1. AMITY UNIVERSITY RAJASTHAN
life cycle of project team
Project management is a one-time carefully planned and organized effort to
achieve a specific goal.
Project management includes:Developing a project plan, which includes defining
project goals and objectives, specifying tasks or how goals will be achieved,
what resources are need, and associating budgets and timelines for completion
2. Implementing the project plan, carefully to make sure the plan is being managed
according to plan.
Project management is the discipline of managing a series of tasks within a
given amount of time and within a budget
This Unit is designed to develop an understanding of the concepts and
principles and the boundaries and scope of project management with
emphasis on issues and problems faced by managers of projects. The Unit
also offers the candidate the opportunity to develop a project schedule using
project management software to demonstrate how the use of such software can
assist a project manager to deal with these particular issues and problems when
Project management plays a large role in the development of a wide range of
organisational requirements, eg government, construction, engineering,
medicine, and especially, in computing and information technology. This Unit is
intended to provide candidates with the pre-requisite knowledge and skills
required to conduct and manage a project. Candidates should acquire knowledge
about the fundamental issues and problems of project management, as well as
gain skills in the use of project management techniques.
The Project Life Cycle
The project life cycle consists of four phases, initiation, planning, execution (including
monitoring and controlling) and evaluation.
The Initiation phase begins by defining the scope, purpose, objectives, resources,
deliverables, timescales and structure of the project. The next step is to develop
a Business Case, including several possible solutions and a cost/benefit analysis for
each. A Feasibility Study should then be carried out to ensure that the chosen solution
3. is feasible and has an acceptable level of risk. The next step is to define the Terms of
Reference, followed by the appointment of the project team. The final step is to carry
out Phase Review before seeking approval to proceed. The first step of the Planning
phase is the creation of a detailed Project Plan which the project manager will refer
throughout the project to monitor and control time, cost and quality. The project
manager will then create the following plans:
Resource Plan: to identify the staffing, equipment and materials needed
Financial Plan: to quantify the financial expenditure required
Quality Plan: to set quality targets and specify Quality Control methods
Risk Plan: to identify risks and plan actions needed to minimise them
Acceptance Plan: to specify criteria for accepting deliverables
Finally, a Phase Review is carried out to assess the deliverables produced to date and
approve the start of the Project Execution phase. During the Project Execution phase
the project team produces the deliverables while the project manager monitors and
controls the project delivery by undertaking:
Time Management: tracking and recording time spent on tasks against the
Cost Management: identifying and recording costs against the project budget
Quality Management: reviewing the quality of the deliverables and
Change Management: reviewing and implementing requests for changes to the
Risk Management: assessing the level of project risk and taking action to
Issue Management: identifying and resolving project issues
Acceptance Management: identifying the completion of deliverables and
gaining the customers acceptance
Communications Management: keeping stakeholders informed of project
progress, risks and issues
Once the customer has accepted the deliverables and a Phase Review has been carried
out to determine whether the project objectives have been achieved, the project is ready
for Closure. A Project Closure Report should list all of the actions required. When this
has been approved, the listed actions are completed to release project resources, hand
over deliverables, and inform all stakeholders that the project is now closed. Shortly
after the project has been closed, an Evaluation (also known as a Post-
4. Implementation Review) should be carried out to determine the project's overall
success and find out whether the benefits stated in the original Business Case were
actually realised. Any lessons learned should be documented for future projects.
The Initiation Phase involves defining the purpose and scope of the project, the
justification for undertaking it and the solution to be implemented. It also involves
recruiting the project team and carrying out a Phase Review, before proceeding to the
A Business Case is developed, describing the business problem to be addressed
by the project, the alternative solutions and the potential costs and benefits
associated with each. The Business Case is foundation for the project as it fully
describes the project, the reasons for creating it and the key benefits to be
A Feasibility Study is then completed to ascertain the likelihood of the
alternative solutions actually delivering the stated benefits in the Business Case.
This is used to identify the preferred solution, which must be approved before
The Terms of Reference describe what the project intends to achieve and the
boundaries within which it must achieve it. This includes the project vision,
objectives, scope, deliverables, project organisation and an Implementation Plan.
Once the project is defined, it is time to appoint the Project Team. The Project
Manager is recruited to take on responsibility for the project and recruit the
remaining members of the team.
Finally, a Phase Review is carried out to ensure that all of the required activities
have been completed and to provide formal approval to proceed to the next
phase of the project.
5. The Planning phase involves the creation of a set of planning documents which will
guide the team throughout the project.
The key stages are as follows:
A comprehensive Project Plan is critical to the success of the project. It
identifies the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) of phases, activities and
tasks to be undertaken to complete the project. It also identifies the sequencing,
duration and dependencies of tasks and the resources and financial expenditure
required to complete the project.
The Resource Plan should give a detailed assessment of the resources required
to undertake the project. It should list the required labour, equipment and
materials and quantify the amount of each resource. It should also give a
resource usage schedule to give the Project Manager with a complete view of the
total amount of resources needed at each stage.
The Financial Plan describes the financial resources required during each stage
of the project.
The total cost of each item of labor, equipment and materials is calculated, as
well as the total cost of undertaking each activity.
The Quality Plan lists the quality targets that need to be achieved to ensure that
the project deliverables meet customer requirements. Quality Assurance and
Quality Control activities are scheduled to make sure that the required level of
quality is achieved throughout the project.
The Risk Plan identifies all foreseeable project risks and rates them in terms of
their likelihood of occurrence and potential impact on the project. The risks are
prioritised and actions identified to reduce the likelihood of each risk and
minimize its impact on the project.
An Acceptance Plan is created to ensure that customer acceptance is sought for
each deliverable produced by the project. The Acceptance Plan provides a
schedule of Acceptance Reviews.
The Communications Plan describes the information to be provided to project
stakeholders to keep them informed of the progress of the project. A schedule of
communication events and activities is drawn up to make sure that the right
information is communicated to the right people at the right time.
6. Finally, a Phase Review is carried out to ensure that all of the required Planning
activities have been completed and to provide formal approval to proceed to the
During the Execution phase the deliverables are physically built and presented to the
customer for acceptance. While each deliverable is being constructed, a group
of management processes are carried out to monitor and control activities. Once all
the deliverables have been produced and accepted by the customer, the project is ready
The first and most important step is to build the deliverables specified in the Terms of
Reference. During this activity, a detailed design of each deliverable is created and the
deliverables are physically constructed, tested and reviewed to determine whether they
meet the quality criteria and the acceptance criteria. When all the criteria have been met
the deliverables are signed off on by the customer and handed over. At this stage, the
project is ready for closure. During the construction of the deliverables the project
manager performs several management processes to monitor and control the time,
cost and quality of each deliverable as follows:
Time Management involves monitoring and controlling the time spent by staff
on the project. Timesheets are used to track and record time spent, so that the
project manager can ascertain the overall progress of the project.
Cost Management involves identifying project costs and recording the rate of
consumption of the project budget.
Quality Management involves undertaking the Quality Assurance and Control
activities specified in the Quality Plan, to manage a project's level of quality and
ensure that the project deliverables meet customer requirements.
Risk Management involves monitoring and controlling project risks by taking
the steps necessary to prevent risks and minimise the impact on the project
should those risks occur.
7. Issue Management involves resolving any unforeseen issues that may arise
before they affect the ability of the project to meet its stated objectives.
Acceptance Management involves carrying out Acceptance Reviews to gain the
customer's approval of each deliverable. If the customer does not accept that the
deliverables meet their requirements the success of the project will be
Communications Management involves completing the activities specified in
the Communications Plan to ensure that every stakeholder receives the right
information, at the right time.
Finally, a Phase Review is undertaken to ensure that all of the required activities
in the Execution phase have been completed and the project is ready to proceed
to the next phase.
Closure and Evaluation
The Project Closure phase involves releasing the final deliverables to the customer,
handing over project documentation, terminating supplier contracts, releasing project
resources and communicating project closure to all stakeholders. The final step is t o
undertake an Evaluation to determine the extent to which the project was successful
and note any lessons learned for future projects. The Project Closure Report should
list all the activities required to close the project, to ensure that project closure is
undertaken smoothly and efficiently. Once the report has been created and approved,
the closure activities specified within the report are undertaken and the project is then
officially closed. One to three months after the project has been closed and the business
has begun to experience the benefits provided by the project, it is important to
undertake an Evaluation, often referred to as a Post Implementation Review
(PIR). This allows the business to identify the level of success of the project and list any
lessons learned for future projects.
Evaluation is often carried out by an independent person to provide an unbiased
opinion of the project outcome. The first step is to review the project performance to
determine whether the project delivered the benefits, met the objectives, operated
within the scope, and produced the deliverables on time, within budget and using the
allocated resources. The review also needs to determine whether the project conformed
8. to the management processes specified in Terms of Reference. It should also identify
the key project achievements, failures and any lessons learned for future reference.
The evaluation should review how the project performed against each of the targets set
during the Initiation and Planning phases of the project