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How Artificial Intelligence is taking over Human Jobs

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21. Sep 2021
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How Artificial Intelligence is taking over Human Jobs

  1. How Artificial Intelligence is taking over Human Jobs. Submitted by: Shradha Jindal
  2. Introduction • Problem Statement - With technology advancing at break next speed we need to consider the jobs that are in jeopardy of being snatched away by our mechanical counterparts. This research aims to study how is AI replacing jobs, which roles and industries will be most impacted, how can societies get prepared and if robots and humans can work hand in hand in complex human environment. • With technology advancing at break next speed we need to consider the jobs that are in jeopardy of being snatched away by our mechanical counterparts. • Tasks that are monotonous, can be easily automated; this can gradually make certain roles obsolete. For instance, tasks and activities related to customer care/call center operation, document classification, discovery and retrieval, content moderation are more and more based on technology and automation, and less on human work. • Concerns of new technologies disrupting the workforce and causing job losses have been around for a long time. On one side, the argument is automation will create better new jobs and erase the need for physical labor. The counterclaim is that people without the appropriate skills will be displaced and not have a home in the new environment.
  3. Name of Author Year of publicati on Name of Paper Description Müller, V. C., & Bostrom, 2016 Why are there still so many jobs? The history and future of workplace automation. The study examines how susceptible jobs are to computerisation, Chelliah, J. 2017 Robotisation, employment and industrial growth intertwined across global value chains This study aims to address and discusses the future of robots, mechatronics and artificial intelligence in different perspectives. Hawksworth, J., Berriman, R., & Goel, 2018 Labor costs and the adoption of robots in China. How china is advancing by using AI and its impact Rajadhyaksha, A., & Chatterjee, A. 2018 Automation and new tasks: How technology displaces and reinstates labor This paper highlights the risks faced by white-collar workers resulting from advances in artificial intelligence Stehrer, R., & Stöllinger, 2020 Industrial robots and the mental health of workers. This paper focusses on how the adverse impact caused by AI on jobs will cause rise in mental issues for the workers. Y., & Tang, L 2020 Robots, reshoring, and the lot of low-skilled workers. This paper aims to skill the impact AI will have on unskilled workers and that they are the most vulnerable section of society to be affected. Acemoglu, D., & Restrepo, P. 2019 Towards a reskilling revolution: A future of jobs for all. Study about reskilling revoloution. Graetz, G., & Michaels, G. 2018 An agenda for leaders to shape the future of education, gender and The impact AI will have in shaping the future in sectors like education, gender and work Literature Review
  4. Deming, D., & Kahn, L. B 2018 Skill requirements across firms and labor markets: Evidence from job postings for professionals. Description Seyitoğlu, F., & Ivanov, S. 2020 Service robots as a tool for physical distancing in tourism. This paper suggest that technological development, and in particular digitalisation, has major implications for tourism. Acemoglu, D., & Autor, D. 2011 Skills, tasks and technologies: Implications for employment and earnings. augmentation wave: focused on automation of repeatable tasks such as filling in forms, communicating and exchanging information through dynamic technological support, and statistical analysis of unstructured data Wilson, H., Daugherty, P., & Bianzino, N. 2017 The jobs that artificial intelligence will create. The effects of automation are counterbalanced by the creation of new tasks in which labor has a comparative advantage. Morikawa, M. 2017 Who are afraid of losing their jobs to artificial intelligence and robots? highlights the risks faced by white-collar workers resulting from advances in artificial intelligence Coupé, T. 2018 29.Robots, Job Characteristics and Job Insecurity. This paper explores the confluence of current technological advancements and whether machines are about to permanently replace humans in the workplace Petropoulos, G. 2018 30. Praise for Work in the Digital Age, 119. Technological innovations can affect employment in two main ways: displacement effect and by productivity effect.
  5. Objectives of research 1.What jobs are at risk of being replaced? 2.How artificial intelligence is replacing human work ? 3.How will lives of people be impacted by the changes made by AI and revolution 4.0? 4.Which industries will be most impacted ? 5.How can we be ready for the future ? 6.Can robots and AI work hand in hand with humans ?
  6. Research Methodology Sources of Data: The research comprises both primary and secondary data. The journal articles, reports based on industrial revolution 4.0, artificial intelligence and how companies are using more of this technology to replace human jobs, etc will be studied for completing the research. Sampling : A preliminary survey was conducted by questionnaires with working professionals, businessmen and students who are going to enter the work force soon and who are at the most risk of losing their job to their mechanical counterparts. The survey consisted of specific multiple-choice questions and was designed to use in an online, user- friendly environment. T he target group was people more than 18 years, i.e. people who are working or will join the work force soon and maximum upto age of 40. Statistical tool : Various pies charts, graphs and other representation methods have been used to represent data. Statistical tool of mean, median and mode have been used to study the data.
  7. Results of Research Data Analysis and Interpretation This study, using data obtained from an original survey on Indian individuals, analyzes the possible impacts of the development and diffusion of AI and robotics on employment. The major findings can be summarized as follows. The total no. of responses of survey was 100 individuals. The questions and their respective responses are in the following slides:
  8. Working/Student/ Businessmen - a mix of working professionals, students and businessmen/ businesswomen were asked to fill the questionnaire to know their response and awareness regarding AI and its imapct on employment. The age group that was targeted for the study were in between 18 to 40 years (as this age group involves the future employees and the existing employees). The below pie shart shows the data.
  9. This question was asked to know that how aware the individuals were about AI. The below pie chart shows the data and about 91% people were aware of what AI is whereas 9% people were unaware.
  10. This question was asked to know how aware they were about the impact that AI had on the job market. It aimed to know their awareness about the present job market and what impact will AI have on it. As seen in the below bar graph on a scale of 1 to 5 , 1 being not aware at all and 5 being very aware the following are the results, 2% were not aware at all, 6% were not aware, 27% were neutral , 43% were aware and 22% were very aware.
  11. This question had very different views because people from different sectors/ area of studies had filled the form and their respective sector had been impacted differently. This question was asked to get a basic understanding of how people view AI as a threat or opportunity and to know if AI is viewed as a more of a threat or opportunity. As it can be seen from the below pie chart that 6% people view AI as a strong threat, 14% view it as threat, 35% view it as neither a threat or opportunity, 34% view it as an opportunity and 11% as a strong opportunity.
  12. This question was asked to know the impact AI had on the professional lives of people and how was their experience with AI. As seen in the pie chart below, 6% were not impacted at all, 19% were not that much impacted, 22% were neutral, 27% were impacted little bit and 26% were impacted alot.
  13. This question was asked to know how people thought that AI would change their industry in the next three years. The response from the below pie chart shows the following result - very few people voted that their industry will not be impacted at all, 9% people feel that their industry will not be impacted that much, 15% people voted for neutral, 31% feel that their industry will be impacted a little bit and 44% feel that their industry will be impacted alot.
  14. This question was asked to know that according to respondents which type of jobs were at more risk of being snatched by AI. The below graph shows the result where 19% people voted that white collar jobs will be impacted, 69% voted that blue collar jobs will be impacted, 45% voted that small business owners will be impacted and 8% voted that none of the jobs will be impacted.
  15. This question was asked to judge the readiness of the respondents and what all work they would be okay with AI doing. The below mentioned graph shows that 35% are okay with AI driving, 47% with customer service, 59% with home security, 44% with financial services, 15% with surgery, 27% with construction, 57% with automated systems and 25% with other.
  16. This question was asked to know if the respondents thought that AI and humans could work simultaneously in a work environmrnt. The below pie chart shows the results where 38% voted that they could work hand in hand, 7% voted that they could not, 15% voted possibly not and 40% voted that they could.
  17. According to you over the next ten years, will AI and automation: This question was asked to know the future impact of AI on jobs. The below mwntioned pie chart shows the result, 40% respondents voted that AI will cause massive unemployment in the next ten years, 26% voted that it will somewhat disruptive to employment, 22% voted that will not noticibly impact overall employment and 12% voted that AI will create more jobs than it destroys.
  18. This question was asked to understand how secure or unsecure people feel about AI taking their jobs. The below mentioned pie chart shows that 30% people voted that their job will be replaced by automation dusring their career, 45% voted that their job will not be replaced by automation before their retirement and 25% voted that their job can never be automated.
  19. This question was asked to know how AI will impact the enterprises. The below graph shows that 66% people voted that it will change everyone’s business, 25% voted that it will change their business, 19% voted that it is overhyped in media and 39% voted that it is a bigger deal than most people think.
  20. When asked if the respondents whould accept AI as part of society 47% voted for yes and 39 % voted for possibly which shows that people are ready to change and adapt AI. Also 38% people think that definately humans and AI/ robots can work hand in hand whereas 40% respondents think that it is possible . When asked about impact on jobs in next ten years 40% voted that it would cause massive unemployment and only 12% said that it will create more jobs than it destroys. Though it can be seen in the analysis that people are secure regarding their jobs when asked, 30% people voted that their job will be replaced by automation during their career, 45% voted that their job will not be replaced by automation before their retirement and 25% voted that their job can never be automated. Finding and Conclusion
  21. When asked about how AI will impact the enterprises, 66% people voted that it will change everyone’s business, 25% voted that it will change their business, 19% voted that it is overhyped in media and 39% voted that it is a bigger deal than most people think. It can be analysed that people expect businesses to change due to AI in the near future. Therefore it can be concluded from the reserach that the young generation (age in 20s and 30s), non-regular employees, and those working in the clerical and manufacturing process occupations tend to perceive higher subjective risk. In contrast, those who graduated with higher education, particularly in science and engineering, tend to show lower subjective risk of losing their jobs. At the same time, occupation-specific skills acquired by attending professional schools or holding occupational license are perceived to be less likely to be replaced by AI and robotics.
  22. THANK YOU
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