# FOUR QUADRANT DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL WITH MICROCONTROLLER

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6. Dec 2017
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### FOUR QUADRANT DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL WITH MICROCONTROLLER

• 1. Under the guidance of MR. NITISH KUMAR YADAV ASST. PROFESSOR A Project Presentation On FOUR QUADRANT DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL WITH MICROCONTROLLER Submitted by PRADEEP KUMAR (1573720904) SANJAY KUMAR SAROJ (1573720906) SUSHIL KUMAR (1573720909) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
• 2. CONTENT  Introduction  Principle of four quadrant operation  About dc motor  Block diagram  Components description  Circuit diagram  Working  Advantages  Applications  Future work  Reference
• 3. INTRODUCTION  The aim of this project is four quadrant speed and direction control of the DC motor.  The motor is operated in four quadrants as clockwise, counter clock-wise, instantaneous forward brake and instantaneous reverse brake.  The speed of DC motor is directly proportional to the DC voltage applied across its terminals. Hence, if we control the voltage applied across its terminal, we actually can control its speed.  Instantaneous brake happens as a result of applying a reverse voltage across the running motor for a brief period.
• 4. PRINCIPLE OF FOUR QUADRANT OPRATION
• 5. ABOUT DC MOTOR  A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on D.C. supply.  The speed of DC motor is directly proportional to the DC voltage applied across its terminals. Hence, if we control the voltage applied across its terminal, we actually can control its speed.
• 7. TRANSFORMER  A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuit through electromagnetic induction.  A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic field, which in turn induces a voltage in a second coil.
• 8. BRIDGE RECTIFIER  A Bridge rectifier is an Alternating Current (AC) to Direct Current (DC) converter that rectifies mains AC input to DC output.  Bridge Rectifiers are widely used in power supplies that provide necessary DC voltage for the electronic components or devices.  They can be constructed with four or more diodes or any other controlled solid state switches.
• 9. VOLTAGE REGULATOR  A voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level.  A voltage regulator may use a simple feed-forward design or may include negative feedback.  It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components.
• 10. MICROCONTROLLER 8051  This unit is the brain of the system. This is responsible for the full control of the system.  The microcontroller used here is a common 8 bit Atmel microcontroller AT89s8253.It is a low-power, high- performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with12K bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash program memory and 2K bytes of EEPROM data memory. It has 32 programmable input output lines.
• 11. Fig. Pin diagram of 8051 microcontroller
• 12. MOTOR DRIVER  Used to drive the DC motors as directed by the microcontroller. This is the OUTPUT block. Here we used L293D to drive the motors .whatever signals it receives from the microcontroller on the basis of that it will drive the motors.  An H-bridge is an electronic circuit which enables a voltage to be applied across a load in either direction. These circuits are often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run forwards and backwards. H-bridges are available as integrated circuits, or can be built from discrete components.
• 13. Fig. Pin diagram of L293D motor drive
• 14. MOTOR  We will be using DC motor.  A direct current (DC) motor is a fairly simple electric motor that uses electricity and a magnetic field to produce torque, which turns the motor.  At its most simple, a DC motor requires two magnets of opposite polarity and an electric coil, which acts as an electromagnet.  The repellent and attractive electromagnetic forces of the magnets provide the torque that causes the DC motor to turn.
• 15. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Fig. circuit diagram of four quadrant DC motor
• 16. WORKING  The following procedures are carried out for the four quadrant DC motor speed control operation using microcontroller.  starts rotating in full speed being driven by a motor driver IC L293D that receives control signal continuously from the microcontroller.  When clockwise switch is pressed the motor rotates in forward direction as per the logic provided by the program from the microcontroller to the motor driver IC.  While forward brake is pressed a reverse voltage is applied to the motor.  switch is pressed the microcontroller delivers a logic to the motor driver IC that develops for very small time a reverse voltage.
• 17. ADVANTAGES  Reduces the time of switching due to PWM.  Requires least maintenance.  It is user-friendly.  Safer to use.
• 18. APPLICATIONS  Hardware Automation.  Robotic controlled applications.  Can be used to control industrial rotors.  DC vehicle control.
• 19. FUTURE WORK  It can be provide wireless control by using transmitter after microcontroller and a receiver to the motor drive.  A complete automation can be provide by using suitable sensors.
• 20. REFRENCES 1. https://www.goelectricdrive.org 2. Books on Microcontroller: 8051 microcontroller and embedded systems. 3. Books on DC motors: BL.Theraja. “DC Motors and drives’’. 4. www.electricdrive.be 5. https://www.google.com/search?q=four+quadrant+dc+motor+ speed+control+with+microcontroller+ppt&sourceid=chrome &ie=UTF-8