3. A disaster is a situation in which the
community is incapable of coping. It is a
natural or human-caused event which causes
intense negative impacts on people, goods,
services and/or the environment, exceeding
the affected community’s capability to
respond; therefore the community seeks the
assistance of government and international
5. Mitigation: Measures put in place to minimize the
results from a disaster. Examples: building codes and
zoning; vulnerability analyses; public education.
Preparedness: Planning how to respond. Examples:
preparedness plans; emergency exercises/training;
Response: Initial actions taken as the event takes
place. It involves efforts to minimize the hazards
created by a disaster. Examples: evacuation; search
and rescue; emergency relief.
Recovery: Returning the community to normal.
Ideally, the affected area should be put in a condition
equal to or better than it was before the disaster took
place. Examples: temporary housing; grants; medical
8. Structural mitigation – construction projects
which reduce economic and social impacts
i.e. dams, windbreaks, terracing and hazard
Non-structural activities – policies and
practices which raise awareness of hazards or
encourage developments to reduce the
impact of disasters
10. Reviewing building codes.
Vulnerability analysis updates.
Zoning and land-use management and
Reviewing of building use regulations and
Implementing preventative health measures
Political intervention and commitment
Public awareness .
11. Hazard identification and vulnerability
Various mitigation strategies or measures-
For instance, varieties of crops that are more
wind, flood or drought resistant can often be
introduced in areas prone to floods, drought
and cyclones, Economic diversification.
14. Investment in infrastructure to support
sustainable socioeconomic development
Investment in infrastructure for reconstruction
i. A backup generator is available in case of power
failure and that a battery-operated radio .
ii. A backup copy of all critical information
iii. The preliminary design should take into
consideration the prevalent hazards and
methods to avoid or to minimize the effects of
the extreme natural events.
iv. Strengthening vulnerable areas such as roofs,
exterior doors, windows, and garage doors
15. Disasters set back development
programming, destroying years of
Rebuilding after a disaster provides
significant opportunities to initiate
Development programmes can increase an
area’s susceptibility to disasters
Development programmes can be designed
to decrease the susceptibility to disasters and
their negative consequences
16. Partnership-close collaboration among donors,
governments, communities, nongovernmental
organizations, the private sector, and universities
Flexibility-. Development agencies must be
efficient and flexible; adaptable to local
environments and capable of adjusting to
changing conditions and seizing opportunities
when they arise.
Selectivity-resources are the public asset that
must be invested prudently to achieve maximum
18. Preparedness measures include:
I. Preparedness plans ƒ
II. Emergency exercises/training
III. ƒWarning systems
IV. ƒEmergency communications systems ƒ
V. Evacuations plans and training ƒ
VI. Resource inventories ƒEmergency
VII. personnel/contact list.
VIII. ƒMutual aid agreements
IX. ƒPublic information/education
21. Develop and test warning systems regularly and
plan measures to be taken during a disaster alert
period to minimize potential loss of life and
ƒEducate and train officials and the population at
risk to respond to the disaster.
ƒTrain first-aid and emergency response teams.
ƒEstablish emergency response policies,
standards, organizational arrangements and
operational plans to be followed by emergency
workers and other response entities after a
22. It forms the action plan to be implemented
before, during and after disasters.
The IFRCRCS( International Federation of Red
Cross and Red Crescent Societies) defines risk
reduction as physical measures to reduce the
vulnerability and exposure of infrastructure
to natural hazards as well and to provide
coping and adaptive infrastructure in case of
a disaster event.
24. ƒPolicy, planning and capacity building in
ƒPhysical prevention; example, building sea-
walls against storm surge or flood shelters
during flood events
ƒCapacity building at institutional and
systemic level in disaster preparedness .
continued provision of food, potable water
and health care.
25. EOP allows the community to respond to
engages responders in the short-term
must be flexible to be valuable in real and
It doesn’t include the administrative plan , the
mitigation strategy, the long term recovery or
the Standard Operational procedures.
26. Structure of EOP consists of
promulgation/broadcast statement signed by
the Chief Executive Officer authorizing the
Plan; description of the planning process,
abstract of contents, implementation; table of
contents; instructions about the use of the
Plan; purpose of its sections, and its
27. Functional Annexes- provide specific information
and direction on operations and the roles and
responsibilities to be performed by responders.
Exercising the EOP- by having response agencies
exercise them. The exercises carried out involve
preparatory training that helps orient staff to the
procedures that they may be required to know, to
function during a disaster.
Publicizing the Plan- Completed EOPs are
published and made public to communities and
through the use of public awareness
28. Involving women in mitigation planning and
taking final decisions by involving women
Offering children the opportunity to
participate more fully in disaster situations.