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Outline
• Basic design
• Anatomy of a surgical needle
• Needle point types
• Needle performance characteristics
Surgical Needles
Surgical needles are necessary for the placement of
sutures in tissues; therefore, they must be designed
...
Surgical Needles
They must be:
• Sharp enough to penetrate tissues with minimal
resistance.
• Rigid enough to resist bendi...
Basic Needle Design
1. CHORD LENGTH—The straight line distance from the point of a curved needle to
the swage.
2. NEEDLE L...
Basic Needle Design
all surgical needles needles have three basic
components:
1. eye (or swage)
2. body
3. point.
point
Bo...
Eye (Swage): Swaged needles are eyeless needles permanently
attached to the suture strand by the manufacturer.
THE NEEDLE ...
Conventional needles
Closed eyed
French-eyed
Swaged needles
Swaged needles are sometimes known as atraumatic needles
because the thickness of needle and suture combine...
Body:
The body of the needle is the portion which is grasped by
the needle holder during the surgical procedure.
The body ...
STRAIGHT NEEDLE
This shape may be preferred when suturing easily accessible tissue.
Most of these needles are designed to ...
CURVED NEEDLE
Curved needles allow predictable needle turnout from tissue,
This needle shape requires less space for maneu...
COMPOUND CURVED NEEDLE
 developed for anterior segment ophthalmic surgery.
 It allows the surgeon to take precise, unifo...
Tehnical Information
• Needle length
6mm, 8mm, 12mm, 18mm, 22mm, 30mm, 35mm, 40mm,
50mm
• Needle curvature
Straight, 1/2 c...
CURVED NEEDLE
Type Feature Applied Areas
1/2 easier to use in confined locations
may be obscured by tissue deep in the
pel...
Needle point Geometry
Needle point Geometry
Taper-Point
•Suited to soft tissue
•Dilates rather than cuts
Reverse
cutting
•Very sharp
•Ideal for ...
Atraumatic needles
- Simple thread (atraumatic)
- Manufactured connection of needle
and threads
- No Lace time
- No re-ste...
PRINCIPLES OF CHOOSING A SURGICAL NEEDLE
• taper point needles are used to suture tissues that are
easy to penetrate.
• Cu...
Needles Types
Taper Point Blunt Point Needles Conventional Cutting
Reverse Cutting Precision Point Reverse
Cutting Needles...
TYPES OF NEEDLES
CUTTING NEEDLES
 two opposing cutting edges.
 sharpened to cut through tough, difficult-to-penetrate ti...
CONVENTIONAL CUTTING NEEDLES
 conventional cutting needles have a third cutting edge on the
inside concave curvature of t...
TYPES OF NEEDLES
REVERSE CUTTING NEEDLES
 specifically for tough, difficult-to penetrate tissue such as
skin, tendon shea...
TYPES OF NEEDLES
SIDE CUTTING NEEDLES
 spatula needles,
 designed for ophthalmic procedures. They permit the needle to
s...
Types Shape Feature
Taper Point round-bodied needle
oval or flattened body
sharp point
easily penetrated tissue.
Blunt Poi...
Types Shape Feature
Precision Point
Reverse Cutting
Needles
sharp cutting edges
Squared needle body
for excellence in gene...
Needle Point Types
Needle groups are illustrated in the chart –
SURGICAL NEEDLES
ROUND-BODIED
Round-Bodied
Blunt Point Nee...
Needle Performance Characteristics
The performance of a surgical needle depends on 2 major
features-
• Strength
• ability ...
factors that affect a needle’s ability to penetrate:
1.Tip Geometry
2.Sharpness - Tapered needles can have slimmer, finer ...
3/8 Circle 5/8 Circle¼ Circle ½ Circle
Multiple curved
J-shaped
Straight
Progressive curved
Shape of needle
Surgical needles basics
Surgical needles basics
Surgical needles basics
Surgical needles basics
Surgical needles basics
Surgical needles basics
Surgical needles basics
Surgical needles basics
Surgical needles basics
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Surgical needles basics

Basic design
Anatomy of a surgical needle
Needle point types
Needle performance characteristics
PRINCIPLES OF CHOOSING A SURGICAL NEEDLE

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Surgical needles basics

  1. 1. Outline • Basic design • Anatomy of a surgical needle • Needle point types • Needle performance characteristics
  2. 2. Surgical Needles Surgical needles are necessary for the placement of sutures in tissues; therefore, they must be designed to carry suture material through tissues with minimal
  3. 3. Surgical Needles They must be: • Sharp enough to penetrate tissues with minimal resistance. • Rigid enough to resist bending, yet flexible enough to bend before breaking. • Sterile and corrosion-resistant to prevent introduction of microorganisms or foreign bodies into the wound.
  4. 4. Basic Needle Design 1. CHORD LENGTH—The straight line distance from the point of a curved needle to the swage. 2. NEEDLE LENGTH—The distance measured along the needle itself from point to end. 3. RADIUS—The distance from the center of the circle to the body of the needle if the curvature of the needle were continued to make a full circle. 4. DIAMETER—The gauge or thickness of the needle wire.
  5. 5. Basic Needle Design all surgical needles needles have three basic components: 1. eye (or swage) 2. body 3. point. point Body Eye Swaged needle suture
  6. 6. Eye (Swage): Swaged needles are eyeless needles permanently attached to the suture strand by the manufacturer. THE NEEDLE EYE The eye falls into 1 of 3 categories: • closed eye: The closed eye is similar to a household sewing needle • French (split or spring) eye: French eye needles have a slit from inside the eye to the end of the needle with ridges that catch and hold the suture in place • swaged (eyeless):
  7. 7. Conventional needles Closed eyed French-eyed
  8. 8. Swaged needles Swaged needles are sometimes known as atraumatic needles because the thickness of needle and suture combined is much less with an eyeless needle.
  9. 9. Body: The body of the needle is the portion which is grasped by the needle holder during the surgical procedure. The body of the needle should be as close as possible to the diameter of the suture material to minimize bleeding and leakage. Point Sharpness and needle point geometry are critically important characteristics
  10. 10. STRAIGHT NEEDLE This shape may be preferred when suturing easily accessible tissue. Most of these needles are designed to be used in places where direct finger-held manipulation can easily be performed. used for skin closure or in laparoscopy. curved portion passes through tissue easily, HALF-CURVED NEEDLE
  11. 11. CURVED NEEDLE Curved needles allow predictable needle turnout from tissue, This needle shape requires less space for maneuvering than a straight needle The curvature may be 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, or 5/8 circle. 1/2 3/8 1/4 5/8
  12. 12. COMPOUND CURVED NEEDLE  developed for anterior segment ophthalmic surgery.  It allows the surgeon to take precise, uniform bites of tissue.  Equalized pressure on both sides of the comeal-scleral junction minimizes the possibility of astigmatism following anterior segment surgery.
  13. 13. Tehnical Information • Needle length 6mm, 8mm, 12mm, 18mm, 22mm, 30mm, 35mm, 40mm, 50mm • Needle curvature Straight, 1/2 circle, 1/2 circle (double), 1/4 circle, 1/4 circle (double) 3/8 circle, 3/8 circle (double), 5/8 circle, loop round • Cross section Round bodied, round bodied (heavy), curved cutting, curved cutting(heavy) Reverse cutting, reverse cutting (heavy), tapercut, micro-point spatula curved
  14. 14. CURVED NEEDLE Type Feature Applied Areas 1/2 easier to use in confined locations may be obscured by tissue deep in the pelvic cavity Muscle, Eye, Skin Peritoneum ¼ circle Eye Microsurgery 3/8 can be easily manipulated Used relatively large and superficial wounds Dura, Eye, Fascia Nerve 5/8 circle Cardiovascular, Oral, Pelvis, Urogenital tract Straight Nasal cavity Nerve, Skin, Tendon Compoun d curve Eye (Anterior segment)
  15. 15. Needle point Geometry
  16. 16. Needle point Geometry Taper-Point •Suited to soft tissue •Dilates rather than cuts Reverse cutting •Very sharp •Ideal for skin •Cuts rather than dilates Conventional Cutting •Very sharp •Cuts rather than dilates •Creates weakness allowing suture tear out Taper-cutting •Ideal in tough or calcified tissues •Mainly used in Cardiac & Vascular procedures.
  17. 17. Atraumatic needles - Simple thread (atraumatic) - Manufactured connection of needle and threads - No Lace time - No re-sterilisation - No Care of needle-tip - No Corrosion
  18. 18. PRINCIPLES OF CHOOSING A SURGICAL NEEDLE • taper point needles are used to suture tissues that are easy to penetrate. • Cutting or TAPERCUT needles are used in tough, hard to- penetrate tissues. • When in doubt about whether to choose a taper point or cutting needle, choose the taper point for everything except skin sutures.
  19. 19. Needles Types Taper Point Blunt Point Needles Conventional Cutting Reverse Cutting Precision Point Reverse Cutting Needles Spatulated
  20. 20. TYPES OF NEEDLES CUTTING NEEDLES  two opposing cutting edges.  sharpened to cut through tough, difficult-to-penetrate tissue.  ideal for skin sutures  Because of the sharpness of the cutting edge, care must be taken in some tissue (tendon sheath or oral mucous membrane) to avoid cutting through more tissue than desired.
  21. 21. CONVENTIONAL CUTTING NEEDLES  conventional cutting needles have a third cutting edge on the inside concave curvature of the needle.  The shape changes from a triangular cutting blade to that of a flattened body on both straight and curved needles. TYPES OF NEEDLES
  22. 22. TYPES OF NEEDLES REVERSE CUTTING NEEDLES  specifically for tough, difficult-to penetrate tissue such as skin, tendon sheath, or oral mucosa.  used in ophthalmic and cosmetic surgery where minimal trauma, early regeneration of tissue, and little scar formation are primary concerns.
  23. 23. TYPES OF NEEDLES SIDE CUTTING NEEDLES  spatula needles,  designed for ophthalmic procedures. They permit the needle to separate or split through the thin layers of scleral or comeal tissue and travel within the plane between them.  The optimal width, shape, and precision sharpness of this needle ensure maximum ease of penetration
  24. 24. Types Shape Feature Taper Point round-bodied needle oval or flattened body sharp point easily penetrated tissue. Blunt Point Needles round body rounded blunt point for suturing of friable tissue (liver, kidney) Visiblack Needles Round-bodied slim tapering point to facilitate penetration Black surface cardiac and vascular use Conventional Cutting 2 opposing cutting edges with a third cutting edge on the apex of the triangular configuration ideal needles for skin Reverse Cutting 2 opposing cutting edges edges are honed cut through tissue that is tough and difficult to penetrate
  25. 25. Types Shape Feature Precision Point Reverse Cutting Needles sharp cutting edges Squared needle body for excellence in general skin closure Spatulated side-cutting needles flat on top and bottom ophthalmic surgery (side cutting edges enable the needle to separate or split through the extremely thin layers of scleral or corneal tissue) TAPERCUT both the reverse cutting edge and Round-bodied nee uniform cutting action, readily penetrates dense tough tissue for suturing dense, fibrous connective tissue
  26. 26. Needle Point Types Needle groups are illustrated in the chart – SURGICAL NEEDLES ROUND-BODIED Round-Bodied Blunt Point Needles Visiblack CUTTING Conventional Cutting Reverse Cutting Precision Point Reverse Cutting Needles TAPERCUT OPTHALMIC Micropoint Spatulated
  27. 27. Needle Performance Characteristics The performance of a surgical needle depends on 2 major features- • Strength • ability to penetrate tissues easily • ductility
  28. 28. factors that affect a needle’s ability to penetrate: 1.Tip Geometry 2.Sharpness - Tapered needles can have slimmer, finer honed (sharpened) blades. 3. Siliconization - A coating to minimize friction of the needle’s passage through tissue can greatly facilitate penetration. 4.Wire Diameter 5. Body Shape
  29. 29. 3/8 Circle 5/8 Circle¼ Circle ½ Circle Multiple curved J-shaped Straight Progressive curved Shape of needle

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