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Shuddha Satya Biswas
DEPT. - ECE, 2nd YEAR
CLASS ROLL NO. -62
WBUT ROLL – 14800313070
FUTURE INSTITUTE OF
ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT
Arrest and Rivonia Trail
President of South Africa
Awards and Honors
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid,
revolutionary, politician and philanthropist who served as President of
South Africa from 1994 to 1999. he served as President of the African
National Congress(ANC) party from 1991 to 1997. He was Secretary
General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. He spent 27
years in prison Robben Island for opposing apartheid, the policy by
which the races were separated and whites were give power over the
BLACKS in South Africa. received more than 250 honors including the
1993 Nobel Peace Prize, the US Presidential Medal of Freedom. He is
known as Madiba, or as Tata; he is often described as the "Father of
Mandela was born in a small village in the southeastern region of South
Africa called the Transkei in 18 july, 1918
His father was chief of the village and a member
of the royal family of the Thembu, which spoke
the Xhosa language.
Miss Mdingane told me that my new name was
Mandela attended The Fort Hare University and
The University of Witwatersrand where he studied
Bachelar of Arts and Law in Johnceburg.
Later he started working as an articale clerk in
Mandela begin actively participate in politics
He led prominently in the ANC's
(Afrikaner-dominated National Party) 1952 Defiance Campaign.
In 1955,he led ”Congress of the People”,
whose adoption of the Freedom
Charter provided the fundamental basis of the
Mandela and 150 others were arrested on 5
December 1956 and charged with treason.
Mandela starts a law firm & provide free or low-cost help to many black people.
o In 1961, Mandela became leader of the ANC's armed
wing, Umkhonto We Sizwe (translated Spear of the
Nation, and also abbreviated MK), which he co-founded.
o He coordinatly protested campaigns
against military and government targets.
o Mandela also raised funds for MK abroad and
arranged for paramilitary training of the group.
o Later, mostly in the 1980s, MK waged a Guerrilla war
against the apartheid regime in which
many civilians became casualties.
o Mandela later admitted that the ANC, in its struggle
against apartheid, also violated human rights and stop
Arrest & Rivonia trial
On 5 August 1962 Mandela was arrested after living on the run for
seventeen months, and was imprisoned in the Johannesburg Fort.
On 25 October 1962, Mandela was
sentenced to five years in prison.
Police arrested prominent ANC leader
on 11 July 1963, at Liliesleaf Farm, Rivonia,
north of Johannesburg.
Charged by the chief prosecutor
Dr. Percy Yutar with the capital
crimes of sabotage (which Mandela admitted) and crimes which
were equivalent to treason.
The Republic of South Africa and the declaration of a state of
emergency along with the banning of the ANC
Nelson Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island where he
remained for the next eighteen of his twenty-seven
years in prison.
While in jail, his reputation grew and he
became widely known as the most significant
black leader in South Africa
Prisoners were segregated by race ,to blacks
they only allow one visitor and one letter every
In prison Mandela undertook study with the University of London by
correspondence through its External Programme and received the degree of
Bachelor of Laws.
In March 1982 Mandela was transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor
Prison, along with other senior ANC leader
The first meeting between Mandela and the
national Party government came in November
1985 when Kobie Coetsee met Mandela in Yolks
Hospital in Cape Town where Mandela was
recovering from prostate surgery
Throughout Mandela's imprisonment,
local and international pressure mounted on
the South African government to release
him, under the resounding slogan ”Free
De Klerk announced Mandela's release in
On 2 February 1990, State President
Klerk reversed the ban on the ANC and
other anti-apartheid organizations, and
announced that Mandela would shortly be
released from prison.
Mandela was released from Victor Verster
Prison in Paarl on 11 February 1990.
On the day of his release, Mandela made a
speech to the nation
He declared his commitment to peace and
reconciliation with the country's white
He also said his main focus was to bring peace to
the black majority and give them the right to
vote in both national and local elections.
In 1990,Mandela elected as President of
Mandela's leadership through the
negotiations, as well as his relationship
with President F.W. de Klerk, was
recognized when they were jointly
awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
The assassination of ANC leader Chris
Hani in April 1993.
While some riots did follow the
assassination, the negotiators were comes
into action, and soon agreed that
democratic elections should take place on
27 April 1994, just over a year after Hani's
President of South Africa
South Africa's first multi-racial elections were
held on 27 April 1994.
ANC won 62% of the votes in the election,
and Mandela, as leader of the ANC, was
inaugurated on 10 May 1994 as the country's
first black President.
Mandela ordered troops into Lesotho in
September 1998 to protect the government
of Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili.
One of Mandela's trademarks was his use
of Batik shirts, known as "Madiba shirts", even
He decided not to stand for a second term and
retired in 1999.
He joins & started many social and human rights
1. Make Poverty History movement.
2. South Africa's most successful charitable sports
gathering:”The Nelson Mandela Invitational
charity golf tournament”
3. Mandela is a vocal supporter of SOS Children's
Villages, the world's largest organization
dedicated to raising orphaned and abandoned
Awards & Honours
The Presidential Medal of
Freedom from George W. Bush in 1993.
In 2001, he was the first living person to
be made an honorary Canadian citizen.
In 1990, he received the Bharat
Ratna Award from the government of India
And also received the last ever Lenin Peace
Prize from Russia
The Order of Merit and the Order of St. John from Queen Elizabeth II.
Mandela has received more than two hundred and fifty awards over four decades,
most notably the Nobel Peace Prize.
I am really thankful to our respected professor
Jhumur Ghosh for allowing me to make a
presentation on Nelson Mandela. Without her help
and support I may not able to complete the
presentation. I’m also thankful to all my friends
specially Subhasis Ray and Sayan Gupta for their
enormous support that energize me for making this
Long Walk to Freedom (Mandela's autobiography)