people and that understanding communication so, involves
trying to understand how people relate to each other.
Shared meaning which suggests that in order for people to
communicate, they must agree on the definitions of terms they
Symbols- gestures, sounds,letters,numbers, and words can
only represent or approximate the ideas that they are meant to
4. Importance of effective
Communication provides a common thread for the
management processes of planning, organizing, leading
Manager develop plans by doing communication with
others at organization
He can make decision about distributing authority &
He becomes able to develop motivational policies, groups,
leadership by regular exchange of information.
Effective communication skills enable managers to draw on
vast array of talents available in multicultural world of
Managers do spend a great deal of time in communicating
Managerial time is spent largely in face to face or telephonic
communication with employees,supervisors, suppliers or
customers. Even when not talking with others manager may be
writing memos, letters or reports or reading such
6. Case of hallmark
World‟s largest Greeting card company.
In 1991, company confronted a situation, it was taking 18 to
20 months for a card to go from concept to store, when it
should have been taking only 4 to 6 months.
At that time company‟s CEO noted that main problem is
communication between two departments. Employee such as
artists & writers worked in different department rarely
communicate with each other.
At that time they decided to enable employees to communicate
with one another. Employees were relocated within the
buildings so that they can communicate & share ideas during
the creative process.
8. Model of communication process
Sender or source who initiates the communication process. In
organization, the sender is a person with information or need.
Receiver is the person who perceives or senses the sender‟s
There may be a large number of receiver as when a memo is
addressed to all members of organization or there just may be
one. For ex. One discussing privately with colleague.
9. Model of communication process
The message must be crafted by keeping in mind the
background of receiver.
If message does not reach the receiver communication has not
taken place & if message reaches the receiver but receiver
doesn‟t understand it.
Three factors that can influence effective or non-effective
communication are encoding, decoding & Noise.
10. Model of communication process
Encoding takes place when the sender translates information
to be transmitted into series of symbols.
Communication is object of encoding, the sender attempts to
establish “mutuality” of meaning with the receiver by
choosing symbols, usually in the form words and gestures that
the sender believes to have same meaning for receiver.
Decoding is the process by which receiver interprets the
message and translates it into meaningful information.
11. Model of communication process
Decoding is affected by the receiver‟s past experience, personal
assessments of symbols and gestures used, expectations and
mutuality of meaning with the sender.
It is any factor that disturbs, confuses or otherwise interferes with
It can arise along with communication channel or method of
It can be internal or external.
Physical discomfort such as hunger, pain can also be considered a
form of noise and can interfere with effective communication.
12. Improving communication process
This is one of the most common communication barriers.
People who have different background of knowledge and
experience often perceive the same phenomenon from
Language differences are often closely related to differences in
Perceptual differences can arise due to gender differences.
13. Improving communication process
Overcoming Differing Perceptions:-
To overcome differing perceptions and languages, the message
should be explained so that it can be understand by receivers
with different views and experiences.
Whenever possible, we should learn about background of
those with whom we will be communicating.
It is helpful to ask the receiver to confirm or restate the main
points of the message. Receiver can be encouraged to ask
questions and to seek clarification of points that are uncleared.
14. Improving communication process
It is also helpful to remain sensitive to the various alternative
ways of phrasing message.
If possible, try to change physical environment to promote
relationship in which different perceptions are available for all
to see and work through.
Like anger, love, hate, jealousy, fear influence how we
understand others message and how we influence others with
our own messages.
The best approach to dealing with emotions is to accept them
as part of the communication process and to seek to
understand them when they cause problems.
15. Improving communication process
Inconsistent Verbal and non-verbal communication:-
Messages we send and receive are strongly influenced by non-
verbal factors such as body movements, clothing, gestures,
facial expressions, eye movements and body contact.
The keys to eliminating inconsistencies in communication are
being aware of them and guarding against sending false
16. Improving communication process
A receiver‟s trust or distrust of a message is a function of
credibility of the sender in the mind of the receiver.
A sender‟s credibility is affected by circumstances in the
context in which he or she sends the message.
Credibility is the result of long term process in which a person
„s honesty, fair-mindedness and good intentions are recognized
17. Factors influencing Organizational
According to Nobel prize winner “Herbert Simon”
organizations are necessary to help people to
Raymond V. Lesikar has described 4 factors that
influencing the effectiveness of organizational
A. Formal Channel of Communication:-
Formal channel of communication is a mean of
communication that is endorsed and probably
controlled by managers.
Newsletters, memos, reports, staff meetings, noon
news, Directions publications are all formal channel
18. Factors influencing Organizational Communication
Fcc influence communication effectiveness in two ways.
First, Formal channel cover ever-widening distance as
organizations develop and grow.
Second, Formal channel of communication can inhibit the free
flow of information between organizational levels.
Example, Lantech Inc., a $50 million manufacturer of
packaging machinery, a “group leader report” serves as a
formal channel of comm. Each report is prepared by the
company‟s top 6 managers, hepls to promote effective internal
communication by offering a complete picture of company‟s
morale and climate.
19. Factors influencing Organizational Communication
B. Authority Structure:-
Hierarchy of control within an organization.
Status and power differences in organization helps to
determine who will communicate comfortably with
The content and accuracy of communication will also
be affected by authority differences.
For ex. Conversation between a company president
and a clerical worker may well be characterized by
politeness and formality.
20. Factors influencing Organizational Communication
C. Job Specialization:-
It usually facilitates communication within
Members of the same work group are likely to share
the same jargon, time horizons, goals, tasks and
D. Information ownership:-
It means that individuals possess unique information
and knowledge about their jobs.
For example, a darkroom employee may have found a
particularly efficient way to develop photo prints.
21. Factors influencing Organizational Communication
A department head may have an effective way of handling
conflict among employees.
Such information is a form of power for the individuals who
possess it. They are able to function more effectively than their
Many individuals with such skills and knowledge are
unwilling to share this information with others. So, complete
open communication within the organization does not take
22. VERTICAL COMMUNICATION
Any communication that moves up or down the chain of
Downward communication starts with top management and
flows down through management levels to line workers and
Purposes of downward communication are to advise, inform,
direct, instruct and evaluate employees and to provide
organization members about goals and policies of
Main function of upward communication is to supply
information to upper levels about what is happening at lower
level. For ex., reports, request letter, suggestions.
23. PROBLEMS OF VERTICAL COMMUNICATION
Upward communication is likely to be filtered, condensed or
altered by middle managers who see it as part of their job to
protect upper management from nonessential data originating
at lower levels.
Problems in downward communication exist when managers
do not provide employees with information they need to carry
out their task effectively.
Due to this kind of lack of communication , sometimes
employees feel confused, uninformed, powerless and may fail
to carry out task properly.
24. LATERAL COMMUNICATION
Communication between departments of an organization
that generally follows the work flow rather than the chain
of command and thus provides a direct channel for
coordination and problem solving.
It enables organization members to form relationships
with their peers.
25. Informal communication
Communication within an organization that is not officially
sanctioned. This type of communication is called Grapevine.
Basically of 4 types.
Person A tells person B, who tells it to person C and so on.
This chain is least accurate at passing on information.
2. Gossip Chain:
In this, one person seeks out and tells everyone the
information he or she had. When information is interesting
but non-job related this kind is used.
26. Informal communication
3. Probability Chain:
Individuals are indifferent about whom they offer
information to. They tell people at random and those
people in turn tell others at random.
4. Cluster Chain:
person A conveys the information to a few selected
individuals, some of whom then inform a few selected
It is the most dominant grapevine pattern in
organization . Only few individuals pass on
information they have obtained and they likely to do
so only to people they trust or from whom they would
27. Negotiating to manage conflicts
Disagreement about the allocation of scarce resources or
clashes regarding goals, values can occur on the interpersonal
or organizational levels.
The use of communication skills and bargaining to
manage conflict and reach mutually satisfying outcomes.
29. STABILITY OF NEGOTIANTIONS
It is a process in which the prospects for both parties‟
gains are encouraging also known as WIN-WIN situation.
It is a process in which each of the parties tends to seek
maximum gains and wants impose maximum loses on other,
also known as WIN-LOSS situation or zero sum.