the…
10. 10. The gyrocompass A gyrocompass is a type of non-magnetic compass which is based on a fast-spinning disc and rotation of the Earth to automatically find geographical direction. They have two significant advantages over magnetic compasses: they find true north as determined by Earth's rotation and they are unaffected by magnetic fields. This means that wherever you want to reach, you’ll probably not arrive in the outer hemisphere… These are all navigation instruments. Fortunately, someone thought that it will be best to gather them into a single place…
11. 11. The head up display A head-up display also known as a HUD is a transparent display that presents data such as speed, altitude, bearing, attitude, space positioning without requiring pilots to look away from their usual viewpoints. It’s placed on the top of the instruments panel, at the same level with pilot’s eyes. But this device is not the ultimate shout of technology, cause it’s override by…
12. 12. Helmet-mounted display A helmet-mounted display (HMD) is a device used in some modern aircraft, especially combat aircraft. HMDs project information similar to that of head-up displays (HUD) on an aircrew’s visor or reticle, allowing him to obtain situational awareness and/or cue weapons systems to the direction his head is pointing. This is the result of modern days conception of avionics that the pilot must be undisturbed, during a battle, by other actions. And that’s the beginning of the new avionic concept…
13. 13. HOTAS HOTAS, an abbreviation for Hands On Throttle-AndStick, is the name given to the concept of placing buttons and switches on the throttle stick and flight control stick in an aircraft's cockpit, allowing the pilot to access vital cockpit functions and fly the aircraft without removing his hands from the throttle and flight controls. In the modern military aircraft cockpit the HOTAS concept is sometimes enhanced by the use of Direct Voice Input to produce the so-called "V-TAS" concept, and augmented with helmet mounted display. Detailing…
14. 14. The Stick Constantly to previous statements, a stick commands, beside the flight position and brake functions on ground, the trim position of the stabilators, the automated pilot on/off switch, the radar calibrating button, selection of guns and of course, the trigger. Also the knob of jettison the external tankers, while…
15. 15. The throttle Operates over the power of the engine, aerial brakes, radio communications, selection of targets and more. And this is the concept that allows the pilot to watch on the exterior, while his hands keep the plane under the touch control. The actions and information getting to the pilot are facilitated, though, by the presence of…
16. 16. Multi-function display A multi-function display (MFD) is a small LCD screen in an aircraft surrounded by multiple buttons that can be used to display information to the pilot in numerous configurable ways. MFD allow the pilot to display their navigation route, moving map, weather radar on the same screen. Occasionaly, he could assure himself that all goes well on board by sweeping eyes on…
17. 17. Other instruments Beside those above presented instruments, a plane is fitted with engine control instruments, such as thermometer, measuring the gases temperature, tachometer – wich measures the rotation of the shafts of the engine, indicators presenting the fuel and oil pressures, flowmeters for the quantity of fuel inside tanks… But if the bad luck reaches you, they might wanna know what happens. Will do that by refering to…
18. 18. Flight data recorders Popularly referred to as a "black box“, in fact there are two types of these systems: FDR and CVR and the’re not painted in black but in orange, for better visibility. A FDR (flight data recorder; also ADR, for accident data recorder) is an electronic device employed to record any instructions sent to any electronic systems on an aircraft. It is a device used to record specific aircraft performance parameters. The data recorded by the FDR is used for accident investigation…
19. 19. …while a cockpit voice recorder (CVR), is a flight recorder used to record the audio environment inside the cabin of an aircraft for the purpose of investigation of accidents and incidents. Like the flight data recorder (FDR), the CVR is typically mounted in the tail section of an airplane to maximize its survival in a crash, but is used mostly on commercial planes. On jet fighters FDR and CVR are merged in one standalone box. This should do about knowing the plane from inside and…
20. 20. …if you’ve get familiar interacting with a jet fighter, it’s probably time to make a flight without worrying for having a crash, because we’ll know what will be happening… Enjoy your flight!