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CHAPTER I




            INTRODUCTION
                           Page | 1
INTRODUCTION
       Material science, in the guises of high-tech techniques, smart substances, intelligent
interfaces and sensory surfaces, are radically redefining the world we live in. Today’s
generation of materials breaks new ground, many are able to anticipate and respond to
changes in the environment. Now dynamic and interactive, materials have the power to
change how the human body experiences and how the urban environment is built.
Combined with the new potentials they create for industrial design and medical science,
they have the capacity to transform our way of life more radically now than ever before.

       In nature organisms are not so structured and flexible like they are in the man made
world. For example, the gathering of solar energy to create food, or water to nourish the
plant or structural changes in plants to deal with various weather conditions all vary from
organism to organism.

     Low cost or affordable construction technologies and materials are often touted as a
panacea in meeting the ever growing demand for rapid housing delivery in developing
economies.

       New advanced materials offer opportunities to change the way in which we construct
and retrofit buildings. They give added value in terms of increased performance and

functionality. New materials can also help address the new challenges of durability in a

changing climate and help meet CO2 reduction targets.

CLASSIFICATION
Advanced building materials are in general clasified as:

  I.   Intelligent building materials
 II.   Interactive building materials

Intelligent building materials; are those which can sense, respond to temperature, action,
stimuli etc on their own. They react as per the built in program or the commands which are
pre-fed on the chip.
        These are more like having their own brains and acting upon their own decisions and
senses.

Interactive building materials ; are those which are developed for the ease of humans but
along with also have nature to develop a sensible relationship with human world. These
require command or external force to perform their function.
       These are similar to machines like microwave, television etc. which respond to your
choice and interest.


                                                                                      Page | 2
GENERAL MATERIAL TRENDS:

1)   Green materials
2)   Materials as fashion
3)   Security
4)   modern
5)   Digital technology
6)   nano technology
7)   Biomimicry
8)   miscellaneous

PROPERTIES OR BASIC TRENDS INADVANCED MATERIALS:
1.   Temperature (heating/cooling)
2.   Ventilation
3.   Lighting
4.   Illumination
5.   Energy conservation
6.   Low cost cum highly durable
7.   Sustainable / green
8.   Clean / cleanser




                                                   Page | 3
CHAPTER II




             AIMS & OBJECTIVES
                             Page | 4
AIM:
Learning the role and contribution of advanced construction technologies (ACTs) in
promoting the provision of sustainable shelter, water and development.


" RESPECTING THE NEEDS OF PEOPLE, FORMS, AND NATURE MOVING BEYOND
THE MODULE AND DILIGENTLY STUDYING THE NEED FOR THE ADVANCED
MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION       DESIGN PRACTICAL, COST EFFECTIVE
SOLUTIONS "



SCOPE:
 MATERIALS ARE REGARDED AS ONE OF THE RICHEST SOURCES OF
  INNOVATION
 AT THE DAWN OF THE 21ST CENTURY, MATERIALS ADVANCED TO BECOME
  MORE ADAPTABLE, TACTILE AND EMPATHIC, AND THE DEMAND FOR OBJECTS
  WITH SCULPTURAL, AESTHETIC AND MULTI-FUNCTIONAL QUALITIES ROCKETED
 NO LONGER INTENDED FOR PRACTICAL USE ALONE, MATERIALS ARE PLAYING
  AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN TAKING AESTHETICS FORWARD.
 THESE MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED TO BE RESPONSIVE TO EXTERNAL STIMULI
  SUCH AS STRESS, TEMPERATURE, MOISTURE, PH, ELECTRIC OR MAGNETIC
  FIELDS. THEIR PROPERTIES SUCH AS      SHAPE, COLOUR, STIFFNESS OR
  VISCOSITY CAN BE CHANGED SIGNIFICANTLY IN A PREDICTABLE OR
  CONTROLLABLE MANNER IN RESPONSE TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT.




                                                                           Page | 5
CHAPTER III




              MATERIALS &
               FABRICARION
                         Page | 6
MATERIAL LIST

1.    Lotusan
2.    Aerogel
3.    Titanium Dioxide Facade
4.    Fiber Composite Adaptive System
5.    Translucent Concrete
6.    Transparent Alluminium
7.    Bioconcrete
8.    Syndecrete
9.    Metamaterials
10.   Bulkfullerene
11.   Metal Foam
12.   Liquid Granite
13.   Bendable Concrete
14.   Magnetic Curtains
15.   ETFE
16.   Solar Shingles




                                        Page | 7
1. LOTUSAN
The lotus plant is a symbol of cleanliness and purity in some Eastern religions, which makes
sense considering that the plant essentially cleans itself.




        A lotus plant’s leaves stay dry even after a rainfall. Water beads on the surface and
runs off like mercury. Dirt and other residue roll off with the raindrops, so the leaves look
clean even after being splashed with mud.
        Sto Corp. has duplicated that “lotus effect” in Lotusan, its self-cleaning silicone
exterior paint. Lotusan was introduced to Europe in 1999, and now, it’s being sold in North
America for the first time.
        Lotusan’s extreme resistance to water is a product of Sto technology. The coating,
after it is applied, mimics the microstructure of the surface of a lotus leaf. Tiny peaks and
valleys on the surface minimize the contact area for water and dirt. As a result, the coating
is highly resistant to dirt, mold and mildew, and it offers excellent resistance to weather,
chalk and UV rays.




Non lotusan painted wall     lotusan painted wall


       The new surface technology also reduces the risk of attack by microorganisms. Algae
and fungal spores are either washed off or are unable to survive on a dry and dirt-free
exterior. According to a 2002 study, the level of germs on a Lotusan surface after three
years was 90 per cent lower than that on surface coated with a conventional paint product.
                                                                                     Page | 8
With typical paints, water drops flatten and streak instead of beading and rolling off
like they do with Lotusan. Even Sto’s other silicone coatings don’t resist moisture nearly as
.And since dirt rolls off with water, exteriors treated with this coating tend to retain their good
looks. Lotusan boasts high water-vapor permeability.
        Lotusan is a flat finish paint available in 38 standard colors (Sto’s “classic color
collection”) plus custom color tints. The coating can be used for new construction and recoat
projects over concrete, stucco, EIFS, and fiber cement board substrates.

PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS
•     Water dilutable, physiologically and ecologically safe (free from aromatic solvents)
•     Highly impermeable to water as soon as coating has cured
•     Highest water repellency achievable for coatings
•     Effectively reduced adhesion of dirt particles
•     Excellent weather-, chalk- and UV- resistance
•     Excellent breathability for water vapor and CO2
•     Increased natural protection against algae and fungal attack owing to removal of the
      elements fundamental to their existence, i.e. water and dirt deposits
• Ideal protection against humidity and dirt, even for highly-stressed weather-exposed
     facades
• Excellent adhesion to mineral and organic substrates
• Easy application by brush, roller and airless spray
• Mineral, extremely matt finish.
How the lotus effect works: Sto Lotusan has a micro-structural surface which
considerably reduces the contact area for dirt particles and water.Combined with Sto
silicone quality, this results in a super hydrophobic, water-repellent surface. Dirt particles
which adhere only loosely, are easily carried away by raindrops.


COST:

        According to an estimate, it costs nearly $1,500-$3,000 for an average single-story,
three-bedroom home to be painted externally. The cost easily run $3,000-$5,500 in the case
of a multi-storey house. To paint a 3000 square foot home externally, nearly 15 gallons of
paint is required. The cost of average quality paint per gallon is $25-$40.




                                                                                           Page | 9
2. AEROGEL

        An Aerogel is an open-celled, mesoporous, solid foam that is composed of a network
of interconnected nanostructures and that exhibits a porosity (non-solid volume) of no less
than 50%
        It is a synthetic porous material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component of
the gel has been replaced with a gas. The result is a solid with extremely
low density and thermal conductivity. It is nicknamed frozen smoke, solid smoke, solid
air or blue smoke owing to its translucent nature and the way light scatters in the material;
however, it feels like expanded polystyrene (styrofoam) to the touch.
       Aerogel was first created by Samuel Stephens Kistler in 1931, as a result of a bet
with Charles Learned over who could replace the liquid in "jellies" with gas without causing
shrinkage.
        Aerogels are produced by extracting the liquid component of a gel
through supercritical drying. This allows the liquid to be slowly drawn off without causing the
solid matrix in the gel to collapse from capillary action, as would happen with
conventional evaporation. The first aerogels were produced from silica gels. Kistler's later
work involved aerogels based on alumina, chromia and tin dioxide. Carbon aerogels were
first developed in the late 1980s.
       Aerogels are dry materials (unlike “regular” gels, which are usually wet like gelatin
dessert). The word aerogel refers to the fact that aerogels are derived from gels–effectively
the solid structure of a wet gel, only with a gas or vacuum in its pores instead of liquid.

PRODUCT CHARACTERSTICS:

       Despite its incredibly low density, aerogel is one of the most powerful materials on
the planet. It can support thousands of times its own weight, block out intense heat, cold
and sound – yet it is 1,000 times less dense than glass, nearly as transparent and is
composed of %99.8 air. The lowest-density silica-based aerogels are even lighter than
air.Despite its fragility in certain regards and its incredible lack of density, aerogel has
amazing thermal, acoustical and electrical insulation properties. Aside from its other
capabilities, aerogel also has amazing absorbing abilities. Some speculate it could be the
future solution to oil spills. It is also being tested as a possible slow-release drug deliver
system for potential human patients.

        Pressing softly on an aerogel typically does not leave a mark; pressing more firmly
will leave a permanent depression. Pressing firmly enough will cause a catastrophic
breakdown in the sparse structure, causing it to shatter like glass – a property known
as friability; although more modern variations do not suffer from this. Despite the fact that it
is prone to shattering, it is very strong structurally. Its impressive load bearing abilities are
due to thedendritic microstructure, in which spherical particles of average size 2–5 nm are
fused together into clusters.

                                                                                        Page | 10
Owing to its hygroscopic nature, aerogel feels dry and acts as a strong desiccant.
Persons handling aerogel for extended periods should wear gloves to prevent the
appearance of dry brittle spots on their skin.

       The slight color it does have is due to Rayleigh scattering of the
shorter wavelengths of visible light by the nanosized dendritic structure. This causes it to
appear smoky blue against dark backgrounds and yellowish against bright backgrounds.

      Aerogels by themselves are hydrophilic, but chemical treatment can make
them hydrophobic. If they absorb moisture they usually suffer a structural change, such as
contraction, and deteriorate, but degradation can be prevented by making them
hydrophobic. Aerogels with hydrophobic interiors are less susceptible to degradation than
aerogels with only an outer hydrophobic layer, even if a crack penetrates the surface.
Hydrophobic treatment facilitates processing because it allows the use of a water jet cutter.




(A) Low dense,& transparent   (B) High heat resistance   (C) Smoky blue colour of scattered light




(D) Low thermal conductivity                       (E) High surface area, structurally strong




                                                                                         Page | 11
APPLICATION FACTS:

•    A single one-pound block can support half a ton of weight.
•     An aerogel window one inch thick has the effective insulative capacity of a ten-inch thick
     glass window system.

KEY CHARACTERISTICS*:

•    Extremely low thermal conductivity            :     9-12mW/mK
•    High porosity                                 :     >90% air
•    Nano-sized pores                              :     20-40 nanometers
•    High surface area                             :     ~750m2/g
•
     Very low tap density                          :     30-100kg/m3
•    High oil absorption capacity (DBP)            :     540g/100g
•    Specific heat capacity                        :     .7-1.15 kJ/(kg*K)
•    Variety of particle sizes                     :     5 microns-4mm
•    Surface chemistry                             :     Completely hydrophobic
•    Opacity                                       :     Translucent, IR opacified and opaque

     *Characteristics vary depending on application, temperature and form.


COMPOSITION :
        Aerogel is not like conventional foams, but is a special porous material with extreme
microporosity on a micron scale. It is composed of individual features only a few
nanometers in size. These are linked in a highly porous dendritic-like structure. Aerogel is a
silica-based substance consisting of a loose dendritic network of the atom silicon.
        Aerogel is manufactured by removing the liquid from a silica alcogel and
replacing it with nothing but air, which makes up 99.8 percent of the final product.
Some aerogels have a density as low as .001 grams per cubic centimeter (.0005 ounces per
cubic inch).
        Aerogel is made by high temperature and pressure-critical-point drying of a gel
composed of colloidal silica structural units filled with solvents.


RANGE OF APPLICATIONS INCLUDES:


    Architectural daylighting
    Oil and gas pipelines
    Coatings formulations
    Industrial and cryogenic plants and vessels
    Building insulation
    Outdoor gear and apparel
    Personal care products
                                                                                       Page | 12
FORMATION OF AEROGEL

       Aerogels are open-cell polymers with pores less than 50 nanometers in diameter. In
a process known as sol-gel polymerization, simple molecules called monomers suspended
in solution react with one another to form a sol, or collection, of colloidal clusters. The
macromolecules become bonded and cross-linked, forming a nearly solid, transparent sol-
gel. An aerogel is produced by carefully drying the sol-gel so that the fragile network does
not collapse.
       Sol-gel polymerization is a bulk process with no way to control the size of the sols or
the way they come together. The structure and density of the final aerogel are dictated to
some extent by the conditions during polymerization such as temperature, pH, type of
catalyst, and so on. But with current fabrication methods, the aerogel's structure cannot be
controlled at the molecular level.




                                                                                     Page | 13
NOTE             Although it’s true that a typical silica aerogel could hold up to 2000 times its
weight in applied force, this only holds if the force is gently and uniformly applied. Also, keep
in mind that aerogels are also very light, and 2000 times the weight of an aerogel still might
not be very much. Additionally, most aerogels as-produced are extremely brittle and friable
(that is, they tend to fragment and pulverize).
 But there are several ways aerogels can be made strong and even flexible, enough that
aerogels can now be used as structural elements.There are four general ways to enhance
the mechanical properties of aerogels:

1.   Liquid-phase crosslinking
2.   Vapor-phase crosslinking
3.   Fiber reinforcing, and
4.   Reduced bonding


WHAT ARE AEROGELS MADE OF?

       The term aerogel does not refer to a particular substance, but rather to a geometry
which a substance can take on–the same way a sculpture can be made out of clay, plastic,
papier-mâché, etc., aerogels can be made of a wide variety of substances, including:

    Silica
    Most of the transition metal oxides (for example, iron oxide)
    Most of the lanthanide and actinide metal oxides (for example, praseodymium oxide)
    Several main group metal oxides (for example, tin oxide)
    Organic     polymers    (such     as     resorcinol-formaldehyde,  phenol-formaldehyde,
     polyacrylates, polystyrenes, polyurethanes, and epoxies)
    Biological polymers (such as gelatin, pectin, and agar agar)
    Semiconductor nanostructures (such as cadmium selenide quantum dots)
    Carbon
    Carbon nanotubes
    Metals (such as copper and gold)

      Aerogel composites, for example aerogels reinforced with polymer coatings or
aerogels embedded with magnetic nanoparticles, are also prepared.


VARITIES OF AEROGEL :

    Metal Oxide Aerogels
      Nickel Oxide Aerogels
      Zinc Oxide Aerogels
      Alumina Aerogels (Epoxide-Assisted)

                                                                                        Page | 14
   Alumina Aerogels (Alkoxide Method)
     Iron Oxide Aerogels
     Lanthanide Oxide Aerogels
   Organic and Carbon Aerogels
     Organic Aerogels
     Pyrolysis
   Silica Aerogel
     Silica Aerogel (TEOS, Base-Catalyzed)
     Silica Aerogel (TMOS, Base-Catalyzed)
     Hydrophobic and Subcritically-Dried Silica Aerogel


AVAILABLE AS         :   “ THERMABLOK”-
         Aerogel, also referred to as "frozen smoke," has been
difficult to adapt to most uses because of its fragility. The
patented Thermablok material overcomes this by using a
unique fiber to suspend a proprietary formula of aerogel so
that it can be bent or compressed while still
retaining its amazing insulation properties.
         Now available to the building industry, just one, 3/8-
inch x 1½-inch (6.25mm x 38mm) strip of Thermablok added
to each stud before hanging drywall is all that is needed to
tackle thermal bridging and achieve maximum R-factor value.
It is installed directly to the stud edge within the wall framing,
before the installation of drywall. Thermablok is easily cut to
size, and has a peel-and-stick backing for quick and simple
installation.
         As the Thermablok aerogel material is 95 percent air,
and is situated between the stud and the drywall, it breaks the mechanical connection
(thermal bridging) exceptionally well.
         Thanks to its hydrophobic properties, Thermablok will not age, mold, or mildew.
Thermablok aerogel insulating material is environmentally safe and recyclable.




                                                                                Page | 15
3. TITANIUM DIOXIDE FACADE
       Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally
occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as apigment, it is
called titanium white, Pigment White 6, or CI 77891. Generally it comes in two different
forms, rutile and anatase.

APPLICATIONS:

It has a wide range of applications:


1. Pigment
   o Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and
     very high refractive index, in which it is surpassed only by a few other materials.
     Approximately 4 million tons of pigmentary TiO2 are consumed annually worldwide.
     When deposited as a thin film, its refractive index and colour make it an excellent
     reflective optical coating for dielectric mirrors and some gemstones like "mystic
     fire topaz". TiO2 is also an effective opacifier in powder form, where it is employed as
     a      pigment      to    provide     whiteness       and opacity to    products     such
     as paints, coatings, plastics, papers, inks, foods, medicines (i.e. pills and tablets) as
     well as most toothpastes. Opacity is improved by optimal sizing of the titanium
     dioxide particles.
   o In ceramic glazes titanium dioxide acts as an opacifier and seeds crystal formation.
   o Titanium dioxide is often used to whiten skimmed milk; this has been shown
     statistically to increase skimmed milk's palatability.


2.Sunscreen and UV absorber
   o In cosmetic and skin care products, titanium dioxide is used as a pigment, sunscreen
     and a thickener. It is also used as a tattoo pigment and in styptic pencils. Titanium
     dioxide is produced in varying particle sizes, oil and water dispersible, and with
     varying coatings for the cosmetic industry.
   o Titanium dioxide is found in almost every sunscreen with a physical blocker because
       of its high refractive index, its strong UV light absorbing capabilities and its resistance
       to discolouration underultraviolet light. This advantage enhances its stability and
       ability to protect the skin from ultraviolet light.




                                                                                         Page | 16
3. Photocatalyst
  o Titanium dioxide, particularly in the anatase form, is a photocatalyst under ultraviolet
    (UV) light. Recently it has been found that titanium dioxide, when spiked with nitrogen
    ions or doped with metal oxide like tungsten trioxide, is also a photocatalyst under
    either visible or UV light. The strong oxidative potential of the positive
    holes oxidizes water to create hydroxyl radicals. It can also oxidize oxygen or organic
    materials directly. Titanium dioxide is thus added to paints, cements, windows, tiles,
    or other products for its sterilizing, deodorizing and anti-fouling properties and is used
    as a hydrolysis catalyst. It is also used indye-sensitized solar cells, which are a type
    of chemical solar cell (also known as a Graetzel cell).
  o    Titanium dioxide has potential for use in energy production: as a photocatalyst, it can
      carry outhydrolysis; i.e., break water into hydrogen and oxygen. Were the hydrogen
      collected, it could be used as a fuel. The efficiency of this process can be greatly
      improved by doping the oxide with carbon. Further efficiency and durability has been
      obtained by introducing disorder to the lattice structure of the surface layer of titanium
      dioxide nanocrystals, permitting infrared absorption.
  o Titanium dioxide can also produce electricity when in nanoparticle form. By using
    these nanoparticles to form the pixels of a screen, they generate electricity when
    transparent and under the influence of light. If subjected to electricity on the other
    hand, the nanoparticles blacken, forming the basic characteristics of a LCD screen.
  o Superhydrophilicity phenomenon for titanium dioxide coated glass exposed to sun
    light results in the development of self-cleaning glass and anti-fogging coatings.
  o TiO2 incorporated into outdoor building materials, such as paving stones in noxer
    blocks or paints, can substantially reduce concentrations of airborne pollutants such
    as volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides.
  o TiO2 offers great potential as an industrial technology                 for   detoxification
    or remediation of wastewater due to several factors.

  a. The process occurs under ambient conditions very slowly; direct UV light exposure
     increases the rate of reaction.
  b. The      formation      of     photocyclized    intermediate  products,     unlike
     direct photolysis techniques, is avoided.
  c. Oxidation of the substrates to CO2 is complete.
  d. The photocatalyst is inexpensive and has a high turnover.
  e. TiO2 can be supported on suitable reactor substrates.

4. Electronic data storage medium
       In 2010, researchers at the University of Tokyo, Japan have created a 25 terabyte
titanium oxide-based disc.



                                                                                       Page | 17
PRODUCT CHARACTERSTICS

•   This facade takes an active stance and attacks the problem of dirty air by aiming to
    help purify the air.
•    The tower pulls dirt, grease, and bacteria out of the air, producing only oxidation and
    water as a result.

MATERIAL COMPOSITION AND ACTION:

•    The reaction is triggered by the use of a nano-coating of titanium dioxide on the outer
    skin of the project. The reaction is naturally powered by sunlight acting on the titanium
    dioxide during the day and supplemented by ultra violet light at night.
•    These UV lights are powered by energy collected through PV panels during the day.
•    The tower will be a glowing indigo object at night varying in intensity according to the
    amount of solar energy collected during the day. The indigo glow will become symbolic
    of the cleansing, counteracting the yellow haze that dominates the daytime hours.
•   The skin design is inspired by the pocketed and cellular texture of the titanium dioxide
    molecule (TiO2).
•    A series of organic cells cover the building and are tapered to naturally collect the
    water, a byproduct of the skins chemical reaction, and to collect and slowly release rain
    water.
•    The skin pulls off of the building on the south facades to provide natural shading and
    pushes into the inner skin of the north façade to maximize daylight and provide fifty
    percent coverage to reduce heat loss during the winter months.
•    The skin also floats off the building to conceal the UV lights which can be harmful to
    humans who are directly exposed to it, and further maximizes the building’s envelope.

THE FACADE
       Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally
occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment, it is
called titanium white, Pigment White 6, or CI 77891. Generally it comes in two different
forms, rutile and anatase. It has a wide range of applications, from paint
to sunscreen to food coloring.

      TiO2 is a soft solid and melts at 1800 0C. It is polymorphous and it exists in three
types of crystal structures: (a) rutile, (b) anatase and (c) brookite. Only rutile is used
commercially.

RUTILE:
- has density of 4.2g/cc
- is colorless (but it is used for pigmentation)
- as a chemical is Dielectric
- absorbs ultraviolet light

                                                                                      Page | 18
- has high stability
- has a pH of 7.00-8.3 when present as a solid in solution
- is composed by 94% of TiO2 and Alumina
- only diamond has a higher refractive index (how it bends light) than rutile.

Rutile Cost: is about $10 per ton.



Where big reserves of TiO2 exist:
1. Southeast Canada
2. Southeast USA
3. Southwest Scandinavia
5. Midwest and South Africa
6. Mediterranean Sea
7. East Australia

Ti (TITANIUM): what is it and properties:
- metal (ninth most abundant element on earth)
- pure metal is 99.6%
- it density is 4.5g/ML
- melting point, 1943 K; boiling point, 3562 K
- heat of vaporization and fusion 421 kj/mol and 15.45 kj/mol respectively
- specific heat 0.52 j/gK
- it burns in air and it is the only metal that burns in Nitrogen.
- when pure it is lustrous, white
- excellent corrosion resistant
- strong as steal and 45% lighter
- 60% heavier than aluminum and twice as strong.
- it has low module of elasticity and low coefficient of expansion
- it is not magnetic

Where Ti could be found?
1. On meteorites and sun.
2. On earth in igneous rocks.
3. In ash, plants and animal bodies.


APPLICATIONS:
a) Pigment
      Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and
   very high refractive index, in which it is surpassed only by a few other materials.
   Approximately 4 million tons of pigmentary TiO2 are consumed annually worldwide.
   When deposited as a thin film, its refractive index and color make it an excellent

                                                                                  Page | 19
reflective optical coating for dielectric mirrors and some gemstones like "mystic
   fire topaz". TiO2 is also an effective opacifier in powder form, where it is employed as a
   pigment to provide whiteness and opacity to products like paints, coatings, plastics,
   papers ,inks, foods, medicines (i.e. pills and tablets) as well as most toothpastes. In
   paint, it is often referred to off-handedly as "the perfect white", "the whitest white", or
   other similar terms. Opacity is improved by optimal sizing of the titanium dioxide
   particles.
      In ceramic glazes titanium dioxide acts as an opacifier and seeds crystal formation.


b) Sunscreen and UV absorber
       Titanium dioxide is produced in varying particle sizes, oil and water dispersible, and
   with varying coatings. This pigment is used extensively in plastics and other applications
   for its UV resistant properties where it acts as a UV absorber, efficiently transforming
   destructive UV light energy into heat. Titanium dioxide is found with a physical blocker
   because of its high refractive index, its strong UV light absorbing capabilities and its
   resistance to discolouration under ultraviolet light. This advantage enhances its stability
   and ability to protect the from ultraviolet light.
c) Photocatalyst
        Titanium dioxide, particularly in the anatase form, is a photocatalyst under ultraviolet
   (UV) light. Recently it has been found that titanium dioxide, when spiked with nitrogen
   ions or doped with metal oxide like tungsten trioxide, is also a photocatalyst under either
   visible or UV light. The strong oxidative potential of the positive holes oxidizes water to
   create hydroxyl radicals. It can also oxidize oxygen or organic materials directly.
   Titanium dioxide is thus added to paints, cements, windows, tiles, or other products for
   its sterilizing, deodorizing and anti-fouling properties and is used as a hydrolysis catalyst.
   It is also used in dye-sensitized solar cells, which are a type of chemical solar cell (also
   known as a Graetzel cell).
       The process on the surface of the titanium dioxide was called the Honda-Fujishima
   effect. Titanium dioxide has potential for use in energy production: as a photocatalyst, it
   can carry out hydrolysis; i.e., break water into hydrogen and oxygen. Were the hydrogen
   collected, it could be used as a fuel. The efficiency of this process can be greatly
   improved by doping the oxide with carbon. Further efficiency and durability has been
   obtained by introducing disorder to the lattice structure of the surface layer of titanium
   dioxide nanocrystals, permitting infrared absorption.
      Titanium dioxide can also produce electricity when in nanoparticle form. Using these
   nanoparticles to form the pixels of a screen, they generate electricity when transparent
   and under the influence of light. If subjected to electricity on the other hand, the
   nanoparticles blacken, forming the basic characteristics of a LCD screen.
      The super hydrophilicity phenomenon for titanium dioxide coated glass exposed to
   sun light resulted in the development of self-cleaning glass and anti-fogging coatings.


                                                                                        Page | 20
TiO2 incorporated into outdoor building materials, such as paving stones in noxer
   blocks or paints, can substantially reduce concentrations of airborne pollutants such
   as volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides.
   TiO2 offers great potential as an industrial                technology     for   detoxification
   or remediation of wastewater due to several factors.

1. The process occurs under ambient conditions very slowly; direct UV light exposure
   increases the rate of reaction.
2. The formation of photocyclized intermediate products, unlike
   direct photolysis techniques, is avoided.
3. Oxidation of the substrates to CO2 is complete.
4. The photo catalyst is inexpensive and has a high turnover.
5. TiO2 can be supported on suitable reactor substrates.



d ) Oxygen Sensors

        Even in mildly reducing atmospheres titania tends to lose oxygen and become sub
stoichiometric. In this form the material becomes a semiconductor and the electrical
resistivity of the material can be correlated to the oxygen content of the atmosphere to
which it is exposed. Hence titania can be used to sense the amount of oxygen (or reducing
species) present in an atmosphere.

e) Antimicrobial Coatings

        The photocatalytic activity of titania results in thin coatings of the material exhibiting
self cleaning and disinfecting properties under exposure to UV radiation. These properties
make the material a candidate for applications such as medical devices, food preparation
surfaces, air conditioning filters, and sanitaryware surfaces.




                                                                                         Page | 21
.




Overview
     Titanium dioxide (TiO²) is a photocatalyst which exhibits strong oxidative property
when exposed to ultraviolet (UV)light. TiO² is able to decompose harmful organic
                                                                                Page | 22
compounds, kill bacteria and eliminate odors'. TiO²’s reactivity is used in many
environmentally beneficial applications including water treatment and purification,
atmospheric Nox(nitrogen oxide) removal and self-cleaning building façade. Titanium
dioxide is non-toxic and therefore is used in cosmetic products (sunscreens, lipsticks,
toothpaste) and in pharmaceutics (pills).



Technology


       When TiO² absorbs UV light, electrons are promoted from the valence band to the
conduction band, producing holes in the valence band. The production of pairs of negative-
electrons (e-) and positive-holes (h+) is called “photo-excitation”. The holes in the valence
band react with water on the titanium dioxide coating, forming hydroxyl radicals.When a
contaminant in the air is adsorbed onto the TiO², the hydroxyl radical attacks the
contaminant, extracting a hydrogen atom from the contaminant. The hydroxyl radical
oxidizes the contaminant, producing water, carbon dioxide and other harmless substances.
Hydroxyl radicals have much stronger oxidative power than chlorine or ozone which is used
as a sterilizer.




Building Facade Applications


1. Atmosphere Cleaning (Nox removal from the atmosphere)

2. Deodorization (Indoor odour and Volatile Organic Compounds removal)

3. Self-Cleaning (Dirt removal for exterior building facade)

4. Water Treatment (Water sterilization and odour removal)

5. Anti-Bacterial (Bacteria growth elimination)




                                                                                    Page | 23
Atmosphere Cleaning.




                       Page | 24
Comparison between a building not having TiO2 facade to that with a TiO2 facade




Comparison between a coated and non coated TiO2 plate to evaluate its deodorization
                                    effect.

                                                                              Page | 25
Thin Film formation over the target surface




                                              Page | 26
4. FIBRE COMPOSITE ADAPTIVE SYSTEM
        Fibre composite adaptive systems emulates self-organization processes in nature by
developing a fibre composite that can sense, actuate and hence efficiently adapt to
changing environmental conditions. Fibre composites which are anisotropic and
heterogeneous offer the possibility for local variations in their material properties. Embedded
fibre optics would be used to sense multiple parameters and shape memory alloys
integrated in a fibre composite material for actuation. The definition of the geometry, both
locally and globally would complement the adaptive functions and hence the system would
display ’Integrated Functionality’.

INSPIRATION:
       ‘Thigmo-morphogenesis’ refers to the changes in shape, structure and material
properties of biological organisms that are produced in response to transient changes in
environmental conditions. This property can be observed in the movement of sunflowers,
bone structure and sea urchins. These are all growth movements or slow adaptations to
changes in specific conditions that occur due to the nature of the material: fibre composite
tissue. Natural organisms have advanced sensing devices and actuation strategies which
are coherent morpho-mechanical systems with the ability to respond to environmental
stimulus.

BIOMIMICRY
        Form, structure, geometry, material, and behaviour are factors which cannot be
separated from one another. For example, the veins in a leaf contribute to the overall form
of the leaf, its structure and geometry. At the micro scale the fibre organization compliments
to the responsive behaviour of the leaf. The veins display an integral coherence within the
multiple functions they perform due to the multiple levels of hierarchy in the material
organization. Such level of integrated functionality is the premise of this material formulation
which aims to integrate sensing and actuation into a fibre composite material system. Fibre
composites which are anisotropic and heterogeneous offer the possibility for local variations
in their properties. Embedded fibre optics are used to sense multiple parameters while
shape memory alloys (SMA) are integrated in the composite material for actuation. The
definition of the geometry, both local and global complements the adaptive functions
providing the system with ‘Integrated Functionality.

GEOMETRY
       The geometry was approached from two different scales: local and global. The local
geometry emerges from the topological definition of a single cell as the smallest unit within
the material system. The proliferation of these single cell topologies responds to very
specific rules which govern the fusion of the local and global geometries -overall form- with
the fibre composite material. This part of the project involved the manipulation of complex

                                                                                        Page | 27
geometries where digital simulation was vital. Modelling the range of different geometries
that the system could adopt after having sensed a change in the environmental conditions,
required the development of codes to generate ‘structural depth’ in the out-of plane
dimension; this arrangement was easily achieved through the use of corrugations where the
stiffness of the structure mostly depends on the height of the ‘waves’. Varying the local
height of the corrugations would therefore lead to a structure with stiffer differentiated areas
which ultimately contribute to the structure as a whole. Once the geometrical arrangement
was decided it was necessary to establish the strategy of ‘adaptation’ at the local level.




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MATERIAL COMPOSITION AND ACTION:
The basic composite consists of glass fibres and a polymer matrix.

        The sensing function is carried out through embedded fibre optics which can
simultaneously sense multiple parameters such as strain, temperature and humidity. These
parameters are sensed and processed as inputs through artificial neural networks. The
environmental and user inputs, inform the topology to dynamically adapt to one of the most
efficient configurations of the ‘multiple states of equilibrium’ it could render. The topology is
defined as a multi-layered tessellation forming a continuous surface which could have
differentiated structural characteristics, porosity, density, illumination, self-shading and so
on. The actuation is carried out through shape memory alloy strips which could alter their
shape by rearranging their micro-molecular organization between their austenitic and
martensitic states. The shape memory alloy strip is bi-stable, but a strategic proliferation of
these strips through a rational geometry could render several permutation and combinations
creating multiple states of equilibrium, thus enabling continuous dynamic adaptation of the
structure.

CONCLUSIONS
        The proposed fibre composite adaptive system possesses multiple organizational
levels with different assembly logics, which contribute to its emergent behaviour and
integrated functionality. An increase in the ambient temperature alters the layout of the
suture curves to open a hole through which air can circulate. Similarly the openings are
closed when there is a need to maintain a certain temperature inside the pavilion. If the wind
increases or changes direction, the structure re-organizes adopting a more efficient
configuration against the new loading conditions. In essence, form, structure, geometry, and
behaviour created a cohesive synergetic whole and constituted the most important
consideration for the construction of the digital model. Such ambitious requirements
required the combination of several software packages initially intended for different
professional disciplines with in-house written codes such as the form finding algorithm and
the fibres growth script. The result is a system which has the potential to adapt and self-
organise efficiently to transient changes in the environmental conditions, illuminating the
way towards the development of smart architectures.




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5. TRANSLUCENT CONCRETE

       Translucent concrete (also: light-transmitting concrete or liquid stone) is
a concrete based building material with light - transmissive properties due to embedded light
optical elements - usually Optical fibers. Light is conducted through the stone from one end
to the other. Therefore the fibers have to go through the whole object. This results into a
certain light pattern on the other surface, depending on the fiber structure. Shadows cast
onto one side appear as silhouettes through the material.




            Translucent concrete at Expo Bau 2011, München/Germany


       Translucent concrete is used in fine architecture as a façade material and
for cladding of interior walls. But light-transmitting concrete has also been applied to various
design products.


FABRICATION
         The main idea of the smart transparent concrete is that high numerical aperture
optical fibers are directly arranged in the concrete, and the optical fiber is used as sensing
element and optical transmission element. Because that the light can transmit in the optical
fiber, different shape of smart transparent concretes can be fabricated and a certain amount
of optical fibers are regularly distributed in the concrete. Plastic optical fiber is an excellent
media to transmit light at specific wavelengths which has been widely used in illuminating
facility or architectural appearance lighting.
       Several ways of producing translucent concrete do exist. But all are based on a fine
grain concrete (95%) and only 5% light conducting elements that are added during casting
process. After setting the concrete is cut to plates or stones with standard machinery for
cutting stone materials.
      The fibers run parallel to each other, transmitting light between two surfaces of the
concrete element in which they are embedded. Thickness of the optical fibers can be varied
between 2 µm and 2 mm to suit the particular requirements of light transmission. Optical

                                                                                         Page | 30
fibers transmit light so effectively that there is virtually no loss of light conducted through the
fibers; in fact, it’s even possible to see colors through the concrete.
        Originally, the fiber filaments were placed individually in the concrete, making
production time-consuming and costly. Newer, semi-automatic production processes use
woven fiber fabric instead of single filaments. Fabric and concrete are alternately inserted
into molds at intervals of approximately 2 mm to 5 mm. Smaller or thinner layers allow an
increased amount of light to pass through the concrete. Following casting, the material is cut
into panels or blocks of the specified thickness and the surface is then typically polished,
resulting in finishes ranging from semi-gloss to high-gloss.
      The concrete mixture is made from fine materials only: it contains no coarse
aggregate. The compressive strength of greater than 70 MPa (over 10,000 psi) is
comparable to that of high-strength concretes.




                                                                                          Page | 31
MOUNTING


       Working with natural light it has to be ensured that enough light is available. Wall
mounting systems need to be equipped with some form of lighting and designed to achieve
uniform illumination on the full plate surface. Usually mounting systems similar to natural
stone panels are used - e.g. LUCEM uses perforated mounting with visible screws, undercut
anchors with agraffes or facade anchors.


HISTORY


       Translucent concrete has been first mentioned in a 1935 Canadian patent.[8] But
since the development of optical glass fibers and polymer based optical fibers the rate of
inventions and developments in this field has drastically increased. There have also been
inventions that apply this concept to more technical applications like fissure detection. In the
early 1990s forms like translucent concrete products popular today with fine & layered
patterns were developed.


PROPERTIES


 Translucent concrete is strong enough for the uses for traditional concrete, and chemical
  additives can greatly increase the strength.
 High density concrete.
 Synthetic fibers added to the mix give some flexibility without losing strength.
 Versatile building material.
 Illumination.
 The fibres can work upto almost 20metres running length without loss of light.
 The prefabricated blocks are load bearing and provide the same effect with both artificial
  and natural light.
 Colors remain the same on the other end of the block.


ADVANTAGE


       The main advantage of these products is that on large scale objects the texture is still
visible - while the texture of finer translucent concrete becomes indistinct at distance.
Further pictograms and lettering can be realized with this technology.


                                                                                       Page | 32
Page | 33
Page | 34
6. TRANSPARENT ALLUMINIUM
       Transparent alluminium also called Alluminium oxynitride or ALON is a
transparent polycrystalline ceramic with cubic spinel crystal structure composed of
alluminium, oxygen and nitrogen. It is currently marketed under the name ALON by Surmet
Corporation. ALON is optically transparent (≥80%) in the near ultra violet, visible and near
infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is 4 times harder than fused silica glass,
85% as hard as sapphire and nearly 15% harder than magnesium aluminate spinel. The
material is stable up to 1,200 °C (2,190 °F). It can be fabricated to transparent windows,
plates, domes, rods, tubes and other forms using conventional ceramic powder processing
techniques. Because of its relatively light weight, optical and mechanical properties, and its
resistance to damage due to oxidation or radiation, it shows promise for use as infrared,
high temperature and ballistic and blast resistant windows.
       Stronger than glass, various military and commercial applications for this remarkable
material are already being tested. What was once used in the science-fiction Star Trek
movies, see-through aluminum is now something that – through test mixing with rubies,
sapphires and more – is now being tried out in all kinds of ways to create transparency
where strength is also required.

PROPERTIES

Mechanical

   Young modulus 334 GPa
   Shear modulus 135 GPa
   Poisson ratio 0.24
   Knoop hardness 1800 kg/mm2 (0.2 kg load)
   Fracture toughness 2.0 MPa·m1/2
   Flexural strength 0.38–0.7 GPa
   Compressive strength 2.68 GPa


Thermal and optical

   Specific heat 0.781 J/(g·°C)
   Thermal conductivity 12.3 W/(m·°C)
   Thermal expansion coefficient ~4.7×10−6/°C
   Transparency range 200–5000 nm
      ALON appears to be radiation resistant and resistant to damage from various acids,
bases and water.
       Transparent alumnium is a transparent material that was much stronger than
plexiglass. While pexiglass sheets for a 60 x 10 tank with 18,000 cubic feet of water would
need to be 6inches thick, a transparent aluminium sheet would need to be 1 inch thick.

                                                                                       Page | 35
APPLICATIONS
        ALON is used in various defense and Infrared (IR) related applications such
as Recce sensor windows, specialty IR domes with different shapes such as hemispherical,
hyper-hemispherical and tangent ogive domes, transparent armor, windows for laser
communications, and in some semi-conductor related applications. Used in static-
free transparent aluminum wrapping for computer parts and other electronics. It is also
being tested in otherwise-conventional see-through soda cans and military shielding for
vehicles.
       Another advantage of ALON is that it is more resistant to scratches and the effect of
the elements (think wind, sand, etc.).


MANUFACTURE
       ALON is a polycrystalline ceramic material which can be fabricated to windows,
plates, domes, rods, tubes and other forms using conventional ceramic powder processing
techniques. It is made primarily of aluminium, oxygen, and nitrogen, and can vary slightly in
its components (such as varying the aluminium content from about 30% to 36%, which has
been reported to affect the bulk and shear moduli by only 1–2%.) The fabricated greenware
is subjected to heat treatment (densification) at elevated temperatures followed
by grinding and polishing to transparency. It remains transparent until about 2100 °C. The
grinding and polishing substantially improves the impact resistance and other mechanical
properties of armor. Densities of 85% of the theoretical can be achieved. It is 85% as hard
as sapphire and 15% harder than magnesium aluminate spinel. ALON is four times harder
than fused silica glass, thus making it useful in a wide range of armor applications.
        Transparent aluminum starts out as a pile of white aluminum oxynitride powder. That
powder gets packed into a rubber mold in the rough shape of the desired part, and
subjected to a procedure called isostatic pressing, in which the mold is compressed in a
tank of hydraulic fluid to 15,000 psi, which mashes the AlON into a grainy “green body.” The
grainy structure is then fused together by heating at 2000 °C for several days. The surface
of the resulting part is cloudy, and has to be mechanically polished to make it optically clear.




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Page | 37
7. BIOCONCRETE
        Concrete is one of the main materials used in the construction industry, from the
foundation of buildings to the structure of bridges and underground parking lots. The
problem with traditional concrete however is the formation of cracks. This has negative
consequences for the durability of the material.
        Instead of costly humans having to maintain and repair the concrete, it would be ideal
if the concrete would be able to heal itself. This is now possible with help of special bacteria.
These bacteria are called extremophiles, because they love to live in extreme conditions. In
dry concrete for example they will not only live, but they will actively produce copious
amounts of limestone. With this calcium carbonate-based material the little construction
workers can actively repair occurring cracks in a concrete structure.
        This novel type of self-healing concrete will lead to enormous savings on
maintenance and repair costs. Also the sustainability of concrete will increase dramatically,
because of a lower demand for natural resources such as cement. This will lead to lower
CO2 emissions and change our way of reasoning. Instead of building against nature,
biological materials and processes will be integrated into traditional engineering materials
and processes.




BACTERIA AS SELF HEALING AGENT:

                    2 Ca(CHO2)2 + 2O2 >>> 2CaO3 + 2CO2 + 2H2O
                               Convert Food to Minerals
The bacteria acts as catalyst and Mineral precursor compound as chemical /food.
                                                                                        Page | 38
BIOCEMENTATION MECHANISM

       Naturally, bio-mineralization process occurs at a very slow rate over geological times
like the formation of limestone, sandstone, etc. Bioconcrete is this process, achieved at a
much shorter timescale.

MICP BY UREA HYDROLYSIS

         In bioconcrete, the microbially induced precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) acts
as the cementing agent. In MICP by urea hydrolysis, the enzyme urease, catalyse substrate
urea to precipitate carbonate ions in presence of ammonium. And with the presence of
calcium ion, CaCO3 is precipitated.
         There are four parameters that govern MICP:
(i) the calcium concentration,
(ii) the carbonate concentration,
(iii) the pH of the environment and
(iv) the presence of nucleation sites

PROCESSES INVOLVED IN CACO3 PRECIPITATION

A) Hydrolysis of urea
       S. pasteurii uses urea as an energy source producing ammonia which increases the
pH     of the environment and generates carbonate. Urea hydrolysis generates carbonate
ions at a 1:1 molar ratio,hence controlling one of the key parameters for MICP of dissolved
inorganic     carbon concentration.

B) Increasing alkalinity

       The pH of the environment has a significant effect on the specific urease activity
(SUA), hence affecting carbonate speciation. The effect of pH between 6 and 8.5 is
negligible. At neutral pH, bicarbonate (HCO3-) is the dominant carbonate species rather than
carbonate (CO32-), causing a rise in pH. This increase in pH starts ammonium (NH4+) to
dissociate to ammonia (NH3) until equilibrium is reached. The pH of the environment is
important as it affects carbonate speciation and CaCO3 solubility.




                                                                                    Page | 39
C) Surface absorption of Ca2+ ions
       Ca2+ ions are supplied in the form of calcium chloride; these ions are attracted to the
bacterial cell wall due to the negative charge of the solution.




D) Nucleation and crystal growth
        Precipitation involves:
(i) The development of supersaturation solution,
(ii) Nucleation (the formation of new crystals) begins at the point of critical saturation and
(iii) Spontaneous crystal growth on the stable nuclei.




       Crystals form when the solute concentration in a solvent exceeds solubility product
(supersaturation). The solubility product of calcium carbonate is extremely low (3.3 x 10-
9mol.L-1) at 25oC, hence as soon as Ca2+ and CO32- ion concentration exceed this, CaCO3
will precipitate.Nucleation is affected by temperature, degree of supersaturation and the
presence of other surfaces.
       Bacterial cells themselves can act as nucleation sites for the formation of crystals.
Once stable nuclei are formed they start to grow. A crystal undergoes several transitions
and their growth rate for each mineral phase or growth mechanism is directly related on the
level of supersaturation in the solution. Supersaturation level determines the mineral type of
CaCO3 precipitated and these levels develop with hydrolysis rate. Hence, a metastable

                                                                                         Page | 40
mineral phase like amorphous calcium carbonate and vaterite (spherical crystals) is formed
at high supersaturation level, and they eventually dissolve and reprecipitate as a more
stable calcite (rhombohedral crystals) at lower supersaturation level. However, if a
metastable crystal is coated with a stable calcite a composite mineral structure is formed.
       Ultimately, decay in urease activity after several hours is caused by the cumulative
effect of enzyme excretion, cell decay, wash out, encapsulation in the CaCO3 crystals and
porosity. High salt concentrations or presence of toxic compounds and high temperatures
accelerate cell lysis and loss of hydrolysing capacity.


MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Phenomena occurring during biocementation:
(i) coating of particles and
(ii) partial infilling of void spaces between particles by CaCO3 crystals.

A) Stiffness and Strength

         A correlation exists between CaCO3 content, dry weight and strength. The strength
obtained depends on the dry sand density, as densely packed sand requires less
biocementation as compared to less dense sand to achieve the same strength and the
point-to-point contact of CaCO3 crystal which bridges between 2 adjacent .The maximum
unconfined compressive strength (UCS) achieved at small scale was up to 30MPa and at
large scale was up to 12MPa. The strength mildly
(i) increases with strength of the individual particles and
(ii) decreases with particle size, particle pre-coating with CaCO3 and roundness of particles.
Additionally,reactions that take place very quickly are soft and powder like crystals, while
naturally limestone,etc. form slowly and are very hard. Homogenous development of
strength is influenced by the distribution of bacteria or urease activity; as the bacteria are
either absorbed, strained /and detached during the flow and transportation through the. Few
factors affecting this are:
 (i) Fluid properties like varying viscosity and density of different solutions,
(ii) Cell wall characteristics like hydrophobicity, charge and appendages and
(iii) Solid properties like grain size distribution, surface texture and mineralogy

BACTERIAL CULTIVATION

A) Microorganism
       100L bacterial suspension with S. pasteurii was cultivated under aerobic conditions in
a medium containing 20g.L-1 yeast extract, 10g.L-1 NH4Cl and 10μM NiCl2. The organisms
were grown to late exponential or early stationary phase, harvested and stored at 4 oC prior
to use. S. pasteurii can be cultured in non-sterile environments up to 2 days with maximum
level of contamination not exceeding 5% of the inoculum


                                                                                     Page | 41
B) Protein source
               Maximum bacterial growth & consequently urease activity can be obtained with20gL-1
        yeast extract; beyond this no significant increase can be observed.

        C) Catalysts
               The presence of 10μM Ni2+ ions in the active site of urease aids functional activity as
        well as the structural integrity of the enzyme thus enhancing specific urease activity. Higher
        concentration of Ni2+ ions cause inhibition leading to dramatic drop of urease activity. Ni2+
        ions are supplied in the form of NiCl2. NaOH is used to increase the initial pH to a desirable
        level.

        Fixation solution
               Calcium chloride is used to immobilise the bacteria.
        Reagent Solution
               Solution of Urea and Calcium chloride in equal molar ratio mixed with water are
        injected to initiate the biocementation process.

        Aggregate
               Quarry uniform sand, fine to medium grained (125-250μm).
        Water
               Tap water
        Discussions
               During the biocementation process, by-product NH4Cl is produced, it is an organic
        salt that dissolves in water. This by-product needs to be collected and recycled after the
        process; or else if mingled with local water bodies or groundwater in excessive
        concentrations of ammonium and chlorine could lead to eutrophication and salinization
        respectively.



        ADVANTAGES:

   i.      High crack sealing capacity
  ii.      Less Maintenance and repairs
 iii.      Durable
iv.        Prolonged service life constructions.
  v.       Healing agent , which is bio based.
vi.        Sustainable.
vii.       Good for both economy and environment.




                                                                                             Page | 42
Page | 43
8. SYNDECRETE
       Syndecrete is an eco-friendly concrete alternative made from a wild array of recycled
materials that includes everything from glass to old vinyl LPs. Syndecrete is a precast
concrete material as an alternative to limited or nonrenewable natural materials such as
wood and stone, as well as petroleum-based synthetic solid and laminating materials.
Syndecrete is an advanced cement-based composite using natural minerals and recycled
materials as its primary ingredients. Metal shavings, plastic regrinds, recycled glass chips,
and scrap wood chips are some of the postindustrial and postconsumer recycled materials
incorporated into the Syndecrete matrix.
       These materials are used as decorative aggregates, creating a contemporary
reinterpretation of the Italian tradition of terrazzo. Syndecrete is a solid surfacing material,
which provides consistency of color, texture, and aggregate throughout.
       Compared with conventional concrete, it has less than half the weight with twice the
compressive strength.




       Syndecrete’s broad range of applications and its unique aesthetic qualities
differentiates the product from other environmentally friendly building materials. The
provision of custom Syndecrete products often initiates the use of recycled and
environmentally friendly products to a high-end, design oriented market segment which
might not otherwise be predisposed to seek out recycled products. Although conventional
concrete is not a harmful building material and is less expensive, Syndecrete is a great
alternative for those who are looking to go the extra mile in term of building green.




                                                                                       Page | 44
APPLICATION
       Offered in pre-cast pieces, Syndecrete's unique aesthetic properties include integral
pigmentation and aggregates mixed to create distinctive color and texture palettes. It is
more resistant to potential chipping and cracking than conventional concrete, tile and stone,
and has a workability more akin to wood than cement-based products. Syndecrete can be
used for a variety of interior and exterior applications and for residential and commercial
projects like tiles, tables, fireplace hearths and surrounds, flooring and a variety of custom
accessories.




                                                                                     Page | 45
9. METAMATERIALS

       Metamaterials are artificial materials engineered to have properties that may not be
found in nature. They usually gain their properties from structure rather than composition,
using small in-homogeneities to create effective macroscopic behavior.
       The primary research in metamaterials investigates materials with negative refractive
index. Negative refractive index materials appear to permit the creation of super
lenses which can have a spatial resolution below that of the wavelength. In other work, a
form of 'invisibility' has been demonstrated at least over a narrow wave band with gradient-
index materials. Although the first metamaterials were
electromagnetic, acoustic and seismic metamaterials are also areas of active research.

      Metamaterials are often associated with negative refraction and this property has
gained substantial attention because of its potential for cloaking invisibility devices and
microscopy with super-resolution.




                                                                                       Page | 46
APPLICATION

       The application possibilities of metamaterials are found in industrial sectors like
Information and Communication Technologies, Space and Security & Defense, but also
applications in Health, Energy and Environmental areas are foreseen.

       Examples of devices that have been realised during the past years are:

> Sensors
> Superlensing
> Cloaking
> Light emitting diodes / cavities for low-threshold lasers

and these were based on controlling the wave propagation and used dynamic, re-
configurable and tunable materials.



CHARACTERIZATION

      Metamaterial properties are not only determined by their material parameters, shape,
and concentration of the constituent inclusions and due to this increased complexity
characterisation has become a science in itself.

       Metamaterials consist of periodic structures. An electromagnetic metamaterial
affects electromagnetic waves by having structural features smaller than the wavelength of
the respective electromagnetic wave. In addition, if a metamaterial is to behave as a
homogeneous material accurately described by an effective refractive index, its features
must be much smaller than the wavelength.

       Photonic metamaterials, at the scale of nanometers, are being studied in order to
manipulate light at optical frequencies. Plasmonic metamaterials utilize surface plasmons,
which are packets of electrical charges that collectively oscillate at the surfaces of metals at
optical frequencies.Another structure which can exhibit sub wavelength characteristics are
frequency selective surfaces (FSS) known as Artificial Magnetic Conductors(AMC) or
alternately called High Impedance Surfaces (HIS). These also have inductive and
capacitive characteristics, which are directly related to its sub wavelength structure.
       Photonic crystals and frequency-selective surfaces such as diffraction gratings,
dielectric mirrors, and optical coatings do have apparent similarities to sub wavelength
structured metamaterials. However, these are usually considered distinct from sub
wavelength structures, as their features are structured for the wavelength at which they
function, and thus cannot be approximated as a homogeneous material.
       However, novel-material structures such as photonic crystals are effective with
the visible light spectrum. The middle of the visible spectrum has a wavelength of
approximately 560 nm (for sunlight), the photonic crystal structures are generally half this
size or smaller, that is <280 nm.

                                                                                       Page | 47
NEGATIVE REFRACTIVE INDEX
       The greatest potential of metamaterials is the possibility to create a structure with a
negative refractive index, since this property is not found in any non-synthetic material.
Almost all materials encountered in optics, such as glass or water, have positive values for
both permittivity (ε) and permeability (µ). However, many metals (such as silver and gold)
have negative ε at visible wavelengths. A material having either (but not both) ε or µ
negative is opaque to electromagnetic radiation.
       Although the optical properties of a transparent material are fully specified by the
parameters εr and µr, refractive index n is often used in practice, which can be determined
from            . All known non-metamaterial transparent materials possess positive εr and
µr. By convention the positive square root is used for n.
       Negative refractive index is an important characteristic in metamaterial design and
fabrication. As reverse-refraction media, these occur when both permittivity ε and
permeability µ are negative. Furthermore, this condition occurs mathematically from the
vector triplet E, H and k.
       In ordinary, everyday materials – solid, liquid, or gas; transparent or opaque;
conductor or insulator – the conventional refractive index dominates. This means that
permittivity and permeability are both positive resulting in an ordinary index of refraction.
However, metamaterials have the capability to exhibit a state where both permittivity and
permeability are negative, resulting in an extraordinary, index of negative refraction.




A negative refractive index metamaterial which bends light in the wrong direction



CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC METAMATERIALS
1. Negative index materials

                                                                                     Page | 48
In negative index metamaterials (NIM), both permittivity and permeability are negative
resulting in a negative index of refraction. Hence, because of the double negative
parameters these are also known as Double Negative Metamaterials or double negative
materials (DNG). Other terminologies for NIMs are "left-handed media", "media with a
negative refractive index", and "backward-wave media", along with other nomenclatures.


2. Single negative metamaterials
    In single negative (SNG) metamaterials either relative permittivity (εr) or relative
permeability (µr) are negative, but not both. They exhibit properties such as resonances,
anomalous tunneling, transparency, and zero reflection. Like negative index materials,
SNGs are innately dispersive, so their εr, µr, and refraction index n, will alter with changes in
frequency.
3. Electromagnetic bandgap metamaterials
    Electromagnetic bandgap metamaterials control the propagation of light. This is
accomplished with either a class of metamaterial known as photonic crystals (PC), or
another class known as left-handed materials (LHM). PCs can prohibit light propagation
altogether. However, both the PC and LHM are capable of allowing it to propagate in
certain, designed directions, and both can be designed to have electromagnetic bandgaps
at desired frequencies. In addition, metamaterials such as Photonic crystals (PC) are
complex, periodic, materials and are considered to be electromagnetic bandgap material.
4. Double positive medium
    Double positive mediums (DPS) do occur in nature such as naturally occurring
dielectrics. Permittivity and magnetic permeability are both positive and wave propagation is
in the forward direction. Artificial materials have been fabricated which have DPS, ENG, and
MNG properties combined.
5. Bi-isotropic and bianisotropic metamaterials
   Categorizing metamaterials into double or single negative, or double positive, is normally
done based on the assumption that the metamaterial has independent electric and magnetic
responses described by the parameters ε and µ. Media which exhibit magneto-electric
coupling, and which are also anisotropic (which is the case for many commonly used
metamaterial structures), are referred to as bi-anisotropic are denoted as bi-anisotropic.
6. Chiral metamaterials
    When a metamaterial is constructed from chiral elements then it is considered to be a
chiral metamaterial, and the effective parameter k will be non-zero. This is a potential
source of confusion as within the metamaterial literature there are two conflicting uses of the
terms left and right-handed. The first refers to one of the two circularly polarized waves
which are the propagating modes in chiral media. The second relates to the triplet of electric
field, magnetic field and Pointing vector which arise in negative refractive index media,
which in most cases are not chiral.




                                                                                        Page | 49
METAMATERIAL GEOMETRIES




                   Typical geometries of artificial dielectrics [collin]

 WIRE MEDIA
    Artificial materials formed by electrically dense arrays of thin conducting wires were
originally proposed as artificial dielectrics with the effective permittivity smaller than
unity.Only recently it was realised that wire media possess strong spatial dispersion even in
the quasi-static limit. This is because metal wire lattices support propagating transverse
electromagnetic (TEM) or quasi-TEM waves along the wires. These fields of these waves
depend on the longitudinal coordinate (along the wires) as the planewave
fields. Basically, they are transmission-line modes similar to those in two-wire transmission
line or a coaxial cable. Because they behave as propagating plane waves, they propagate
with very little decay at electrically long distances, thus creating strong nonlocality in the
effective material response (strong spatial dispersion).The effective permittivity component
along the wires reads, for electrically dense grids of thin parallel wires.
Here k is the wave number in the host medium, is the effective plasma wave number, and
kz is the propagation constant along the wires. The permittivity becomes very large for
specific values of the longitudinal wave and this is called strong frequency dispersion.This
strong frequency dispersion was utilised in the design of low-loss superlenses, including
magnifying.




                         TYPICAL GEOMETRIES OF WIRE MEDIA


 ARTIFICIAL BI-ANISOTROPIC MEDIA AND RELATED INCLUSION
  GEOMETRIES
 Reciprocal metamaterials
  Due to specific shapes of these particles, applied electric field induces both electric and
magnetic dipole moments. Likewise, a magnetic field produces both magnetic and electric

                                                                                     Page | 50
polarizations.It can be shown that arbitrary reciprocal bi-anisotropic effect can be realised
using composite material containing inclusions of only these two basic shapes.




                      Chiral inclusion (left) and omega inclusion (right).

  Nonreciprocal bi-anisotropic metamaterials
   Bi-anisotropy is also possible in materials containing naturally magnetic inclusions
biased by some external magnetic fields coupled to some metal or dielectric inclusions. The
magneto-electric coupling coefficient is a time-odd parameter proportional to the bias
magnetic field (or other external parameter that changes sign under time inversion. The
realisation of metamaterials with very unusual properties (for example, emulating
properties of moving media in composite materials at rest) can allow the realisation of
arbitrary linear field transformations using metamaterials




               An inclusion shape for the realisation of artificial moving media

 ARTIFICIAL MAGNETICS AND RELEVANT INCLUSION GEOMETRIES
  Shapes of inclusions for artificial magnetic materials should be chosen carefully, so that
  1) the stronger bi-anisotropy effects would be forbidden due to the geometrical
  symmetry and

    2) among all the secondorder effects the artificial magnetism would dominate. For
    microwave applications, this is relatively easy as the dimensions are in the order of a
    millimeter, but the theory is equally valid for nanostructured metamaterials. The key to
    the design is to choose the shape so that induced currents form loops with a rather

                                                                                    Page | 51
uniform distribution of the induced current, which then produces a strong magnetic
 moment




  SOME GEOMETRIES OF METAL PARTICLES USED TO REALISE ARTIFICIAL
                     MAGNETIC MATERIALS.




SOME GEOMETRIES PROMISING FOR THE REALISATION OF OPTICAL ARTIFICIAL
                           MAGNETICS.




                                                                           Page | 52
SOME GEOMETRIES USED TO REALIZE BACKWARD WAVES AND NEGATIVE
                             REFRACTION.

APPLICATION

   Biosensors

       Metamaterials can be used to provide more sensitive guiding modes (based on
plasmon-mediated interaction between the inclusions which shows resonant excitation
conditions).Surface plasmons occur at a metal/dielectric interface and are extremely
sensitive to the refractive index of the dielectric medium within the penetration depth of the
evanescent field. The metamaterial inclusions can be functionalized with receptors
on their surface. If the matrix consists of nanoporous material it allows analytes to reach the
receptor and the refractive index will be changed upon binding. The reflection spectrum
depends on this refractive index.

   Superlens

    A superlens (or perfect lens) is a lens, which uses metamaterials to go beyond the
diffraction limit. The diffraction limit is an inherent limitation in conventional optical devices or
lenses. A lens consisting of a negative index metamaterial could compensate for wave
decay and could reconstruct images in the near field. In addition, both propagating and
evanescent waves contribute to the resolution of the image and resolution underneath the
diffraction limit will be possible.

   Cloaking
                                                                                            Page | 53
A cloaking device is an advanced stealth technology that causes an object to be partially
or wholly invisible to parts of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum (at least one wavelength
of EM emissions) Scientists are using metamaterials to bend light around an object.




   Tags to store and process information

    A remote detection via high-frequency electromagnetic fields will be possible due to the
collective response of magnonic crystals at elevated frequencies.




                                                                                    Page | 54
10. BULKFULLERENE
        These are organic solar cells that have the potential to be low-cost and efficient solar
energy converters, with a promising energy balance. They are made of carbon-based
semiconductors, which exhibit favourable light absorption and charge generation properties,
and can be manufactured by low temperature processes such as printing from solvent-
based inks, which are compatible with flexible plastic substrates or even paper.
        In a real device, the absorption in the photoactive blend cannot be 100%, because
the active layer (AL) is embedded within a stack of several layers, which have different
complex refractive indexes. Thus, absorption can occur in some layer located between the
incident medium and the AL, and reflection can happen at any interface located before the
bulk of the active layer.
        At present, the active materials used for the fabrication of solar cells are mainly
inorganic materials, such as silicon (Si), gallium-arsenide (GaAs), cadmium-telluride
(CdTe), and cadmiumindium-selenide (CIS). The power conversion efficiency for these solar
cells varies from 8 to 29%. With regard to the technology used, these solar cells can be
divided into two classes. The crystalline solar cells or silicon solar cells are made of either
(mono- or poly-) crystalline silicon or GaAs. About 85% of the PV market is shared by these
crystalline solar cells. Amorphous silicon, CdTe, and CI(G)S are based on more recent thin-
film technologies.

COMPOSITION AND WORKING
        A plastic solar cell typically consists of a photoactive layer sandwiched between a
substrate covered with a transparent electrode, and a top electrode. Charges are generated
under the influence of light in the photoactive layer. Subsequently, these charges are
collected at both electrodes. This way light is converted into electricity.
The photoactive layer in organic solar cells generally contains two components. One
component is an electron-donating material (easily oxidized, the donor, p-type) and the
other one an electron-accepting material (easily reduced, the acceptor, n-type). The use of
two components with different electronic levels is one of the most important design concepts
in organic solar cells. Photo-excitations in an organic semiconductor have exciton character,
i.e. a photo-excitation does not result in free charges, but in a bound electron-hole pair. By
using a combination of donor and acceptor materials, dissociation of the exciton is achieved
at the interface of both materials. The process of charge separation at the interface between
donor and acceptor after absorption of light is referred to as photo-induced charge transfer.


 The bulk-heterojunction solar cell,is the most photoactive solar cell these days because
  the interface (heterojunction) between both components is all over the bulk , in contrast
  to the classical (bilayer-) heterojunction. As a result of the intimate mixing, the interface
  where charge transfer can occur, has increased enormously. The exciton, created after
  the absorption of light, has to diffuse towards this charge-transfer interface for charge
  generation to occur. The diffusion length of the exciton in organic materials, however, is
  typically 10 nm or less. This means that for efficient charge generation after absorption
  of light, each exciton has to find a donor-acceptor interface within a few nm, otherwise it
                                                                                       Page | 55
will be lost without charge generation. An intimate bi-continuous network of donor and
   acceptor materials in the nanometer range should suppress exciton loss prior to charge
   generation. Control of morphology is not only required for a large charge-generating
   interface and suppression of exciton loss, but also to ensure percolation pathways for
   both electron and hole transport to the collecting electrodes.




       In a bulk-heterojunction solar cell the interface between the donor (p-type) and the
acceptor (n-type) material is all over the bulk. Right: The dye-sensitized solar cell. After
absorption of light by the N3 sensitizer, an electron is transferred to the porous TiO2 solid
and via TiO2 transported to the transparent bottom electrode. The electron transfer is
followed by reduction of the N3 sensitizer by the liquid redox electrolyte. Subsequently, the
electrolyte is reduced by the metal top electrode. The reduction of the dye followed by
reduction of the electrolyte is equivalent to transport of a positive charge to the metal top
electrode



    In 2000 polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells reached power conversion
efficiencies of < 1%. Improving the performance, stability, and lifetime of bulk-heterojunction
solar cells requires more insight in the preparation, and operation of these devices.

    Carrier substrate : Glass has been used as the carrier substrate because of its ease
     of handling , its good gas-barrier, optical, adherence, and highly insulating properties,
     glass is an excellent substrate, albeit for non-flexible applications only.
    Transparent bottom electrode : For a solar cell (and other opto-electronic
     applications, as light-emitting diodes) at least one transparent electrode is required.
     Typically, a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) is used, deposited on the carrier
     substrate. A TCO should combine a high conductivity (or low sheet resistance) with a
     high transparency, good substrate adherence, and a low surface roughness. The
     latter is necessary to prevent shunting in solar cells, and the growth of dark spots in
     organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Additionally, the workfunction of the TCO should
     allow for a large open-circuit voltage (Voc) without introducing a collection barrier.
     Finally, the TCO should be stable, and not degrade the organic semiconductor.
    Active layer : Creating a sharp, well-defined interface between two organic layers,
     both applied from solution, is only possible when the bottom organic (conductive)
     layer is not dissolved by the solution used to deposit the top (active) layer. Owing to
                                                                                       Page | 56
its ionic character, PEDOT:PSS hardly dissolves in the aromatic solvents typically
  used for conjugated polymers. For stacked layers of polymers with comparable
  solubility characteristics, cross linking the polymer in the bottom layer before applying
  the top layer can prevent re-dissolving. The same procedures can also be used for
  stabilization of the morphology in general.The most widely used TCO in bulk-
  heterojunction solar cells (and other plastic electronics) is indium tin oxide (ITO), a
  composite oxide where indium oxide (typically > 90%) is doped with tin oxide (<
  10%). Glass substrates coated with a thin ITO layer can be obtained from
  commercial sources.
 Top electrode. The top electrode is usually a metal that is thermally evaporated under
  high vacuum. Depending on (the application and) the LUMO level of the underlying
  photoactive organic, metals with low (~3 eV, such as Ca, Ba, and Yb) or moderate
  (~4 eV, such as Al, and Ag) workfunctions are required. For polymer fullerene bulk-
  heterojunction solar cells aluminum is typically used as the top electrode.
 Encapsulation. After all conductive and semiconductive layers are applied, the
  devices are typically encapsulated. Encapsulation or packaging of organic
  semiconductor devices is crucial to extent the device lifetime. Especially water and
  oxygen have to be excluded to prevent photooxidation of the conjugated polymer and
  conversion of the metal electrode into an oxide (or hydroxide). Mixing fullerenes into
  a conjugated polymer matrix has been found to suppress photo-oxidation
  dramatically. Apart from a gas barrier and resistance to moisture, the packaging
  material must fulfill several requirements, such as for heat dissipation and electrical
  insulation




                                                                                  Page | 57
11. METAL FOAM

        A metal foam is a cellular structure consisting of a solid metal, frequently aluminium,
containing a large volume fraction of gas-filled pores. The pores can be sealed (closed-
cell foam), or they can form an interconnected network (open-cell foam). The defining
characteristic of metal foams is a very high porosity: typically 75–95% of the volume
consists of void spaces. The strength of foamed metal possesses a power law relationship
to its density; i.e., a 20% dense material is more than twice as strong as a 10% dense
material.
       Metallic foams typically retain some physical properties of their base material. Foam
made from non-flammable metal will remain non-flammable and the foam is generally
recyclable back to its base material. Coefficient of thermal expansion will also remain similar
while thermal conductivity will likely be reduced.
       Metal foam is sometimes considered a subset of cellular metallic materials in general,
which also includes "metal sponges," though often the term "metal foams" is used
interchangeably with all cellular metallic materials. Several categories of cellular metallic
materials are distinguished, including cellular metal (metal foam with internal cells, usually
closed), porous metal (with closed, smoothly curved voids (pores) rather than jagged or
open voids), metallic foams (special cases of porous metals, created by bubbling gas
through liquid metal and then letting it solidify), and metal sponges, which is essentially
open-cell foam where the entire space of voids is interconnected. These categories are not
mutually exclusive, and there are some substances that straddle multiple categories.

   The Reticulated Metallic Foams offer a cost effective and ultra high performance thermal
    management technology that can be integrated with advanced high performance
    electronic, photonic devices and with many other challenging applications.
   The metal foam based thermal technology is generic, flexible and scaleable.
    It is generic in terms of its compatibility with the cooling media ranging from DI water,
    inert fluorocarbons, and jet fuel to air He or Ar.
   It is flexible it terms of its compatibility with various semiconductor devices and
    substrates such as Si, GaAs, and SiC, SiN not excluding many other ceramic metallic or
    composite materials.
   The metal foam based thermal technology is scaleable both in size and performance so
    that it could be applied to not only discrete devices but also to Hybrid Multi Chip Modules
    (HMCM) integrating photonic and electronic devices, and also to double sided Printed
    Wiring Boards (PWB) with constraining cores.
   The most significant benefits of the proposed technology include; elimination of as many
    thermal interfaces between the source of heat dissipation and the heat sink i.e. the
    ambient viewed as the circulating coolant in an open loop (air) or closed loop system
    (liquid or gas).


                                                                                      Page | 58
   The advanced Integral RMF based Heat Exchanger HX technology offers significant
    cost, volume, weight and performance advantages relative to the state-of-art alternate
    approaches.




       Structure of metal foam and dodecahedron having 12 pentagon shaped facets
APPLICATIONS:
1. Progressive Collapse of Steel Buildings
2. Biomedical
3. Automotive and Aerospace
4. Power Plants
5. Noise Reduction
6. Fire Retardant
7. Seismic
8. Fully recyclable and thus environmentally friendly
9. High capability to absorb crash energy
10. Low thermal conductivity and magnetic permeability


         Many metal foams are created by introducing air bubbles into molten metal. Making a
foam out of molten metal is not easy, and the material is accordingly expensive. A foaming
agent such as powdered titanium hydride, which decomposes into titanium and hydrogen at
high temperatures, must be used. Metal foam is a specialty material, used for
aerospace, heat exchangers, and other high-performance applications. Because metal foam
is stiff and light, it has often been proposed as a futuristic structural material, though it has
not yet seriously been used as one. Some commercial metal foams include M-Pore, Porvair,
Duocel, Metal Foam Korea, Metafoam and Recemat. The pores in metal foams are usually
between 1-8 mm in diameter, but some specialty foams have pores so small they are
invisible to the naked eye.




                                                                                        Page | 59
OPEN CELL METAL FOAMS
       Open celled metal foams are usually replicas using open-celled polyurethane foams
as a skeleton and have a wide variety of applications including heat exchangers (compact
electronics cooling, cryogen tanks, PCM heat exchangers), energy absorption, flow diffusion
and lightweight optics. Due to the high cost of the material it is most typically used in
advanced technology, aerospace, and manufacturing.
       Extremely fine-scale open-cell foams, with cells too small to be visible to the naked
eye, are used as high-temperature filters in the chemical industry.
       Metallic foams are nowadays used in the field of compact heat exchangers to
increase heat transfer at the cost of an additional pressure drop. However, their use permits
to reduce substantially the physical size of a heat exchanger, and so fabrication costs. To
model these materials, most works uses idealized and periodic structures or averaged
macroscopic properties.




CLOSED CELL METAL FOAMS
       Metal foams are commonly made by injecting a gas or mixing a foaming
agent (frequently TiH2) into molten metal. In order to stabilize the molten metal bubbles,
high temperature foaming agents (nano- or micrometer- sized solid particles) are required.
The size of the pores, or cells, is usually 1 to 8 mm.
       Closed-cell metal foams are primarily used as an impact-absorbing material, similarly
to the polymer foams in a bicycle helmet but for higher impact loads. Unlike many polymer
foams, metal foams remain deformed after impact and can therefore only be used once.
They are light (typically 10–25% of the density of an identical non-porous alloy; commonly
those of aluminium) and stiff, and are frequently proposed as a lightweight structural
material. However, they have not yet been widely used for this purpose.
      Closed-cell foams retain the fire resistant and recycling capability of other metallic
foams but add the ability to float in water.




                                                                                    Page | 60
Metal Foam Has A Good Memory
       A new class of materials known as "magnetic shape-memory foams" has been
developed. The foam consists of a nickel-manganese-gallium alloy whose structure
resembles a piece of Swiss cheese with small voids of space between thin, curvy "struts" of
material. The struts have a bamboo-like grain structure that can lengthen, or strain, up to 10
percent when a magnetic field is applied. Strain is the degree to which a material deforms
under load. In this instance, the force came from a magnetic field rather a physical load.
Force from magnetic fields can be exerted over long range, making them advantageous for
many applications. The alloy material retains its new shape when the field is turned off, but
the magnetically sensitive atomic structure returns to its original structure if the field is
rotated 90 degrees--a phenomenon called "magnetic shape-memory.

       Traditional polycrystalline materials are not porous and exhibit near zero strains due
to mechanical constraints at the boundaries between each grain. In contrast, a single crystal
exhibits a large strain as there are no internal boundaries. By introducing voids into the
polycrystalline alloy, the researchers have made a porous material that has less internal
mechanical constraint and exhibits a reasonably large degree of strain.


                                                                                     Page | 61
12. LIQUID GRANITE
       Liquid Granite offers a real breakthrough in reducing fire risk in buildings as, unlike
concrete, it doesn't explode at high temperatures. It can also withstand high temperatures
for longer periods, offering valuable minutes in the case of a fire. The material is made up of
between 30 and 70 per cent recycled material, mainly base products from industry. It uses
less than one third of the cement used in precast concrete, which also reduces its carbon
footprint.
       Liquid Granite is a very versatile material that can be used in a similar way to
concrete. The fact it has a high level of fire resistance means that it can be used in areas
where fire safety is crucial, such as around power stations, and in domestic and commercial
buildings can offer added time for evacuation in case of an emergency
The product replaces most of the cement in standard concrete with a secret formula of
products to change the basic properties of the material. I believe it has great potential for
the future.

QUALITIES AVD VERSITALITY

1. Heat

2. Strength - compressive strength of upto 80N/mm2.

3. Reinforcement

4. Moisture

5. Eco benifits



APPLICATIONS

 ENGINEERED STONE
   Liquid Granite provides a green alternative to natural stone without compromising on
durability, looks and quality. It's special mixing and setting characteristics enable even the
most complex of shapes to be cast, whilst its durability and finishes allowed to be used in
areas where even the most demanding of finishes are expected

 STRUCTURAL CONCRETE
    It can be used to replace normal structural concrete and provide fire rated sections. as
liquid granite does not spall in a fire situation like normal concrete introduces the possibility
of reducing the section dimensions.

 REFRACTORY ENVIRONMENTS
   Combining the robustness of with the thermal resistance of a,refractory cast able. It can
also be used to provide extremely durable flooring around furnaces etc.


                                                                                        Page | 62
Liquid Granite is made from an inorganic powder, 30-70% of which is recycled
industrial waste materials. Using the same aggregates as normal concrete, it could be used
anywhere cement is but with a fraction of the carbon footprint.




                                                                                   Page | 63
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Advanced Building Materials

  • 1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Page | 1
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Material science, in the guises of high-tech techniques, smart substances, intelligent interfaces and sensory surfaces, are radically redefining the world we live in. Today’s generation of materials breaks new ground, many are able to anticipate and respond to changes in the environment. Now dynamic and interactive, materials have the power to change how the human body experiences and how the urban environment is built. Combined with the new potentials they create for industrial design and medical science, they have the capacity to transform our way of life more radically now than ever before. In nature organisms are not so structured and flexible like they are in the man made world. For example, the gathering of solar energy to create food, or water to nourish the plant or structural changes in plants to deal with various weather conditions all vary from organism to organism. Low cost or affordable construction technologies and materials are often touted as a panacea in meeting the ever growing demand for rapid housing delivery in developing economies. New advanced materials offer opportunities to change the way in which we construct and retrofit buildings. They give added value in terms of increased performance and functionality. New materials can also help address the new challenges of durability in a changing climate and help meet CO2 reduction targets. CLASSIFICATION Advanced building materials are in general clasified as: I. Intelligent building materials II. Interactive building materials Intelligent building materials; are those which can sense, respond to temperature, action, stimuli etc on their own. They react as per the built in program or the commands which are pre-fed on the chip. These are more like having their own brains and acting upon their own decisions and senses. Interactive building materials ; are those which are developed for the ease of humans but along with also have nature to develop a sensible relationship with human world. These require command or external force to perform their function. These are similar to machines like microwave, television etc. which respond to your choice and interest. Page | 2
  • 3. GENERAL MATERIAL TRENDS: 1) Green materials 2) Materials as fashion 3) Security 4) modern 5) Digital technology 6) nano technology 7) Biomimicry 8) miscellaneous PROPERTIES OR BASIC TRENDS INADVANCED MATERIALS: 1. Temperature (heating/cooling) 2. Ventilation 3. Lighting 4. Illumination 5. Energy conservation 6. Low cost cum highly durable 7. Sustainable / green 8. Clean / cleanser Page | 3
  • 4. CHAPTER II AIMS & OBJECTIVES Page | 4
  • 5. AIM: Learning the role and contribution of advanced construction technologies (ACTs) in promoting the provision of sustainable shelter, water and development. " RESPECTING THE NEEDS OF PEOPLE, FORMS, AND NATURE MOVING BEYOND THE MODULE AND DILIGENTLY STUDYING THE NEED FOR THE ADVANCED MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION DESIGN PRACTICAL, COST EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS " SCOPE:  MATERIALS ARE REGARDED AS ONE OF THE RICHEST SOURCES OF INNOVATION  AT THE DAWN OF THE 21ST CENTURY, MATERIALS ADVANCED TO BECOME MORE ADAPTABLE, TACTILE AND EMPATHIC, AND THE DEMAND FOR OBJECTS WITH SCULPTURAL, AESTHETIC AND MULTI-FUNCTIONAL QUALITIES ROCKETED  NO LONGER INTENDED FOR PRACTICAL USE ALONE, MATERIALS ARE PLAYING AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN TAKING AESTHETICS FORWARD.  THESE MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED TO BE RESPONSIVE TO EXTERNAL STIMULI SUCH AS STRESS, TEMPERATURE, MOISTURE, PH, ELECTRIC OR MAGNETIC FIELDS. THEIR PROPERTIES SUCH AS SHAPE, COLOUR, STIFFNESS OR VISCOSITY CAN BE CHANGED SIGNIFICANTLY IN A PREDICTABLE OR CONTROLLABLE MANNER IN RESPONSE TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT. Page | 5
  • 6. CHAPTER III MATERIALS & FABRICARION Page | 6
  • 7. MATERIAL LIST 1. Lotusan 2. Aerogel 3. Titanium Dioxide Facade 4. Fiber Composite Adaptive System 5. Translucent Concrete 6. Transparent Alluminium 7. Bioconcrete 8. Syndecrete 9. Metamaterials 10. Bulkfullerene 11. Metal Foam 12. Liquid Granite 13. Bendable Concrete 14. Magnetic Curtains 15. ETFE 16. Solar Shingles Page | 7
  • 8. 1. LOTUSAN The lotus plant is a symbol of cleanliness and purity in some Eastern religions, which makes sense considering that the plant essentially cleans itself. A lotus plant’s leaves stay dry even after a rainfall. Water beads on the surface and runs off like mercury. Dirt and other residue roll off with the raindrops, so the leaves look clean even after being splashed with mud. Sto Corp. has duplicated that “lotus effect” in Lotusan, its self-cleaning silicone exterior paint. Lotusan was introduced to Europe in 1999, and now, it’s being sold in North America for the first time. Lotusan’s extreme resistance to water is a product of Sto technology. The coating, after it is applied, mimics the microstructure of the surface of a lotus leaf. Tiny peaks and valleys on the surface minimize the contact area for water and dirt. As a result, the coating is highly resistant to dirt, mold and mildew, and it offers excellent resistance to weather, chalk and UV rays. Non lotusan painted wall lotusan painted wall The new surface technology also reduces the risk of attack by microorganisms. Algae and fungal spores are either washed off or are unable to survive on a dry and dirt-free exterior. According to a 2002 study, the level of germs on a Lotusan surface after three years was 90 per cent lower than that on surface coated with a conventional paint product. Page | 8
  • 9. With typical paints, water drops flatten and streak instead of beading and rolling off like they do with Lotusan. Even Sto’s other silicone coatings don’t resist moisture nearly as .And since dirt rolls off with water, exteriors treated with this coating tend to retain their good looks. Lotusan boasts high water-vapor permeability. Lotusan is a flat finish paint available in 38 standard colors (Sto’s “classic color collection”) plus custom color tints. The coating can be used for new construction and recoat projects over concrete, stucco, EIFS, and fiber cement board substrates. PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS • Water dilutable, physiologically and ecologically safe (free from aromatic solvents) • Highly impermeable to water as soon as coating has cured • Highest water repellency achievable for coatings • Effectively reduced adhesion of dirt particles • Excellent weather-, chalk- and UV- resistance • Excellent breathability for water vapor and CO2 • Increased natural protection against algae and fungal attack owing to removal of the elements fundamental to their existence, i.e. water and dirt deposits • Ideal protection against humidity and dirt, even for highly-stressed weather-exposed facades • Excellent adhesion to mineral and organic substrates • Easy application by brush, roller and airless spray • Mineral, extremely matt finish. How the lotus effect works: Sto Lotusan has a micro-structural surface which considerably reduces the contact area for dirt particles and water.Combined with Sto silicone quality, this results in a super hydrophobic, water-repellent surface. Dirt particles which adhere only loosely, are easily carried away by raindrops. COST: According to an estimate, it costs nearly $1,500-$3,000 for an average single-story, three-bedroom home to be painted externally. The cost easily run $3,000-$5,500 in the case of a multi-storey house. To paint a 3000 square foot home externally, nearly 15 gallons of paint is required. The cost of average quality paint per gallon is $25-$40. Page | 9
  • 10. 2. AEROGEL An Aerogel is an open-celled, mesoporous, solid foam that is composed of a network of interconnected nanostructures and that exhibits a porosity (non-solid volume) of no less than 50% It is a synthetic porous material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with a gas. The result is a solid with extremely low density and thermal conductivity. It is nicknamed frozen smoke, solid smoke, solid air or blue smoke owing to its translucent nature and the way light scatters in the material; however, it feels like expanded polystyrene (styrofoam) to the touch. Aerogel was first created by Samuel Stephens Kistler in 1931, as a result of a bet with Charles Learned over who could replace the liquid in "jellies" with gas without causing shrinkage. Aerogels are produced by extracting the liquid component of a gel through supercritical drying. This allows the liquid to be slowly drawn off without causing the solid matrix in the gel to collapse from capillary action, as would happen with conventional evaporation. The first aerogels were produced from silica gels. Kistler's later work involved aerogels based on alumina, chromia and tin dioxide. Carbon aerogels were first developed in the late 1980s. Aerogels are dry materials (unlike “regular” gels, which are usually wet like gelatin dessert). The word aerogel refers to the fact that aerogels are derived from gels–effectively the solid structure of a wet gel, only with a gas or vacuum in its pores instead of liquid. PRODUCT CHARACTERSTICS: Despite its incredibly low density, aerogel is one of the most powerful materials on the planet. It can support thousands of times its own weight, block out intense heat, cold and sound – yet it is 1,000 times less dense than glass, nearly as transparent and is composed of %99.8 air. The lowest-density silica-based aerogels are even lighter than air.Despite its fragility in certain regards and its incredible lack of density, aerogel has amazing thermal, acoustical and electrical insulation properties. Aside from its other capabilities, aerogel also has amazing absorbing abilities. Some speculate it could be the future solution to oil spills. It is also being tested as a possible slow-release drug deliver system for potential human patients. Pressing softly on an aerogel typically does not leave a mark; pressing more firmly will leave a permanent depression. Pressing firmly enough will cause a catastrophic breakdown in the sparse structure, causing it to shatter like glass – a property known as friability; although more modern variations do not suffer from this. Despite the fact that it is prone to shattering, it is very strong structurally. Its impressive load bearing abilities are due to thedendritic microstructure, in which spherical particles of average size 2–5 nm are fused together into clusters. Page | 10
  • 11. Owing to its hygroscopic nature, aerogel feels dry and acts as a strong desiccant. Persons handling aerogel for extended periods should wear gloves to prevent the appearance of dry brittle spots on their skin. The slight color it does have is due to Rayleigh scattering of the shorter wavelengths of visible light by the nanosized dendritic structure. This causes it to appear smoky blue against dark backgrounds and yellowish against bright backgrounds. Aerogels by themselves are hydrophilic, but chemical treatment can make them hydrophobic. If they absorb moisture they usually suffer a structural change, such as contraction, and deteriorate, but degradation can be prevented by making them hydrophobic. Aerogels with hydrophobic interiors are less susceptible to degradation than aerogels with only an outer hydrophobic layer, even if a crack penetrates the surface. Hydrophobic treatment facilitates processing because it allows the use of a water jet cutter. (A) Low dense,& transparent (B) High heat resistance (C) Smoky blue colour of scattered light (D) Low thermal conductivity (E) High surface area, structurally strong Page | 11
  • 12. APPLICATION FACTS: • A single one-pound block can support half a ton of weight. • An aerogel window one inch thick has the effective insulative capacity of a ten-inch thick glass window system. KEY CHARACTERISTICS*: • Extremely low thermal conductivity : 9-12mW/mK • High porosity : >90% air • Nano-sized pores : 20-40 nanometers • High surface area : ~750m2/g • Very low tap density : 30-100kg/m3 • High oil absorption capacity (DBP) : 540g/100g • Specific heat capacity : .7-1.15 kJ/(kg*K) • Variety of particle sizes : 5 microns-4mm • Surface chemistry : Completely hydrophobic • Opacity : Translucent, IR opacified and opaque *Characteristics vary depending on application, temperature and form. COMPOSITION : Aerogel is not like conventional foams, but is a special porous material with extreme microporosity on a micron scale. It is composed of individual features only a few nanometers in size. These are linked in a highly porous dendritic-like structure. Aerogel is a silica-based substance consisting of a loose dendritic network of the atom silicon. Aerogel is manufactured by removing the liquid from a silica alcogel and replacing it with nothing but air, which makes up 99.8 percent of the final product. Some aerogels have a density as low as .001 grams per cubic centimeter (.0005 ounces per cubic inch). Aerogel is made by high temperature and pressure-critical-point drying of a gel composed of colloidal silica structural units filled with solvents. RANGE OF APPLICATIONS INCLUDES:  Architectural daylighting  Oil and gas pipelines  Coatings formulations  Industrial and cryogenic plants and vessels  Building insulation  Outdoor gear and apparel  Personal care products Page | 12
  • 13. FORMATION OF AEROGEL Aerogels are open-cell polymers with pores less than 50 nanometers in diameter. In a process known as sol-gel polymerization, simple molecules called monomers suspended in solution react with one another to form a sol, or collection, of colloidal clusters. The macromolecules become bonded and cross-linked, forming a nearly solid, transparent sol- gel. An aerogel is produced by carefully drying the sol-gel so that the fragile network does not collapse. Sol-gel polymerization is a bulk process with no way to control the size of the sols or the way they come together. The structure and density of the final aerogel are dictated to some extent by the conditions during polymerization such as temperature, pH, type of catalyst, and so on. But with current fabrication methods, the aerogel's structure cannot be controlled at the molecular level. Page | 13
  • 14. NOTE Although it’s true that a typical silica aerogel could hold up to 2000 times its weight in applied force, this only holds if the force is gently and uniformly applied. Also, keep in mind that aerogels are also very light, and 2000 times the weight of an aerogel still might not be very much. Additionally, most aerogels as-produced are extremely brittle and friable (that is, they tend to fragment and pulverize). But there are several ways aerogels can be made strong and even flexible, enough that aerogels can now be used as structural elements.There are four general ways to enhance the mechanical properties of aerogels: 1. Liquid-phase crosslinking 2. Vapor-phase crosslinking 3. Fiber reinforcing, and 4. Reduced bonding WHAT ARE AEROGELS MADE OF? The term aerogel does not refer to a particular substance, but rather to a geometry which a substance can take on–the same way a sculpture can be made out of clay, plastic, papier-mâché, etc., aerogels can be made of a wide variety of substances, including:  Silica  Most of the transition metal oxides (for example, iron oxide)  Most of the lanthanide and actinide metal oxides (for example, praseodymium oxide)  Several main group metal oxides (for example, tin oxide)  Organic polymers (such as resorcinol-formaldehyde, phenol-formaldehyde, polyacrylates, polystyrenes, polyurethanes, and epoxies)  Biological polymers (such as gelatin, pectin, and agar agar)  Semiconductor nanostructures (such as cadmium selenide quantum dots)  Carbon  Carbon nanotubes  Metals (such as copper and gold) Aerogel composites, for example aerogels reinforced with polymer coatings or aerogels embedded with magnetic nanoparticles, are also prepared. VARITIES OF AEROGEL :  Metal Oxide Aerogels  Nickel Oxide Aerogels  Zinc Oxide Aerogels  Alumina Aerogels (Epoxide-Assisted) Page | 14
  • 15. Alumina Aerogels (Alkoxide Method)  Iron Oxide Aerogels  Lanthanide Oxide Aerogels  Organic and Carbon Aerogels  Organic Aerogels  Pyrolysis  Silica Aerogel  Silica Aerogel (TEOS, Base-Catalyzed)  Silica Aerogel (TMOS, Base-Catalyzed)  Hydrophobic and Subcritically-Dried Silica Aerogel AVAILABLE AS : “ THERMABLOK”- Aerogel, also referred to as "frozen smoke," has been difficult to adapt to most uses because of its fragility. The patented Thermablok material overcomes this by using a unique fiber to suspend a proprietary formula of aerogel so that it can be bent or compressed while still retaining its amazing insulation properties. Now available to the building industry, just one, 3/8- inch x 1½-inch (6.25mm x 38mm) strip of Thermablok added to each stud before hanging drywall is all that is needed to tackle thermal bridging and achieve maximum R-factor value. It is installed directly to the stud edge within the wall framing, before the installation of drywall. Thermablok is easily cut to size, and has a peel-and-stick backing for quick and simple installation. As the Thermablok aerogel material is 95 percent air, and is situated between the stud and the drywall, it breaks the mechanical connection (thermal bridging) exceptionally well. Thanks to its hydrophobic properties, Thermablok will not age, mold, or mildew. Thermablok aerogel insulating material is environmentally safe and recyclable. Page | 15
  • 16. 3. TITANIUM DIOXIDE FACADE Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as apigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6, or CI 77891. Generally it comes in two different forms, rutile and anatase. APPLICATIONS: It has a wide range of applications: 1. Pigment o Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index, in which it is surpassed only by a few other materials. Approximately 4 million tons of pigmentary TiO2 are consumed annually worldwide. When deposited as a thin film, its refractive index and colour make it an excellent reflective optical coating for dielectric mirrors and some gemstones like "mystic fire topaz". TiO2 is also an effective opacifier in powder form, where it is employed as a pigment to provide whiteness and opacity to products such as paints, coatings, plastics, papers, inks, foods, medicines (i.e. pills and tablets) as well as most toothpastes. Opacity is improved by optimal sizing of the titanium dioxide particles. o In ceramic glazes titanium dioxide acts as an opacifier and seeds crystal formation. o Titanium dioxide is often used to whiten skimmed milk; this has been shown statistically to increase skimmed milk's palatability. 2.Sunscreen and UV absorber o In cosmetic and skin care products, titanium dioxide is used as a pigment, sunscreen and a thickener. It is also used as a tattoo pigment and in styptic pencils. Titanium dioxide is produced in varying particle sizes, oil and water dispersible, and with varying coatings for the cosmetic industry. o Titanium dioxide is found in almost every sunscreen with a physical blocker because of its high refractive index, its strong UV light absorbing capabilities and its resistance to discolouration underultraviolet light. This advantage enhances its stability and ability to protect the skin from ultraviolet light. Page | 16
  • 17. 3. Photocatalyst o Titanium dioxide, particularly in the anatase form, is a photocatalyst under ultraviolet (UV) light. Recently it has been found that titanium dioxide, when spiked with nitrogen ions or doped with metal oxide like tungsten trioxide, is also a photocatalyst under either visible or UV light. The strong oxidative potential of the positive holes oxidizes water to create hydroxyl radicals. It can also oxidize oxygen or organic materials directly. Titanium dioxide is thus added to paints, cements, windows, tiles, or other products for its sterilizing, deodorizing and anti-fouling properties and is used as a hydrolysis catalyst. It is also used indye-sensitized solar cells, which are a type of chemical solar cell (also known as a Graetzel cell). o Titanium dioxide has potential for use in energy production: as a photocatalyst, it can carry outhydrolysis; i.e., break water into hydrogen and oxygen. Were the hydrogen collected, it could be used as a fuel. The efficiency of this process can be greatly improved by doping the oxide with carbon. Further efficiency and durability has been obtained by introducing disorder to the lattice structure of the surface layer of titanium dioxide nanocrystals, permitting infrared absorption. o Titanium dioxide can also produce electricity when in nanoparticle form. By using these nanoparticles to form the pixels of a screen, they generate electricity when transparent and under the influence of light. If subjected to electricity on the other hand, the nanoparticles blacken, forming the basic characteristics of a LCD screen. o Superhydrophilicity phenomenon for titanium dioxide coated glass exposed to sun light results in the development of self-cleaning glass and anti-fogging coatings. o TiO2 incorporated into outdoor building materials, such as paving stones in noxer blocks or paints, can substantially reduce concentrations of airborne pollutants such as volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. o TiO2 offers great potential as an industrial technology for detoxification or remediation of wastewater due to several factors. a. The process occurs under ambient conditions very slowly; direct UV light exposure increases the rate of reaction. b. The formation of photocyclized intermediate products, unlike direct photolysis techniques, is avoided. c. Oxidation of the substrates to CO2 is complete. d. The photocatalyst is inexpensive and has a high turnover. e. TiO2 can be supported on suitable reactor substrates. 4. Electronic data storage medium In 2010, researchers at the University of Tokyo, Japan have created a 25 terabyte titanium oxide-based disc. Page | 17
  • 18. PRODUCT CHARACTERSTICS • This facade takes an active stance and attacks the problem of dirty air by aiming to help purify the air. • The tower pulls dirt, grease, and bacteria out of the air, producing only oxidation and water as a result. MATERIAL COMPOSITION AND ACTION: • The reaction is triggered by the use of a nano-coating of titanium dioxide on the outer skin of the project. The reaction is naturally powered by sunlight acting on the titanium dioxide during the day and supplemented by ultra violet light at night. • These UV lights are powered by energy collected through PV panels during the day. • The tower will be a glowing indigo object at night varying in intensity according to the amount of solar energy collected during the day. The indigo glow will become symbolic of the cleansing, counteracting the yellow haze that dominates the daytime hours. • The skin design is inspired by the pocketed and cellular texture of the titanium dioxide molecule (TiO2). • A series of organic cells cover the building and are tapered to naturally collect the water, a byproduct of the skins chemical reaction, and to collect and slowly release rain water. • The skin pulls off of the building on the south facades to provide natural shading and pushes into the inner skin of the north façade to maximize daylight and provide fifty percent coverage to reduce heat loss during the winter months. • The skin also floats off the building to conceal the UV lights which can be harmful to humans who are directly exposed to it, and further maximizes the building’s envelope. THE FACADE Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6, or CI 77891. Generally it comes in two different forms, rutile and anatase. It has a wide range of applications, from paint to sunscreen to food coloring. TiO2 is a soft solid and melts at 1800 0C. It is polymorphous and it exists in three types of crystal structures: (a) rutile, (b) anatase and (c) brookite. Only rutile is used commercially. RUTILE: - has density of 4.2g/cc - is colorless (but it is used for pigmentation) - as a chemical is Dielectric - absorbs ultraviolet light Page | 18
  • 19. - has high stability - has a pH of 7.00-8.3 when present as a solid in solution - is composed by 94% of TiO2 and Alumina - only diamond has a higher refractive index (how it bends light) than rutile. Rutile Cost: is about $10 per ton. Where big reserves of TiO2 exist: 1. Southeast Canada 2. Southeast USA 3. Southwest Scandinavia 5. Midwest and South Africa 6. Mediterranean Sea 7. East Australia Ti (TITANIUM): what is it and properties: - metal (ninth most abundant element on earth) - pure metal is 99.6% - it density is 4.5g/ML - melting point, 1943 K; boiling point, 3562 K - heat of vaporization and fusion 421 kj/mol and 15.45 kj/mol respectively - specific heat 0.52 j/gK - it burns in air and it is the only metal that burns in Nitrogen. - when pure it is lustrous, white - excellent corrosion resistant - strong as steal and 45% lighter - 60% heavier than aluminum and twice as strong. - it has low module of elasticity and low coefficient of expansion - it is not magnetic Where Ti could be found? 1. On meteorites and sun. 2. On earth in igneous rocks. 3. In ash, plants and animal bodies. APPLICATIONS: a) Pigment Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index, in which it is surpassed only by a few other materials. Approximately 4 million tons of pigmentary TiO2 are consumed annually worldwide. When deposited as a thin film, its refractive index and color make it an excellent Page | 19
  • 20. reflective optical coating for dielectric mirrors and some gemstones like "mystic fire topaz". TiO2 is also an effective opacifier in powder form, where it is employed as a pigment to provide whiteness and opacity to products like paints, coatings, plastics, papers ,inks, foods, medicines (i.e. pills and tablets) as well as most toothpastes. In paint, it is often referred to off-handedly as "the perfect white", "the whitest white", or other similar terms. Opacity is improved by optimal sizing of the titanium dioxide particles. In ceramic glazes titanium dioxide acts as an opacifier and seeds crystal formation. b) Sunscreen and UV absorber Titanium dioxide is produced in varying particle sizes, oil and water dispersible, and with varying coatings. This pigment is used extensively in plastics and other applications for its UV resistant properties where it acts as a UV absorber, efficiently transforming destructive UV light energy into heat. Titanium dioxide is found with a physical blocker because of its high refractive index, its strong UV light absorbing capabilities and its resistance to discolouration under ultraviolet light. This advantage enhances its stability and ability to protect the from ultraviolet light. c) Photocatalyst Titanium dioxide, particularly in the anatase form, is a photocatalyst under ultraviolet (UV) light. Recently it has been found that titanium dioxide, when spiked with nitrogen ions or doped with metal oxide like tungsten trioxide, is also a photocatalyst under either visible or UV light. The strong oxidative potential of the positive holes oxidizes water to create hydroxyl radicals. It can also oxidize oxygen or organic materials directly. Titanium dioxide is thus added to paints, cements, windows, tiles, or other products for its sterilizing, deodorizing and anti-fouling properties and is used as a hydrolysis catalyst. It is also used in dye-sensitized solar cells, which are a type of chemical solar cell (also known as a Graetzel cell). The process on the surface of the titanium dioxide was called the Honda-Fujishima effect. Titanium dioxide has potential for use in energy production: as a photocatalyst, it can carry out hydrolysis; i.e., break water into hydrogen and oxygen. Were the hydrogen collected, it could be used as a fuel. The efficiency of this process can be greatly improved by doping the oxide with carbon. Further efficiency and durability has been obtained by introducing disorder to the lattice structure of the surface layer of titanium dioxide nanocrystals, permitting infrared absorption. Titanium dioxide can also produce electricity when in nanoparticle form. Using these nanoparticles to form the pixels of a screen, they generate electricity when transparent and under the influence of light. If subjected to electricity on the other hand, the nanoparticles blacken, forming the basic characteristics of a LCD screen. The super hydrophilicity phenomenon for titanium dioxide coated glass exposed to sun light resulted in the development of self-cleaning glass and anti-fogging coatings. Page | 20
  • 21. TiO2 incorporated into outdoor building materials, such as paving stones in noxer blocks or paints, can substantially reduce concentrations of airborne pollutants such as volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. TiO2 offers great potential as an industrial technology for detoxification or remediation of wastewater due to several factors. 1. The process occurs under ambient conditions very slowly; direct UV light exposure increases the rate of reaction. 2. The formation of photocyclized intermediate products, unlike direct photolysis techniques, is avoided. 3. Oxidation of the substrates to CO2 is complete. 4. The photo catalyst is inexpensive and has a high turnover. 5. TiO2 can be supported on suitable reactor substrates. d ) Oxygen Sensors Even in mildly reducing atmospheres titania tends to lose oxygen and become sub stoichiometric. In this form the material becomes a semiconductor and the electrical resistivity of the material can be correlated to the oxygen content of the atmosphere to which it is exposed. Hence titania can be used to sense the amount of oxygen (or reducing species) present in an atmosphere. e) Antimicrobial Coatings The photocatalytic activity of titania results in thin coatings of the material exhibiting self cleaning and disinfecting properties under exposure to UV radiation. These properties make the material a candidate for applications such as medical devices, food preparation surfaces, air conditioning filters, and sanitaryware surfaces. Page | 21
  • 22. . Overview Titanium dioxide (TiO²) is a photocatalyst which exhibits strong oxidative property when exposed to ultraviolet (UV)light. TiO² is able to decompose harmful organic Page | 22
  • 23. compounds, kill bacteria and eliminate odors'. TiO²’s reactivity is used in many environmentally beneficial applications including water treatment and purification, atmospheric Nox(nitrogen oxide) removal and self-cleaning building façade. Titanium dioxide is non-toxic and therefore is used in cosmetic products (sunscreens, lipsticks, toothpaste) and in pharmaceutics (pills). Technology When TiO² absorbs UV light, electrons are promoted from the valence band to the conduction band, producing holes in the valence band. The production of pairs of negative- electrons (e-) and positive-holes (h+) is called “photo-excitation”. The holes in the valence band react with water on the titanium dioxide coating, forming hydroxyl radicals.When a contaminant in the air is adsorbed onto the TiO², the hydroxyl radical attacks the contaminant, extracting a hydrogen atom from the contaminant. The hydroxyl radical oxidizes the contaminant, producing water, carbon dioxide and other harmless substances. Hydroxyl radicals have much stronger oxidative power than chlorine or ozone which is used as a sterilizer. Building Facade Applications 1. Atmosphere Cleaning (Nox removal from the atmosphere) 2. Deodorization (Indoor odour and Volatile Organic Compounds removal) 3. Self-Cleaning (Dirt removal for exterior building facade) 4. Water Treatment (Water sterilization and odour removal) 5. Anti-Bacterial (Bacteria growth elimination) Page | 23
  • 24. Atmosphere Cleaning. Page | 24
  • 25. Comparison between a building not having TiO2 facade to that with a TiO2 facade Comparison between a coated and non coated TiO2 plate to evaluate its deodorization effect. Page | 25
  • 26. Thin Film formation over the target surface Page | 26
  • 27. 4. FIBRE COMPOSITE ADAPTIVE SYSTEM Fibre composite adaptive systems emulates self-organization processes in nature by developing a fibre composite that can sense, actuate and hence efficiently adapt to changing environmental conditions. Fibre composites which are anisotropic and heterogeneous offer the possibility for local variations in their material properties. Embedded fibre optics would be used to sense multiple parameters and shape memory alloys integrated in a fibre composite material for actuation. The definition of the geometry, both locally and globally would complement the adaptive functions and hence the system would display ’Integrated Functionality’. INSPIRATION: ‘Thigmo-morphogenesis’ refers to the changes in shape, structure and material properties of biological organisms that are produced in response to transient changes in environmental conditions. This property can be observed in the movement of sunflowers, bone structure and sea urchins. These are all growth movements or slow adaptations to changes in specific conditions that occur due to the nature of the material: fibre composite tissue. Natural organisms have advanced sensing devices and actuation strategies which are coherent morpho-mechanical systems with the ability to respond to environmental stimulus. BIOMIMICRY Form, structure, geometry, material, and behaviour are factors which cannot be separated from one another. For example, the veins in a leaf contribute to the overall form of the leaf, its structure and geometry. At the micro scale the fibre organization compliments to the responsive behaviour of the leaf. The veins display an integral coherence within the multiple functions they perform due to the multiple levels of hierarchy in the material organization. Such level of integrated functionality is the premise of this material formulation which aims to integrate sensing and actuation into a fibre composite material system. Fibre composites which are anisotropic and heterogeneous offer the possibility for local variations in their properties. Embedded fibre optics are used to sense multiple parameters while shape memory alloys (SMA) are integrated in the composite material for actuation. The definition of the geometry, both local and global complements the adaptive functions providing the system with ‘Integrated Functionality. GEOMETRY The geometry was approached from two different scales: local and global. The local geometry emerges from the topological definition of a single cell as the smallest unit within the material system. The proliferation of these single cell topologies responds to very specific rules which govern the fusion of the local and global geometries -overall form- with the fibre composite material. This part of the project involved the manipulation of complex Page | 27
  • 28. geometries where digital simulation was vital. Modelling the range of different geometries that the system could adopt after having sensed a change in the environmental conditions, required the development of codes to generate ‘structural depth’ in the out-of plane dimension; this arrangement was easily achieved through the use of corrugations where the stiffness of the structure mostly depends on the height of the ‘waves’. Varying the local height of the corrugations would therefore lead to a structure with stiffer differentiated areas which ultimately contribute to the structure as a whole. Once the geometrical arrangement was decided it was necessary to establish the strategy of ‘adaptation’ at the local level. Page | 28
  • 29. MATERIAL COMPOSITION AND ACTION: The basic composite consists of glass fibres and a polymer matrix. The sensing function is carried out through embedded fibre optics which can simultaneously sense multiple parameters such as strain, temperature and humidity. These parameters are sensed and processed as inputs through artificial neural networks. The environmental and user inputs, inform the topology to dynamically adapt to one of the most efficient configurations of the ‘multiple states of equilibrium’ it could render. The topology is defined as a multi-layered tessellation forming a continuous surface which could have differentiated structural characteristics, porosity, density, illumination, self-shading and so on. The actuation is carried out through shape memory alloy strips which could alter their shape by rearranging their micro-molecular organization between their austenitic and martensitic states. The shape memory alloy strip is bi-stable, but a strategic proliferation of these strips through a rational geometry could render several permutation and combinations creating multiple states of equilibrium, thus enabling continuous dynamic adaptation of the structure. CONCLUSIONS The proposed fibre composite adaptive system possesses multiple organizational levels with different assembly logics, which contribute to its emergent behaviour and integrated functionality. An increase in the ambient temperature alters the layout of the suture curves to open a hole through which air can circulate. Similarly the openings are closed when there is a need to maintain a certain temperature inside the pavilion. If the wind increases or changes direction, the structure re-organizes adopting a more efficient configuration against the new loading conditions. In essence, form, structure, geometry, and behaviour created a cohesive synergetic whole and constituted the most important consideration for the construction of the digital model. Such ambitious requirements required the combination of several software packages initially intended for different professional disciplines with in-house written codes such as the form finding algorithm and the fibres growth script. The result is a system which has the potential to adapt and self- organise efficiently to transient changes in the environmental conditions, illuminating the way towards the development of smart architectures. Page | 29
  • 30. 5. TRANSLUCENT CONCRETE Translucent concrete (also: light-transmitting concrete or liquid stone) is a concrete based building material with light - transmissive properties due to embedded light optical elements - usually Optical fibers. Light is conducted through the stone from one end to the other. Therefore the fibers have to go through the whole object. This results into a certain light pattern on the other surface, depending on the fiber structure. Shadows cast onto one side appear as silhouettes through the material. Translucent concrete at Expo Bau 2011, München/Germany Translucent concrete is used in fine architecture as a façade material and for cladding of interior walls. But light-transmitting concrete has also been applied to various design products. FABRICATION The main idea of the smart transparent concrete is that high numerical aperture optical fibers are directly arranged in the concrete, and the optical fiber is used as sensing element and optical transmission element. Because that the light can transmit in the optical fiber, different shape of smart transparent concretes can be fabricated and a certain amount of optical fibers are regularly distributed in the concrete. Plastic optical fiber is an excellent media to transmit light at specific wavelengths which has been widely used in illuminating facility or architectural appearance lighting. Several ways of producing translucent concrete do exist. But all are based on a fine grain concrete (95%) and only 5% light conducting elements that are added during casting process. After setting the concrete is cut to plates or stones with standard machinery for cutting stone materials. The fibers run parallel to each other, transmitting light between two surfaces of the concrete element in which they are embedded. Thickness of the optical fibers can be varied between 2 µm and 2 mm to suit the particular requirements of light transmission. Optical Page | 30
  • 31. fibers transmit light so effectively that there is virtually no loss of light conducted through the fibers; in fact, it’s even possible to see colors through the concrete. Originally, the fiber filaments were placed individually in the concrete, making production time-consuming and costly. Newer, semi-automatic production processes use woven fiber fabric instead of single filaments. Fabric and concrete are alternately inserted into molds at intervals of approximately 2 mm to 5 mm. Smaller or thinner layers allow an increased amount of light to pass through the concrete. Following casting, the material is cut into panels or blocks of the specified thickness and the surface is then typically polished, resulting in finishes ranging from semi-gloss to high-gloss. The concrete mixture is made from fine materials only: it contains no coarse aggregate. The compressive strength of greater than 70 MPa (over 10,000 psi) is comparable to that of high-strength concretes. Page | 31
  • 32. MOUNTING Working with natural light it has to be ensured that enough light is available. Wall mounting systems need to be equipped with some form of lighting and designed to achieve uniform illumination on the full plate surface. Usually mounting systems similar to natural stone panels are used - e.g. LUCEM uses perforated mounting with visible screws, undercut anchors with agraffes or facade anchors. HISTORY Translucent concrete has been first mentioned in a 1935 Canadian patent.[8] But since the development of optical glass fibers and polymer based optical fibers the rate of inventions and developments in this field has drastically increased. There have also been inventions that apply this concept to more technical applications like fissure detection. In the early 1990s forms like translucent concrete products popular today with fine & layered patterns were developed. PROPERTIES  Translucent concrete is strong enough for the uses for traditional concrete, and chemical additives can greatly increase the strength.  High density concrete.  Synthetic fibers added to the mix give some flexibility without losing strength.  Versatile building material.  Illumination.  The fibres can work upto almost 20metres running length without loss of light.  The prefabricated blocks are load bearing and provide the same effect with both artificial and natural light.  Colors remain the same on the other end of the block. ADVANTAGE The main advantage of these products is that on large scale objects the texture is still visible - while the texture of finer translucent concrete becomes indistinct at distance. Further pictograms and lettering can be realized with this technology. Page | 32
  • 35. 6. TRANSPARENT ALLUMINIUM Transparent alluminium also called Alluminium oxynitride or ALON is a transparent polycrystalline ceramic with cubic spinel crystal structure composed of alluminium, oxygen and nitrogen. It is currently marketed under the name ALON by Surmet Corporation. ALON is optically transparent (≥80%) in the near ultra violet, visible and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is 4 times harder than fused silica glass, 85% as hard as sapphire and nearly 15% harder than magnesium aluminate spinel. The material is stable up to 1,200 °C (2,190 °F). It can be fabricated to transparent windows, plates, domes, rods, tubes and other forms using conventional ceramic powder processing techniques. Because of its relatively light weight, optical and mechanical properties, and its resistance to damage due to oxidation or radiation, it shows promise for use as infrared, high temperature and ballistic and blast resistant windows. Stronger than glass, various military and commercial applications for this remarkable material are already being tested. What was once used in the science-fiction Star Trek movies, see-through aluminum is now something that – through test mixing with rubies, sapphires and more – is now being tried out in all kinds of ways to create transparency where strength is also required. PROPERTIES Mechanical  Young modulus 334 GPa  Shear modulus 135 GPa  Poisson ratio 0.24  Knoop hardness 1800 kg/mm2 (0.2 kg load)  Fracture toughness 2.0 MPa·m1/2  Flexural strength 0.38–0.7 GPa  Compressive strength 2.68 GPa Thermal and optical  Specific heat 0.781 J/(g·°C)  Thermal conductivity 12.3 W/(m·°C)  Thermal expansion coefficient ~4.7×10−6/°C  Transparency range 200–5000 nm ALON appears to be radiation resistant and resistant to damage from various acids, bases and water. Transparent alumnium is a transparent material that was much stronger than plexiglass. While pexiglass sheets for a 60 x 10 tank with 18,000 cubic feet of water would need to be 6inches thick, a transparent aluminium sheet would need to be 1 inch thick. Page | 35
  • 36. APPLICATIONS ALON is used in various defense and Infrared (IR) related applications such as Recce sensor windows, specialty IR domes with different shapes such as hemispherical, hyper-hemispherical and tangent ogive domes, transparent armor, windows for laser communications, and in some semi-conductor related applications. Used in static- free transparent aluminum wrapping for computer parts and other electronics. It is also being tested in otherwise-conventional see-through soda cans and military shielding for vehicles. Another advantage of ALON is that it is more resistant to scratches and the effect of the elements (think wind, sand, etc.). MANUFACTURE ALON is a polycrystalline ceramic material which can be fabricated to windows, plates, domes, rods, tubes and other forms using conventional ceramic powder processing techniques. It is made primarily of aluminium, oxygen, and nitrogen, and can vary slightly in its components (such as varying the aluminium content from about 30% to 36%, which has been reported to affect the bulk and shear moduli by only 1–2%.) The fabricated greenware is subjected to heat treatment (densification) at elevated temperatures followed by grinding and polishing to transparency. It remains transparent until about 2100 °C. The grinding and polishing substantially improves the impact resistance and other mechanical properties of armor. Densities of 85% of the theoretical can be achieved. It is 85% as hard as sapphire and 15% harder than magnesium aluminate spinel. ALON is four times harder than fused silica glass, thus making it useful in a wide range of armor applications. Transparent aluminum starts out as a pile of white aluminum oxynitride powder. That powder gets packed into a rubber mold in the rough shape of the desired part, and subjected to a procedure called isostatic pressing, in which the mold is compressed in a tank of hydraulic fluid to 15,000 psi, which mashes the AlON into a grainy “green body.” The grainy structure is then fused together by heating at 2000 °C for several days. The surface of the resulting part is cloudy, and has to be mechanically polished to make it optically clear. Page | 36
  • 38. 7. BIOCONCRETE Concrete is one of the main materials used in the construction industry, from the foundation of buildings to the structure of bridges and underground parking lots. The problem with traditional concrete however is the formation of cracks. This has negative consequences for the durability of the material. Instead of costly humans having to maintain and repair the concrete, it would be ideal if the concrete would be able to heal itself. This is now possible with help of special bacteria. These bacteria are called extremophiles, because they love to live in extreme conditions. In dry concrete for example they will not only live, but they will actively produce copious amounts of limestone. With this calcium carbonate-based material the little construction workers can actively repair occurring cracks in a concrete structure. This novel type of self-healing concrete will lead to enormous savings on maintenance and repair costs. Also the sustainability of concrete will increase dramatically, because of a lower demand for natural resources such as cement. This will lead to lower CO2 emissions and change our way of reasoning. Instead of building against nature, biological materials and processes will be integrated into traditional engineering materials and processes. BACTERIA AS SELF HEALING AGENT: 2 Ca(CHO2)2 + 2O2 >>> 2CaO3 + 2CO2 + 2H2O Convert Food to Minerals The bacteria acts as catalyst and Mineral precursor compound as chemical /food. Page | 38
  • 39. BIOCEMENTATION MECHANISM Naturally, bio-mineralization process occurs at a very slow rate over geological times like the formation of limestone, sandstone, etc. Bioconcrete is this process, achieved at a much shorter timescale. MICP BY UREA HYDROLYSIS In bioconcrete, the microbially induced precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) acts as the cementing agent. In MICP by urea hydrolysis, the enzyme urease, catalyse substrate urea to precipitate carbonate ions in presence of ammonium. And with the presence of calcium ion, CaCO3 is precipitated. There are four parameters that govern MICP: (i) the calcium concentration, (ii) the carbonate concentration, (iii) the pH of the environment and (iv) the presence of nucleation sites PROCESSES INVOLVED IN CACO3 PRECIPITATION A) Hydrolysis of urea S. pasteurii uses urea as an energy source producing ammonia which increases the pH of the environment and generates carbonate. Urea hydrolysis generates carbonate ions at a 1:1 molar ratio,hence controlling one of the key parameters for MICP of dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. B) Increasing alkalinity The pH of the environment has a significant effect on the specific urease activity (SUA), hence affecting carbonate speciation. The effect of pH between 6 and 8.5 is negligible. At neutral pH, bicarbonate (HCO3-) is the dominant carbonate species rather than carbonate (CO32-), causing a rise in pH. This increase in pH starts ammonium (NH4+) to dissociate to ammonia (NH3) until equilibrium is reached. The pH of the environment is important as it affects carbonate speciation and CaCO3 solubility. Page | 39
  • 40. C) Surface absorption of Ca2+ ions Ca2+ ions are supplied in the form of calcium chloride; these ions are attracted to the bacterial cell wall due to the negative charge of the solution. D) Nucleation and crystal growth Precipitation involves: (i) The development of supersaturation solution, (ii) Nucleation (the formation of new crystals) begins at the point of critical saturation and (iii) Spontaneous crystal growth on the stable nuclei. Crystals form when the solute concentration in a solvent exceeds solubility product (supersaturation). The solubility product of calcium carbonate is extremely low (3.3 x 10- 9mol.L-1) at 25oC, hence as soon as Ca2+ and CO32- ion concentration exceed this, CaCO3 will precipitate.Nucleation is affected by temperature, degree of supersaturation and the presence of other surfaces. Bacterial cells themselves can act as nucleation sites for the formation of crystals. Once stable nuclei are formed they start to grow. A crystal undergoes several transitions and their growth rate for each mineral phase or growth mechanism is directly related on the level of supersaturation in the solution. Supersaturation level determines the mineral type of CaCO3 precipitated and these levels develop with hydrolysis rate. Hence, a metastable Page | 40
  • 41. mineral phase like amorphous calcium carbonate and vaterite (spherical crystals) is formed at high supersaturation level, and they eventually dissolve and reprecipitate as a more stable calcite (rhombohedral crystals) at lower supersaturation level. However, if a metastable crystal is coated with a stable calcite a composite mineral structure is formed. Ultimately, decay in urease activity after several hours is caused by the cumulative effect of enzyme excretion, cell decay, wash out, encapsulation in the CaCO3 crystals and porosity. High salt concentrations or presence of toxic compounds and high temperatures accelerate cell lysis and loss of hydrolysing capacity. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Phenomena occurring during biocementation: (i) coating of particles and (ii) partial infilling of void spaces between particles by CaCO3 crystals. A) Stiffness and Strength A correlation exists between CaCO3 content, dry weight and strength. The strength obtained depends on the dry sand density, as densely packed sand requires less biocementation as compared to less dense sand to achieve the same strength and the point-to-point contact of CaCO3 crystal which bridges between 2 adjacent .The maximum unconfined compressive strength (UCS) achieved at small scale was up to 30MPa and at large scale was up to 12MPa. The strength mildly (i) increases with strength of the individual particles and (ii) decreases with particle size, particle pre-coating with CaCO3 and roundness of particles. Additionally,reactions that take place very quickly are soft and powder like crystals, while naturally limestone,etc. form slowly and are very hard. Homogenous development of strength is influenced by the distribution of bacteria or urease activity; as the bacteria are either absorbed, strained /and detached during the flow and transportation through the. Few factors affecting this are: (i) Fluid properties like varying viscosity and density of different solutions, (ii) Cell wall characteristics like hydrophobicity, charge and appendages and (iii) Solid properties like grain size distribution, surface texture and mineralogy BACTERIAL CULTIVATION A) Microorganism 100L bacterial suspension with S. pasteurii was cultivated under aerobic conditions in a medium containing 20g.L-1 yeast extract, 10g.L-1 NH4Cl and 10μM NiCl2. The organisms were grown to late exponential or early stationary phase, harvested and stored at 4 oC prior to use. S. pasteurii can be cultured in non-sterile environments up to 2 days with maximum level of contamination not exceeding 5% of the inoculum Page | 41
  • 42. B) Protein source Maximum bacterial growth & consequently urease activity can be obtained with20gL-1 yeast extract; beyond this no significant increase can be observed. C) Catalysts The presence of 10μM Ni2+ ions in the active site of urease aids functional activity as well as the structural integrity of the enzyme thus enhancing specific urease activity. Higher concentration of Ni2+ ions cause inhibition leading to dramatic drop of urease activity. Ni2+ ions are supplied in the form of NiCl2. NaOH is used to increase the initial pH to a desirable level. Fixation solution Calcium chloride is used to immobilise the bacteria. Reagent Solution Solution of Urea and Calcium chloride in equal molar ratio mixed with water are injected to initiate the biocementation process. Aggregate Quarry uniform sand, fine to medium grained (125-250μm). Water Tap water Discussions During the biocementation process, by-product NH4Cl is produced, it is an organic salt that dissolves in water. This by-product needs to be collected and recycled after the process; or else if mingled with local water bodies or groundwater in excessive concentrations of ammonium and chlorine could lead to eutrophication and salinization respectively. ADVANTAGES: i. High crack sealing capacity ii. Less Maintenance and repairs iii. Durable iv. Prolonged service life constructions. v. Healing agent , which is bio based. vi. Sustainable. vii. Good for both economy and environment. Page | 42
  • 44. 8. SYNDECRETE Syndecrete is an eco-friendly concrete alternative made from a wild array of recycled materials that includes everything from glass to old vinyl LPs. Syndecrete is a precast concrete material as an alternative to limited or nonrenewable natural materials such as wood and stone, as well as petroleum-based synthetic solid and laminating materials. Syndecrete is an advanced cement-based composite using natural minerals and recycled materials as its primary ingredients. Metal shavings, plastic regrinds, recycled glass chips, and scrap wood chips are some of the postindustrial and postconsumer recycled materials incorporated into the Syndecrete matrix. These materials are used as decorative aggregates, creating a contemporary reinterpretation of the Italian tradition of terrazzo. Syndecrete is a solid surfacing material, which provides consistency of color, texture, and aggregate throughout. Compared with conventional concrete, it has less than half the weight with twice the compressive strength. Syndecrete’s broad range of applications and its unique aesthetic qualities differentiates the product from other environmentally friendly building materials. The provision of custom Syndecrete products often initiates the use of recycled and environmentally friendly products to a high-end, design oriented market segment which might not otherwise be predisposed to seek out recycled products. Although conventional concrete is not a harmful building material and is less expensive, Syndecrete is a great alternative for those who are looking to go the extra mile in term of building green. Page | 44
  • 45. APPLICATION Offered in pre-cast pieces, Syndecrete's unique aesthetic properties include integral pigmentation and aggregates mixed to create distinctive color and texture palettes. It is more resistant to potential chipping and cracking than conventional concrete, tile and stone, and has a workability more akin to wood than cement-based products. Syndecrete can be used for a variety of interior and exterior applications and for residential and commercial projects like tiles, tables, fireplace hearths and surrounds, flooring and a variety of custom accessories. Page | 45
  • 46. 9. METAMATERIALS Metamaterials are artificial materials engineered to have properties that may not be found in nature. They usually gain their properties from structure rather than composition, using small in-homogeneities to create effective macroscopic behavior. The primary research in metamaterials investigates materials with negative refractive index. Negative refractive index materials appear to permit the creation of super lenses which can have a spatial resolution below that of the wavelength. In other work, a form of 'invisibility' has been demonstrated at least over a narrow wave band with gradient- index materials. Although the first metamaterials were electromagnetic, acoustic and seismic metamaterials are also areas of active research. Metamaterials are often associated with negative refraction and this property has gained substantial attention because of its potential for cloaking invisibility devices and microscopy with super-resolution. Page | 46
  • 47. APPLICATION The application possibilities of metamaterials are found in industrial sectors like Information and Communication Technologies, Space and Security & Defense, but also applications in Health, Energy and Environmental areas are foreseen. Examples of devices that have been realised during the past years are: > Sensors > Superlensing > Cloaking > Light emitting diodes / cavities for low-threshold lasers and these were based on controlling the wave propagation and used dynamic, re- configurable and tunable materials. CHARACTERIZATION Metamaterial properties are not only determined by their material parameters, shape, and concentration of the constituent inclusions and due to this increased complexity characterisation has become a science in itself. Metamaterials consist of periodic structures. An electromagnetic metamaterial affects electromagnetic waves by having structural features smaller than the wavelength of the respective electromagnetic wave. In addition, if a metamaterial is to behave as a homogeneous material accurately described by an effective refractive index, its features must be much smaller than the wavelength. Photonic metamaterials, at the scale of nanometers, are being studied in order to manipulate light at optical frequencies. Plasmonic metamaterials utilize surface plasmons, which are packets of electrical charges that collectively oscillate at the surfaces of metals at optical frequencies.Another structure which can exhibit sub wavelength characteristics are frequency selective surfaces (FSS) known as Artificial Magnetic Conductors(AMC) or alternately called High Impedance Surfaces (HIS). These also have inductive and capacitive characteristics, which are directly related to its sub wavelength structure. Photonic crystals and frequency-selective surfaces such as diffraction gratings, dielectric mirrors, and optical coatings do have apparent similarities to sub wavelength structured metamaterials. However, these are usually considered distinct from sub wavelength structures, as their features are structured for the wavelength at which they function, and thus cannot be approximated as a homogeneous material. However, novel-material structures such as photonic crystals are effective with the visible light spectrum. The middle of the visible spectrum has a wavelength of approximately 560 nm (for sunlight), the photonic crystal structures are generally half this size or smaller, that is <280 nm. Page | 47
  • 48. NEGATIVE REFRACTIVE INDEX The greatest potential of metamaterials is the possibility to create a structure with a negative refractive index, since this property is not found in any non-synthetic material. Almost all materials encountered in optics, such as glass or water, have positive values for both permittivity (ε) and permeability (µ). However, many metals (such as silver and gold) have negative ε at visible wavelengths. A material having either (but not both) ε or µ negative is opaque to electromagnetic radiation. Although the optical properties of a transparent material are fully specified by the parameters εr and µr, refractive index n is often used in practice, which can be determined from . All known non-metamaterial transparent materials possess positive εr and µr. By convention the positive square root is used for n. Negative refractive index is an important characteristic in metamaterial design and fabrication. As reverse-refraction media, these occur when both permittivity ε and permeability µ are negative. Furthermore, this condition occurs mathematically from the vector triplet E, H and k. In ordinary, everyday materials – solid, liquid, or gas; transparent or opaque; conductor or insulator – the conventional refractive index dominates. This means that permittivity and permeability are both positive resulting in an ordinary index of refraction. However, metamaterials have the capability to exhibit a state where both permittivity and permeability are negative, resulting in an extraordinary, index of negative refraction. A negative refractive index metamaterial which bends light in the wrong direction CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC METAMATERIALS 1. Negative index materials Page | 48
  • 49. In negative index metamaterials (NIM), both permittivity and permeability are negative resulting in a negative index of refraction. Hence, because of the double negative parameters these are also known as Double Negative Metamaterials or double negative materials (DNG). Other terminologies for NIMs are "left-handed media", "media with a negative refractive index", and "backward-wave media", along with other nomenclatures. 2. Single negative metamaterials In single negative (SNG) metamaterials either relative permittivity (εr) or relative permeability (µr) are negative, but not both. They exhibit properties such as resonances, anomalous tunneling, transparency, and zero reflection. Like negative index materials, SNGs are innately dispersive, so their εr, µr, and refraction index n, will alter with changes in frequency. 3. Electromagnetic bandgap metamaterials Electromagnetic bandgap metamaterials control the propagation of light. This is accomplished with either a class of metamaterial known as photonic crystals (PC), or another class known as left-handed materials (LHM). PCs can prohibit light propagation altogether. However, both the PC and LHM are capable of allowing it to propagate in certain, designed directions, and both can be designed to have electromagnetic bandgaps at desired frequencies. In addition, metamaterials such as Photonic crystals (PC) are complex, periodic, materials and are considered to be electromagnetic bandgap material. 4. Double positive medium Double positive mediums (DPS) do occur in nature such as naturally occurring dielectrics. Permittivity and magnetic permeability are both positive and wave propagation is in the forward direction. Artificial materials have been fabricated which have DPS, ENG, and MNG properties combined. 5. Bi-isotropic and bianisotropic metamaterials Categorizing metamaterials into double or single negative, or double positive, is normally done based on the assumption that the metamaterial has independent electric and magnetic responses described by the parameters ε and µ. Media which exhibit magneto-electric coupling, and which are also anisotropic (which is the case for many commonly used metamaterial structures), are referred to as bi-anisotropic are denoted as bi-anisotropic. 6. Chiral metamaterials When a metamaterial is constructed from chiral elements then it is considered to be a chiral metamaterial, and the effective parameter k will be non-zero. This is a potential source of confusion as within the metamaterial literature there are two conflicting uses of the terms left and right-handed. The first refers to one of the two circularly polarized waves which are the propagating modes in chiral media. The second relates to the triplet of electric field, magnetic field and Pointing vector which arise in negative refractive index media, which in most cases are not chiral. Page | 49
  • 50. METAMATERIAL GEOMETRIES Typical geometries of artificial dielectrics [collin]  WIRE MEDIA Artificial materials formed by electrically dense arrays of thin conducting wires were originally proposed as artificial dielectrics with the effective permittivity smaller than unity.Only recently it was realised that wire media possess strong spatial dispersion even in the quasi-static limit. This is because metal wire lattices support propagating transverse electromagnetic (TEM) or quasi-TEM waves along the wires. These fields of these waves depend on the longitudinal coordinate (along the wires) as the planewave fields. Basically, they are transmission-line modes similar to those in two-wire transmission line or a coaxial cable. Because they behave as propagating plane waves, they propagate with very little decay at electrically long distances, thus creating strong nonlocality in the effective material response (strong spatial dispersion).The effective permittivity component along the wires reads, for electrically dense grids of thin parallel wires. Here k is the wave number in the host medium, is the effective plasma wave number, and kz is the propagation constant along the wires. The permittivity becomes very large for specific values of the longitudinal wave and this is called strong frequency dispersion.This strong frequency dispersion was utilised in the design of low-loss superlenses, including magnifying. TYPICAL GEOMETRIES OF WIRE MEDIA  ARTIFICIAL BI-ANISOTROPIC MEDIA AND RELATED INCLUSION GEOMETRIES  Reciprocal metamaterials Due to specific shapes of these particles, applied electric field induces both electric and magnetic dipole moments. Likewise, a magnetic field produces both magnetic and electric Page | 50
  • 51. polarizations.It can be shown that arbitrary reciprocal bi-anisotropic effect can be realised using composite material containing inclusions of only these two basic shapes. Chiral inclusion (left) and omega inclusion (right).  Nonreciprocal bi-anisotropic metamaterials Bi-anisotropy is also possible in materials containing naturally magnetic inclusions biased by some external magnetic fields coupled to some metal or dielectric inclusions. The magneto-electric coupling coefficient is a time-odd parameter proportional to the bias magnetic field (or other external parameter that changes sign under time inversion. The realisation of metamaterials with very unusual properties (for example, emulating properties of moving media in composite materials at rest) can allow the realisation of arbitrary linear field transformations using metamaterials An inclusion shape for the realisation of artificial moving media  ARTIFICIAL MAGNETICS AND RELEVANT INCLUSION GEOMETRIES Shapes of inclusions for artificial magnetic materials should be chosen carefully, so that 1) the stronger bi-anisotropy effects would be forbidden due to the geometrical symmetry and 2) among all the secondorder effects the artificial magnetism would dominate. For microwave applications, this is relatively easy as the dimensions are in the order of a millimeter, but the theory is equally valid for nanostructured metamaterials. The key to the design is to choose the shape so that induced currents form loops with a rather Page | 51
  • 52. uniform distribution of the induced current, which then produces a strong magnetic moment SOME GEOMETRIES OF METAL PARTICLES USED TO REALISE ARTIFICIAL MAGNETIC MATERIALS. SOME GEOMETRIES PROMISING FOR THE REALISATION OF OPTICAL ARTIFICIAL MAGNETICS. Page | 52
  • 53. SOME GEOMETRIES USED TO REALIZE BACKWARD WAVES AND NEGATIVE REFRACTION. APPLICATION  Biosensors Metamaterials can be used to provide more sensitive guiding modes (based on plasmon-mediated interaction between the inclusions which shows resonant excitation conditions).Surface plasmons occur at a metal/dielectric interface and are extremely sensitive to the refractive index of the dielectric medium within the penetration depth of the evanescent field. The metamaterial inclusions can be functionalized with receptors on their surface. If the matrix consists of nanoporous material it allows analytes to reach the receptor and the refractive index will be changed upon binding. The reflection spectrum depends on this refractive index.  Superlens A superlens (or perfect lens) is a lens, which uses metamaterials to go beyond the diffraction limit. The diffraction limit is an inherent limitation in conventional optical devices or lenses. A lens consisting of a negative index metamaterial could compensate for wave decay and could reconstruct images in the near field. In addition, both propagating and evanescent waves contribute to the resolution of the image and resolution underneath the diffraction limit will be possible.  Cloaking Page | 53
  • 54. A cloaking device is an advanced stealth technology that causes an object to be partially or wholly invisible to parts of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum (at least one wavelength of EM emissions) Scientists are using metamaterials to bend light around an object.  Tags to store and process information A remote detection via high-frequency electromagnetic fields will be possible due to the collective response of magnonic crystals at elevated frequencies. Page | 54
  • 55. 10. BULKFULLERENE These are organic solar cells that have the potential to be low-cost and efficient solar energy converters, with a promising energy balance. They are made of carbon-based semiconductors, which exhibit favourable light absorption and charge generation properties, and can be manufactured by low temperature processes such as printing from solvent- based inks, which are compatible with flexible plastic substrates or even paper. In a real device, the absorption in the photoactive blend cannot be 100%, because the active layer (AL) is embedded within a stack of several layers, which have different complex refractive indexes. Thus, absorption can occur in some layer located between the incident medium and the AL, and reflection can happen at any interface located before the bulk of the active layer. At present, the active materials used for the fabrication of solar cells are mainly inorganic materials, such as silicon (Si), gallium-arsenide (GaAs), cadmium-telluride (CdTe), and cadmiumindium-selenide (CIS). The power conversion efficiency for these solar cells varies from 8 to 29%. With regard to the technology used, these solar cells can be divided into two classes. The crystalline solar cells or silicon solar cells are made of either (mono- or poly-) crystalline silicon or GaAs. About 85% of the PV market is shared by these crystalline solar cells. Amorphous silicon, CdTe, and CI(G)S are based on more recent thin- film technologies. COMPOSITION AND WORKING A plastic solar cell typically consists of a photoactive layer sandwiched between a substrate covered with a transparent electrode, and a top electrode. Charges are generated under the influence of light in the photoactive layer. Subsequently, these charges are collected at both electrodes. This way light is converted into electricity. The photoactive layer in organic solar cells generally contains two components. One component is an electron-donating material (easily oxidized, the donor, p-type) and the other one an electron-accepting material (easily reduced, the acceptor, n-type). The use of two components with different electronic levels is one of the most important design concepts in organic solar cells. Photo-excitations in an organic semiconductor have exciton character, i.e. a photo-excitation does not result in free charges, but in a bound electron-hole pair. By using a combination of donor and acceptor materials, dissociation of the exciton is achieved at the interface of both materials. The process of charge separation at the interface between donor and acceptor after absorption of light is referred to as photo-induced charge transfer.  The bulk-heterojunction solar cell,is the most photoactive solar cell these days because the interface (heterojunction) between both components is all over the bulk , in contrast to the classical (bilayer-) heterojunction. As a result of the intimate mixing, the interface where charge transfer can occur, has increased enormously. The exciton, created after the absorption of light, has to diffuse towards this charge-transfer interface for charge generation to occur. The diffusion length of the exciton in organic materials, however, is typically 10 nm or less. This means that for efficient charge generation after absorption of light, each exciton has to find a donor-acceptor interface within a few nm, otherwise it Page | 55
  • 56. will be lost without charge generation. An intimate bi-continuous network of donor and acceptor materials in the nanometer range should suppress exciton loss prior to charge generation. Control of morphology is not only required for a large charge-generating interface and suppression of exciton loss, but also to ensure percolation pathways for both electron and hole transport to the collecting electrodes. In a bulk-heterojunction solar cell the interface between the donor (p-type) and the acceptor (n-type) material is all over the bulk. Right: The dye-sensitized solar cell. After absorption of light by the N3 sensitizer, an electron is transferred to the porous TiO2 solid and via TiO2 transported to the transparent bottom electrode. The electron transfer is followed by reduction of the N3 sensitizer by the liquid redox electrolyte. Subsequently, the electrolyte is reduced by the metal top electrode. The reduction of the dye followed by reduction of the electrolyte is equivalent to transport of a positive charge to the metal top electrode In 2000 polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells reached power conversion efficiencies of < 1%. Improving the performance, stability, and lifetime of bulk-heterojunction solar cells requires more insight in the preparation, and operation of these devices.  Carrier substrate : Glass has been used as the carrier substrate because of its ease of handling , its good gas-barrier, optical, adherence, and highly insulating properties, glass is an excellent substrate, albeit for non-flexible applications only.  Transparent bottom electrode : For a solar cell (and other opto-electronic applications, as light-emitting diodes) at least one transparent electrode is required. Typically, a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) is used, deposited on the carrier substrate. A TCO should combine a high conductivity (or low sheet resistance) with a high transparency, good substrate adherence, and a low surface roughness. The latter is necessary to prevent shunting in solar cells, and the growth of dark spots in organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Additionally, the workfunction of the TCO should allow for a large open-circuit voltage (Voc) without introducing a collection barrier. Finally, the TCO should be stable, and not degrade the organic semiconductor.  Active layer : Creating a sharp, well-defined interface between two organic layers, both applied from solution, is only possible when the bottom organic (conductive) layer is not dissolved by the solution used to deposit the top (active) layer. Owing to Page | 56
  • 57. its ionic character, PEDOT:PSS hardly dissolves in the aromatic solvents typically used for conjugated polymers. For stacked layers of polymers with comparable solubility characteristics, cross linking the polymer in the bottom layer before applying the top layer can prevent re-dissolving. The same procedures can also be used for stabilization of the morphology in general.The most widely used TCO in bulk- heterojunction solar cells (and other plastic electronics) is indium tin oxide (ITO), a composite oxide where indium oxide (typically > 90%) is doped with tin oxide (< 10%). Glass substrates coated with a thin ITO layer can be obtained from commercial sources.  Top electrode. The top electrode is usually a metal that is thermally evaporated under high vacuum. Depending on (the application and) the LUMO level of the underlying photoactive organic, metals with low (~3 eV, such as Ca, Ba, and Yb) or moderate (~4 eV, such as Al, and Ag) workfunctions are required. For polymer fullerene bulk- heterojunction solar cells aluminum is typically used as the top electrode.  Encapsulation. After all conductive and semiconductive layers are applied, the devices are typically encapsulated. Encapsulation or packaging of organic semiconductor devices is crucial to extent the device lifetime. Especially water and oxygen have to be excluded to prevent photooxidation of the conjugated polymer and conversion of the metal electrode into an oxide (or hydroxide). Mixing fullerenes into a conjugated polymer matrix has been found to suppress photo-oxidation dramatically. Apart from a gas barrier and resistance to moisture, the packaging material must fulfill several requirements, such as for heat dissipation and electrical insulation Page | 57
  • 58. 11. METAL FOAM A metal foam is a cellular structure consisting of a solid metal, frequently aluminium, containing a large volume fraction of gas-filled pores. The pores can be sealed (closed- cell foam), or they can form an interconnected network (open-cell foam). The defining characteristic of metal foams is a very high porosity: typically 75–95% of the volume consists of void spaces. The strength of foamed metal possesses a power law relationship to its density; i.e., a 20% dense material is more than twice as strong as a 10% dense material. Metallic foams typically retain some physical properties of their base material. Foam made from non-flammable metal will remain non-flammable and the foam is generally recyclable back to its base material. Coefficient of thermal expansion will also remain similar while thermal conductivity will likely be reduced. Metal foam is sometimes considered a subset of cellular metallic materials in general, which also includes "metal sponges," though often the term "metal foams" is used interchangeably with all cellular metallic materials. Several categories of cellular metallic materials are distinguished, including cellular metal (metal foam with internal cells, usually closed), porous metal (with closed, smoothly curved voids (pores) rather than jagged or open voids), metallic foams (special cases of porous metals, created by bubbling gas through liquid metal and then letting it solidify), and metal sponges, which is essentially open-cell foam where the entire space of voids is interconnected. These categories are not mutually exclusive, and there are some substances that straddle multiple categories.  The Reticulated Metallic Foams offer a cost effective and ultra high performance thermal management technology that can be integrated with advanced high performance electronic, photonic devices and with many other challenging applications.  The metal foam based thermal technology is generic, flexible and scaleable.  It is generic in terms of its compatibility with the cooling media ranging from DI water, inert fluorocarbons, and jet fuel to air He or Ar.  It is flexible it terms of its compatibility with various semiconductor devices and substrates such as Si, GaAs, and SiC, SiN not excluding many other ceramic metallic or composite materials.  The metal foam based thermal technology is scaleable both in size and performance so that it could be applied to not only discrete devices but also to Hybrid Multi Chip Modules (HMCM) integrating photonic and electronic devices, and also to double sided Printed Wiring Boards (PWB) with constraining cores.  The most significant benefits of the proposed technology include; elimination of as many thermal interfaces between the source of heat dissipation and the heat sink i.e. the ambient viewed as the circulating coolant in an open loop (air) or closed loop system (liquid or gas). Page | 58
  • 59. The advanced Integral RMF based Heat Exchanger HX technology offers significant cost, volume, weight and performance advantages relative to the state-of-art alternate approaches. Structure of metal foam and dodecahedron having 12 pentagon shaped facets APPLICATIONS: 1. Progressive Collapse of Steel Buildings 2. Biomedical 3. Automotive and Aerospace 4. Power Plants 5. Noise Reduction 6. Fire Retardant 7. Seismic 8. Fully recyclable and thus environmentally friendly 9. High capability to absorb crash energy 10. Low thermal conductivity and magnetic permeability Many metal foams are created by introducing air bubbles into molten metal. Making a foam out of molten metal is not easy, and the material is accordingly expensive. A foaming agent such as powdered titanium hydride, which decomposes into titanium and hydrogen at high temperatures, must be used. Metal foam is a specialty material, used for aerospace, heat exchangers, and other high-performance applications. Because metal foam is stiff and light, it has often been proposed as a futuristic structural material, though it has not yet seriously been used as one. Some commercial metal foams include M-Pore, Porvair, Duocel, Metal Foam Korea, Metafoam and Recemat. The pores in metal foams are usually between 1-8 mm in diameter, but some specialty foams have pores so small they are invisible to the naked eye. Page | 59
  • 60. OPEN CELL METAL FOAMS Open celled metal foams are usually replicas using open-celled polyurethane foams as a skeleton and have a wide variety of applications including heat exchangers (compact electronics cooling, cryogen tanks, PCM heat exchangers), energy absorption, flow diffusion and lightweight optics. Due to the high cost of the material it is most typically used in advanced technology, aerospace, and manufacturing. Extremely fine-scale open-cell foams, with cells too small to be visible to the naked eye, are used as high-temperature filters in the chemical industry. Metallic foams are nowadays used in the field of compact heat exchangers to increase heat transfer at the cost of an additional pressure drop. However, their use permits to reduce substantially the physical size of a heat exchanger, and so fabrication costs. To model these materials, most works uses idealized and periodic structures or averaged macroscopic properties. CLOSED CELL METAL FOAMS Metal foams are commonly made by injecting a gas or mixing a foaming agent (frequently TiH2) into molten metal. In order to stabilize the molten metal bubbles, high temperature foaming agents (nano- or micrometer- sized solid particles) are required. The size of the pores, or cells, is usually 1 to 8 mm. Closed-cell metal foams are primarily used as an impact-absorbing material, similarly to the polymer foams in a bicycle helmet but for higher impact loads. Unlike many polymer foams, metal foams remain deformed after impact and can therefore only be used once. They are light (typically 10–25% of the density of an identical non-porous alloy; commonly those of aluminium) and stiff, and are frequently proposed as a lightweight structural material. However, they have not yet been widely used for this purpose. Closed-cell foams retain the fire resistant and recycling capability of other metallic foams but add the ability to float in water. Page | 60
  • 61. Metal Foam Has A Good Memory A new class of materials known as "magnetic shape-memory foams" has been developed. The foam consists of a nickel-manganese-gallium alloy whose structure resembles a piece of Swiss cheese with small voids of space between thin, curvy "struts" of material. The struts have a bamboo-like grain structure that can lengthen, or strain, up to 10 percent when a magnetic field is applied. Strain is the degree to which a material deforms under load. In this instance, the force came from a magnetic field rather a physical load. Force from magnetic fields can be exerted over long range, making them advantageous for many applications. The alloy material retains its new shape when the field is turned off, but the magnetically sensitive atomic structure returns to its original structure if the field is rotated 90 degrees--a phenomenon called "magnetic shape-memory. Traditional polycrystalline materials are not porous and exhibit near zero strains due to mechanical constraints at the boundaries between each grain. In contrast, a single crystal exhibits a large strain as there are no internal boundaries. By introducing voids into the polycrystalline alloy, the researchers have made a porous material that has less internal mechanical constraint and exhibits a reasonably large degree of strain. Page | 61
  • 62. 12. LIQUID GRANITE Liquid Granite offers a real breakthrough in reducing fire risk in buildings as, unlike concrete, it doesn't explode at high temperatures. It can also withstand high temperatures for longer periods, offering valuable minutes in the case of a fire. The material is made up of between 30 and 70 per cent recycled material, mainly base products from industry. It uses less than one third of the cement used in precast concrete, which also reduces its carbon footprint. Liquid Granite is a very versatile material that can be used in a similar way to concrete. The fact it has a high level of fire resistance means that it can be used in areas where fire safety is crucial, such as around power stations, and in domestic and commercial buildings can offer added time for evacuation in case of an emergency The product replaces most of the cement in standard concrete with a secret formula of products to change the basic properties of the material. I believe it has great potential for the future. QUALITIES AVD VERSITALITY 1. Heat 2. Strength - compressive strength of upto 80N/mm2. 3. Reinforcement 4. Moisture 5. Eco benifits APPLICATIONS  ENGINEERED STONE Liquid Granite provides a green alternative to natural stone without compromising on durability, looks and quality. It's special mixing and setting characteristics enable even the most complex of shapes to be cast, whilst its durability and finishes allowed to be used in areas where even the most demanding of finishes are expected  STRUCTURAL CONCRETE It can be used to replace normal structural concrete and provide fire rated sections. as liquid granite does not spall in a fire situation like normal concrete introduces the possibility of reducing the section dimensions.  REFRACTORY ENVIRONMENTS Combining the robustness of with the thermal resistance of a,refractory cast able. It can also be used to provide extremely durable flooring around furnaces etc. Page | 62
  • 63. Liquid Granite is made from an inorganic powder, 30-70% of which is recycled industrial waste materials. Using the same aggregates as normal concrete, it could be used anywhere cement is but with a fraction of the carbon footprint. Page | 63