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honda report

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honda report

  1. 1. A industrial training Report On “Pneumatics System and Inventory Management” Submitted to Amity School, Of Engineering Submitted to- Submitted by- Mr. Mahender Kumar Verma Shubhang Jadia HOD Roll no. A12405412044 B tech 7thSEM. Mechanical Engineering Amity School of Engineering Amity University Noida (U.P)
  2. 2. 2 DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project work is an authentic record of my work carried out at Honda Cars India Ltd. as requirements of project summer training for the award of degree of B.Tech (Mechanical Engineering), Amity School of Engineering, Amity University, Noida, Under the guidance of Mr.Anand, Honda Cars India Ltd. from 25th May 2015 to 4th July June 2015. Shubhang Jadia Roll. No. – A12405412044 ASE, Amity University Noida Date: __________________ It is certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of my knowledge and belief. (SIGNATURE) MR. MAHENDER KUMAR VERMA HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
  3. 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There is number of people to whom all I am indebted for the support they provided me during my summer training. I am deeply grateful to my mentor, for teaching me the importance of determination, dedication, perseverance, honesty and every other professional quality necessary to work in such a renowned organization. It is because of my mentor I have gained so much practical experience about welding, pneumatics system and inventory method and have been able to complete my project successfully. I thank my family for their encouragement. I present my sense of gratitude to one and all who, directly or indirectly lent their helping hand in this venture.
  4. 4. 4 Table of contents: 1. Company profile  History  Philosophy  Fundamental beliefs 2. Introduction to welding department  A zone  B zone  C zone  D zone 3. Project objective  Pneumatic circuit  Pneumatic system  Components  Inventory  Objective of inventory  Existence of inventory  Block diagram 4. Conclusion
  5. 5. 5 ABSTRACT This Project Report introduces the projects undertaken and completed during the on-going industrial training at Honda Cars India Limited (Weld Department). The main aim of this project is to understand the maturation process of a New Model in welding department. The focus was checking and maintaining the quality of Spot Welds as specified by the R&D department and incorporating it in mass production of the same model. Honda, as worldly known for their safety and quality require a perfectly manufactured or assembled product. To ensure this, every New Model which is introduced undergoes a lot of process work before actually mass producing it. The objective of this Study is to understand the whole process of introduction of a New Model of a Car and go along with till the production of its first batch. This report explains all the quality checks required to be done before the New Model is added to the Assembly Plant. Its main area of focus is Resistance Spot Welding. The quality and quantity of spot welds were extensively checked and ensured during this training. All the defects that usually occur in resistance spot welding have been clearly explained in this extract. Their causes, effects and counter-measures have been studied and applied during the whole process
  6. 6. 6 Introduction to HCIL Honda Cars India Ltd (HCIL) is a subsidiary of the Honda of Japan for the production, marketing and export of passenger cars in India. Formerly known as Honda Siel Cars India Ltd, it began operations in December 1995 as a joint venture between Honda Motor Company and Usha International of Siddharth Shriram Group. In August, 2012, Honda bought out Usha International's entire 3.16 percent stake for 1.8 billion in the joint venture. The company officially changed its name to Honda Cars India Ltd (HCIL) and became a 100% subsidiary of Honda.It operates production facilities at Greater Noida in Uttar Pradesh and at Bhiwadi in Rajasthan. The company's total investment in its production facilities in India as of 2014 was over 21 billion.HCIL's first manufacturing unit at Greater Noida commenced operations in 1997. Setup at an initial investment of over 4.5 billion, the plant is spread over 150 acres (0.61 km2). The initial capacity of the plant was 30,000 cars per annum, which was thereafter increased to 50,000 cars on a two-shift basis. The capacity has further been enhanced to 100,000 units annually as of 2008. This expansion led to an increase in the covered area in the plant from 107,000 m² to over 130,000 m². Models assembledin HCIL (GreaterNoida Unit)  Honda Brio (Launched 2011)  Honda CR-V (Imported since 2003; 2013 model locally assembled)  Honda Amaze (launched April 2013)  Honda Mobilio (launched July 2014)  Honda City 1.The Honda Brio is a five-door subcompact hatchback produced by Honda in India, Thailand and Indonesia. The car was introduced in 2011. (Fig.1) The Brio is powered by a 4-cylinder, 1.2 L (73 cu in) L12B i-VTEC gasoline engine delivering 88 PS (64.7 kW; 86.8 bhp). It is available with either a 5-speed manual or a continuously variable transmission. The car is certified to deliver a combined mileage of 19.4 km/L and16.5 km/L with manual and automatic transmission respectively on the Indian cycle.
  7. 7. 7 Safety equipment includes dual front airbags, anti-lock braking system, electronic brake force distribution and front pretension seat belts. The driver's side airbag feature multi-stage inflation. The front body is designed to absorb impact energy for better pedestrian protection. 2. The Honda CR-V is a compact SUV (now called crossover in North America), manufactured since 1995 by Honda. It was loosely derived from the Honda Civic. There are discrepancies as to what "CR-V" stands for In India, the 4th generation CR-V was launched in February 2013 with 2 variants, a 2.0 litre petrol and a 2.4 litre, 185 bhp petrol. The 2.0 liters variant will be equipped with a six-speed manual or a five-speed automatic gearbox. The 2.4 litre variant will come with an automatic gearbox, Honda's on demand 4 wheel drive system and an Econ-mode to increase fuel efficiency. The Honda Amaze, also known as the Honda Brio Amaze, is a four-door subcompact sedan produced by Honda. It is the sedan version of the Brio. Honda launched the Amaze in India on April 11, 2013 and was s developed at Honda R&D Asia Pacific Co., Ltd. located in Bangkok, Thailand. The Amaze is available in petrol and diesel engine. The Amaze is being manufactured at the company’s facility in Greater Noida, with a localization level of more than 90 %.( Fig.3) The petrol version is available in seven variants and the diesel version is available in five variants. Honda Car India is to introduce the face lifted version of the Amaze compact sedan, which is to be launched by the end of 2015. Honda Cars India Ltd. (HCIL), introduced a new CNG trim known as '1.2 S MT Plus' as a fresh addition to its offering in the Indian Car Market.
  8. 8. 8 AWARDS WON 2014  corporate - Engine of the year - Honda eco technology(HET) 100cc engine 2006  Best Indian Company (unlisted) by Business Standard Group  Manufacturer of the Year by NDTV Profit-Car India  Manufacturer of the Year by CNBC-TV 18 Auto car India  No 1 Mid-Size Car (Honda City); No 1 Entry Luxury Car (Honda Accord) and No 1 Premium SUV (Honda CR-V) by TNS  Best Mid-size Car in Initial Quality (Honda City) and Most Appealing Mid-size car (Honda City) by JD Power. 2005  CNBC Auto car CAR of the year 2004 - Honda City  ICICI Overdrive SUV of the Year 2004 - Honda CR-V
  9. 9. 9  ICICI Overdrive Car of the Year 2004 - Honda City  Business Standard Motoring Car of the Year 2004 - Honda City Departments in HONDA 1. Parts Logistic Control (PLC) 2. Welding (WE) 3. Paint (PA) 4. Plastic Objects (PO) 5. Assembly Engine (AE) 6. Assembly Frame (AF) 7. Vehicle Quality (VQ)9 5 S THE KEY TO SUCCESS SEIRI (Sort Out):-This means sorting and organizing the items as critical, important, frequently used items, useless, or items that are not need as of now. Unwanted items can be salvaged. Critical items should be kept for use nearby and items that are not be used in near future, should be stored in some place. For this step, the worth of the item should be decided based on utility and not cost. As a result of this step, the search time is reduced. SEITION (Organize):- The concept here is that "Each item has a place, and only one place". The items should be placed back after usage at the same place. To identify items easily, name plates and colored tags has to be used. Vertical racks can be used for this purpose, and heavy items occupy the bottom position in the racks. SEISO (Shine the Workplace):- This involves cleaning the work place free of burrs, grease, oil, waste, scrap etc. No loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines SEIKETSU (Standardization):- Employees has to discuss together and decide on standards for keeping the work place / Machines / pathways neat and clean. These standards are implemented for whole organization and are tested / inspected randomly.
  10. 10. 10 SHITSUKE (Self Discipline):- Considering 5S as a way of life and bring about self- discipline among the employees of the organization. This includes wearing badges, following work procedures, punctuality, dedication to the organization DEPARTMENT INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION TO WELD DEPARTMENT Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the work pieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld. HCIL Plant HCIL Plant Layout HONDA PHILOSOPHY: One of the most valuable things, which the founders of HONDA gave to the company, was philosophy that serves as the basis of business endeavors of HONDA now & in future.
  11. 11. 11 “Action without philosophy is a lethal weapon, philosophy without action is worthless”. The center of HONDA philosophy is the company principle, which was written in 1956 under lining the company principle. HONDA’S WORK CULTURE  Total Quality Management (TQM) in all its processes and operations  Data based decision making  PDCA practices (Plan, Do, Check & Act); Strong focus on ‘P’  3-S Approach (Simplicity, Concentration & Speed) to work  NH Circle Activities / Kaizen / 5-S practices / San-Gen-Shugi  Openness / Trust / Approachability PDCA PRINCIPLE It stands for PLAN-DO- CHECK-ACT. This is a cyclic process& continues in reiterating if the proposed solution doesn’t work or taking up a new problem & implementing PDCA. PDCA Principle
  12. 12. 12 WELDING DEPARTMENT Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. Welding department is mainly divided into 4 zones and they are as follows: 1. A Zone (Floor Comp Line) 2. B Zone (Side Panel, Roof Comp Line, Re-spot) 3. C Zone (Small Part Fitment, Door, Hood, Trunk Installation, Metal Finish Line) 4. D Zone (manufacturing of Doors, Hood, Trunk, Tailgate) A- ZONE FRONT COMP: This sub zone has 4 stations with each station has separate jigs and spot-welding guns are: 1. Front Comp W/H Jig 2. Front Comp Jig
  13. 13. 13 3. Front Comp Respot-1 4. Front Comp Respot-2 FRONT FLOOR: For Assembly of front floor of outer body This sub zone has 4 stations and it also has separate jigs, welding guns and they are: 1. Front Floor Jig-1 2. Front Floor Jig-2 3. Front Floor Respot-1 4. Front Floor Respot-2 REAR FLOOR: For Assembly of Rear floor of outer body This sub zone has 5 stations and the guns used in this sub zone are as follows: 1. Rear Floor Frame Jig
  14. 14. 14 2. Rear Floor Comp Jig 3. Rear Floor Sub: 4. Rear Floor Respot-1 5. Rear Floor Respot-2 B ZONE Roof Assembly
  15. 15. 15 C ZONE D- Zone D-ZONE Layout
  16. 16. 16 Project Objective Pneumatic System Pneumatic system use air for working as air is abundantly available. Air should be compressed as without compressing it is of no use. Figure 1 Pneumatic Circuit This circuit is showing how air passes through first air regulator and there is air filter which filters the air and air is compressed. It also measures the pressure of air. Then it is a valve which is used for further flow of air by rotating it. There are ports through which air is passes to cylinders. Also there is speed control port in which inlet and outlet flow of air is controlled.
  17. 17. 17 Basic components of pneumatic system: 1) Air filter: These are used to filter out the contaminants in air so that flow of air will be smooth and without any disturbance. 2) Compressor: Compressed air is generated by compressor. They are diesel or electrically operated. Based on the requirement of air compressor are used. 3) Air Cooler: During compression temperature of air increases, so to cools the air or decrease the temperature air cooler are used.
  18. 18. 18 4) Dryer: water vapor or moisture is separated by using dry. 5) Control valves: they are used for control, regulate and monitor for controlled direction of flow. 6) Air Actuators: air cylinders and motor are used to obtain the require movements of mechanical elements of pneumatic system.
  19. 19. 19 7) Electric motor: It transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy and used to drive the compressor. 8) Receiver tank: It stores the compressed air coming from the compressor. Compressor It is a mechanical device which converts mechanical energy into fluid energy. The compressor increases the air pressure by reducing its volume which also increases the temperature of the compressed air. The compressor is selected based on the pressure it needs to operate and the delivery volume. The compressor can be classified into two main types a. Positive displacement compressors and b. Dynamic displacement compressor
  20. 20. 20 Piston Compressor It produce single acting cylinder which consist of one side movement of piston. It produces one pulse of air per stroke. As the piston moves up the inlet valve closes and the exhaust valve opens which allows the air to be expelled. The valves are spring loaded. The single cylinder compressor gives significant amount of pressure pulses at the outlet port. The pressure developed is about 3-40 bar.
  21. 21. 21 Double acting cylinder The pulsation of air can be reduced by using double acting compressor as shown in Figure 6.1.4. It has two sets of valves and a crosshead. As the piston moves, the air is compressed on one side whilst on the other side of the piston, the air is sucked in. Due to the reciprocating action of the piston, the air is compressed and delivered twice in one piston stroke. Pressure higher than 30bar can be produced.
  22. 22. 22 Air Treatment and Pressure Regulation For satisfactory operation of the pneumatic system the compressed air needs to be cleaned and dried. Atmospheric air is contaminated with dust, smoke and is humid. These particles can cause wear of the system components and presence of moisture may cause corrosion. Hence it is essential to treat the air to get rid of these impurities Inlet filter control the large size particle from entering in the compressor. Air leaving the compressor may be humid and at high temperature. In the next stage air is cooled by using cooler and dryer is used to dry the air. Also an inlet filter is provided to remove any contaminated particle present in the air.in the next stage oil lubricator is provided which provide a mist of oil in compressed air.
  23. 23. 23 Lubricators: Lubricator provides mist of oil in compressed air. It is done in order to provide lubrication to mating components. Its velocity increases due to a pressure differential between the upper and lower changer (oil reservoir). Due to the low pressure in the upper chamber the oil is pushed into the upper chamber from the oil reservoir through a siphon tube with check valve. Valve functions to control the amount of oil present in the air. The air comes with high velocity and oil drop also has high velocity. The air breaks the oil drops and forms the mist forming in tiny particles. Pressure is adjusted by a needle valve.
  24. 24. 24 Pressure regulation: When compressed air flows there is a flow dependent pressure drop between load and air flow. Therefore pressure in receiver tank is kept higher to avoid reduction of pressure.
  25. 25. 25 Service units: During the preparation of compressed air, various processes such as filtration, regulation and lubrication are carried out by individual components. The individual components are: separator/filter, pressure regulator and lubricator. Preparatory functions can be combined into one unit which is called as ‘service unit’. Figure shows symbolic representation of various processes involved in air preparation and the service unit. Actuators: They convert energy coming from pressurized hydraulic oil into the required form. Actuators can be classified into three types: 1) Linear actuators: They convert hydraulic energy into linear motion. 2) Rotary actuators: they convert hydraulic energy into rotary motion.
  26. 26. 26 1. Single acting cylinder: They work in one direction motion that’s way they are called single acting cylinder. The compressed air pushes the piston located in the cylindrical barrel causing the desired motion. The return stroke takes place by the action of a spring. Generally the spring is provided on the rod side of the cylinder. 2. Double acting cylinder: Main parts of double cylinder are piston, piston tube, end caps. The piston rod is connected to piston head and the other end extends out of the cylinder. The piston divides the cylinder into two chambers namely the rod end side and piston end side. The seals prevent the leakage of oil between these two chambers. The cylindrical tube is fitted with end caps. The pressurized oil, air enters the cylinder chamber through the ports provided. In the rod end cover plate, a wiper seal is provided to prevent the leakage of oil and entry of the contaminants into the cylinder. The combination of wiper seal, bearing and sealing ring is called as cartridge assembly. The end caps may be attached to the tube by threaded connection, welded connection or tie rod connection
  27. 27. 27 Speed control: For an actuator, operational speed is determined by fluid flow rate and cylinder displacement area. As speed can only be control by fluid flow rate because physical dimension are fixed.
  28. 28. 28 INVENTORY The word inventory means simply a stock of idle resources of any kind having an economic value. In other words “Inventory means a physical stock of goods, which is kept in hand and smooth and efficient running of future affaires of an organization”. Inventories are essential resources of the firm that require investment and involve the assurance of firm’s resources. Inventories are not an idle asset but these are a vital part of firm’s operations. If the inventories are at the large scale, they became a strain or damage on the resources and if they are at the small scale the firm may go down the sales. Therefore, by taking all things into mind, the firm must have an optimum level of inventories. Most companies want to have just an adequate amount of inventories to meet current orders. Having too many products suffering in a warehouse can make a company look less appealing to investors. If the inventory numbers are high and sales are low then a company will offer significant discounts. In normally seen in new car dealerships as the manufacturers release the next year's models before the recent model of vehicles on the lot have been sold. Furniture companies may also offer 'inventory reduction sales' in order to clear out their showrooms for newer merchandise.
  29. 29. 29 The raw materials, work-in-process goods and completely finished goods those are considered ready or will be ready for sale. Inventory represents one of the most essential material goods that most businesses possess, because the turnover of inventory represents one of the primary sources of revenue generation and successive earnings for the company's shareholders/owners.
  30. 30. 30 Block diagram of inventory system at HCIL: blockStorehouse Product In Product Out Part no., Name and Make Checking by employee Master list location verifuy Material selection Issuance slip entry Oracle move order Qty. minus oracle stock Master list update inventory Gate bill entry stamp gate no.2 Gen. Material office r-no. Store AF/WE/PO Stock reg. po, amount, and item Qty. check Location material store New location store
  31. 31. 31 Objective of inventory: The objective of an inventory-control system is to make inventory decisions that minimize the total cost of inventory, which is distinctly different from minimizing inventory. It is often more expensive to run out of an item (and thus be forced to obtain it through more expensive channels) than simply to keep more units in stock. Most pharmacy inventory decisions involve replenishment—how much to order, when to decide to order, and when to place the order. There are three costs associated with pharmacy inventory: (1) carrying costs, (2) shortage costs, and (3) replenishment costs. A fundamental objective of good inventory control is able to place an order at right time from the right source to acquire the right quality at the right price and of right quality. James Lundy has suggested following objectives of inventory control:  To Ensure Adequate stock: An endeavor is made by inventory control to see that any department will get the raw material or other necessary item as and when required. Hence an effective system of purchasing, storage and maintenance is effectively arranged so that enough stock is available on hand.  T0 minimize inventory on hand: The next objective of inventory control is to minimize inventory on hand. It has to be ensured that excessive stock is kept and unnecessary capital in not locked up. But it must be consistent with adequate stock, so the production is not disrupted.  To maintain continuity in production: The supplies of material spare parts; consumable stored etc. must be stocked to the optimum level so the continuity of operation is maintained. The inventory control system should ensure that production completed as per schedule.  Minimizing the cost of purchasing and storage: It is essential that there is economy in cost of purchasing, cost of receiving and inspection, storage and issue of material etc. The expenses to be reduced to minimum are interest on capital locked, insurance, maintenance, and inspection and transportation costs.  To minimize the wastage and loss: In every manufacturing organization, there is a risk of wastage and theft of stores, wastages and losses are likely occurring during movements and during production processes. Inventory control ensures that the risk of theft, wastage and losses are minimized.
  32. 32. 32  To reduce the risk of deterioration: If a considerable time elapses in the storage of goods, there arise two types of risks (i) the deterioration of goods stored and (ii) the goods becoming obsolete and out dated. Hence, inventory control ensures that such risk minimized.  Effective use of Available capital: Various level like maximum level, minimum level reordering level etc. are fixed in a system of inventory control, which ensure that unnecessary capital is not locked up in inventory. Order is placed at right time and in right quantity, taking into the account the re-ordering level. This will make efficient purchasing possible. To be helpful in efficient purchasing: Maintenance of optimum stock is closely connected with a system of inventory control. One of the major objectives of inventory control is to assist in efficient purchasing. To give maximum satisfaction to customer: The customer satisfaction is a sign of progressive enterprise. Inventory control assists in supplying goods at proper price and at right time. Why inventory exists:- All organization keeps inventories in smaller or larger scale. They exist to smooth out gaps in the rate or timing of demand and supply. Only if the supply of products occurred exactly when they are demanded, products would never be stored. With high inventory level many companies may also cover problems in operations; defective deliveries, poor floor layout, untrained operators, off standards, re-work, down times, inaccurate quantities etc. or high stock levels can be consequences of these problems. Either way, these unexposed problems cause costs and prevent smooth output of operations.
  33. 33. 33 Basic Concept and Terminologies in Inventory:- An inventory system controls the level of inventory by determining-  How much to order (the level of replenishment)?  When to order?  How much safety stock should be kept? There are two basics types of inventory systems: a continuous (or fixed order quantity) system and a periodic (or fixed time period) system. In a continuous system an order is placed for the same constant amount whenever the inventory hand decreases to a certain level, whereas in a periodic system an order placed for a variable amount after specific regular interval
  34. 34. 34 Following the basics concepts andterminology associatedwith an inventory system. Demand:- Demand is not only depend on the single thing but it is an economic principle that describes a consumer’s desire and willingness to pay a price for a specific good or service. Holding all other factors constants, the price of good or service increase as its demand increases and vice- versa. In other words the amount of a particular economic well or service that a consumer or group of consumers will want to purchase at a given price. The demand curve is usually downward sloping, since consumers will want to buy more as price decreases. Independent Demand: An inventory of an item is said to be falling into the category of independent demand for such as item is not dependent upon the demand for another item. Finished goods items, which are ordered by external customers or manufactured for stock and sale, are called independent demand items. Independent demands for inventories are based on confirmed customer orders, forecasts, estimates and past historical data. Dependent Demand:- If the demand for inventory of an item is dependent upon another item such demands are categorized as dependent demand. Raw materials and component inventories are dependent upon the demand for finished goods and hence can be called as dependent demand inventories. Lead Time:- Lead time is the time period between customers is order and delivery of the finish product. For a real world example of lead time in action, let’s order a pizza. When you as the hungry customer decide on a preferred local pizza restaurant, you may have already considered such factors as speed and consistency. The selected restaurant must first receive your custom orders, based on their pre-stocked ingredients. Once you have placed your order, the restaurant may tell you to expect the finished pizza in 45 minutes to an hour. This would be considered lead time. The restaurant bases this time on several factors.
  35. 35. 35 Purchase Lead Time: This time defined as the time period from placing the order to time by which the materials arrive at the store. This lead time is use full in deciding upon the level for the reorder point. Manufacturing Lead Time: This is defined as the time taken by the manufacturing systems to finish the product. This time includes the process time taken at each workstation and travel time between the workstations. Delivery Lead Time / Response Time:- This is the time period from receiving the order to dispatching the finished goods. Planning Horizon:- The time period, over which the inventory level will be controlled, is called the time horizon. It may be finite or infinite depending upon the nature of the inventory system of the commodity. Inventory Related Costs:- Inventory costs are the cost related to storing and maintaining its inventory over a certain period of time. Typically, inventory costs are described as a percentage of the inventory value on an annualized basis. They were strongly depending on the business field, but they are always quite high. It is commonly accepted that the carrying costs alone represent generally 25% of inventory value on hand. First, inventory cost measurement in itself, is a tough problem there are number of alternative cost accounting systems that can be relevant for some purpose while being inadequate or dangerous for others.
  36. 36. 36 Conclusion Working at the Honda Cars India ltd., Greater Noida assembly plant has been a great learning experience. The training has given me a chance to practically apply a lot of concepts that I had leant in my B-tech mechanical specifically related to maintenance, inventory management and system, pneumatics. The work has taught me that one’s fundamentals must be strong in order to implement something. Working on actual automobiles, chassis has given me a far more clear understanding of what is actually manufactured and how the whole process occurs. The process of how a product starts from its drawing then finally implemented as a mass production vehicle is clear to me. Quality is a major factor in any project. And in cars, where it is directly related to the safety of its occupants, it becomes a far major, concern. To check quality, we need to understand the problems first and research on them. Then only the defects can be minimized.

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